College Students and Recent Grads, News

Watch Out for This 16% Student Loan Fee

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Watch Out for This 16% Student Loan Fee

The Trump administration has made it possible for debt collectors to once again charge hefty fees to some student loan borrowers who miss several payments in a row — even if those borrowers make an effort to get back on track right away.

These fees, which can be as high as 16%, are typically levied against the borrower’s entire outstanding loan balance and accrued interest charges. The so-called “collection charges” are meant to help recoup losses incurred by pursuing unpaid debts.

In a recent letter, the U.S. Department of Education rescinded an Obama-era rule that forbade guaranty agencies — debt collectors charged with recouping unpaid federal student loan debt — from charging defaulted borrowers collection fees if the borrowers began a repayment plan within 60 days of defaulting on their loans. In the new letter, the agency said the previous guidance should have included time for public comment and review before it was issued.

The reversal comes days after the Consumer Federation of America released an analysis of Department of Education data that shows the rate of student loans in default has grown 14% from 2015 to 2016.This certainly isn’t the first Obama-era rule or legislation the new administration has sought to undo, with an Obamacare replacement plan on its way to a vote in the House and plans to unravel regulations meant to crack down on for-profit colleges and universities.

A Department of Education spokesperson declined to comment.

Bad news for 4.2 million borrowers

The changes will impact borrowers who took out federal student loans under the old Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program. The FFEL Program was phased out in 2010 and replaced with the current Direct Loan Program, but millions of borrowers are still paying back FFEL loans issued prior to that change. Those who have loans under the Direct Loan Program will not be impacted by the changes.

As it stands, some 4.2 million FFEL borrowers are currently in default on loans that total $65.6 billion, according to Department of Education data. Loans are considered to be in default after 270 days of nonpayment.

The changes will raise the stakes for borrowers struggling to make payments on their federal student loans, and make it even more important for those borrowers to avoid missed payments.

Fortunately, federal student loan borrowers are eligible for several flexible repayment methods, as well as forbearance and deferment.

An Ongoing Debate

The debate over a servicer’s right to charge borrowers a default fee has gone on for several years.

In 2012, student loan borrower Bryana Bible sued United Student Aid Funds after she was charged more than $4,500 in fees after defaulting on her loans. She started a repayment agreement to resolve the debt within 18 days, but was still charged fees.

The Department of Education sided with Bible and said companies had to give borrowers 60 days after a loan default to start paying up before they are charged fees. The Obama administration backed the Department of Education and issued the letter when the court asked for guidance on the issue.

There is one clear winner with this rule change: debt collectors.

“Rescinding the [previous guidance on collection fees] benefits guarantee agencies at the expense of defaulted borrowers,” says financial aid expert Mark Kantrowitz. He adds the change may increase the cost of collecting defaulted federal student loans, since borrowers will have less incentive to quickly rehabilitate their defaulted student loans.

What Happens If I Default on My Federal Student Loans?

Federal student loans are considered to be in default after a borrower misses payments for 270 days or more.

About 1.1 million federal student loans were in default status in 2016, according to Department of Education data.

The consequences of going to default are severe.

  • The entire balance of your loan + interest is immediately due
  • You lose eligibility for deferment, forbearance, and flexible repayment plans
  • Debt collectors will start calling
  • Your credit will suffer
  • And … your wages and/or tax refunds could be garnished

Are you missing federal student loan payments?

You’ve got options.

  • Contact your loan servicer ASAP
  • Find out if you’re eligible for a flexible repayment plan
  • Or ask about forbearance

Already in default?

  • Ask your loan service about loan rehabilitation
  • If you make 9 on-time payments over the course of 10 months, your default status will be lifted

You’ve only got one shot to rehabilitate your federal student loans after going into default. Don’t miss it.

 

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Articles, News

Why You Should Apply the 72-hour Rule to Your Tax Refund

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Why You Should Apply the 72-hour Rule to Your Tax Refund

Ka-ching! Your tax refund just hit your checking account. Time to apply the 72-hour rule.

Whether your refund is in the thousands or hundreds, the urge to spend the funds might instantly become overwhelming. Maybe you already had an idea of what you want to spend the money on and you’re all set to hand over your refund for it. Or, maybe the money means you finally have enough to make a large purchase you’d otherwise need to save for.

Whatever your reason, don’t spend your refund quite yet. If it’s not an immediate emergency (read: root canal, car accident, flood, etc.), let the cash burn a hole in your pocket for about 72 hours.

Journalist and money expert Carl Richards came up with the “72-hour rule” to kick his habit of buying every book he wanted on Amazon, ending up with a pile of unread books. Now, he says he lets a book sit in his shopping cart for at least 72 hours before hitting “buy,” and he’s saving money only buying books he will actually read. You can apply a similar practice to your spending habits.

Why wait 72 hours?

Our brains respond positively to instant gratification. It’s why so many of us find it difficult to save money or lose weight. We want the item or food now, and when there’s nothing stopping us, why wait?

You need the space between receiving the money and spending it to think. The shorter that space is, the less time you have to think and the more likely you are to spend the funds impulsively.

“People often look at their tax refund as found money like lottery winnings or inheritance. The temptation to spend surprise money on something fun or frivolous is strong,” says Denver, Colo.-based Certified Financial Planner Kristi Sullivan.

You want to avoid doing that. Your tax refund isn’t lottery winnings or an inheritance. It’s your hard-earned money being returned to you with no interest gained.

Tax refunds averaged $2,860 in 2016, according to the IRS. This year, a SunTrust survey found about 1 in 4 Americans already planned to spend their refund money on a large purchase before they even received the funds. That proportion rises to 36% among millennials and 40% among Gen-Xers, according to SunTrust.

That’s no bueno, considering the average citizen admits they can’t pull together $400 in case of an emergency.

James Kinney, a certified financial planner based in Bridgewater Township, N.J., says “hitting the pause button on spending impulses gives the rational brain time to think” of more practical ways to use the money like getting out of debt, contributing to a college savings fund, or adding to your savings.

Although he acknowledges when you’re living paycheck to paycheck, it’s a little harder to resist a sudden — albeit predictable — boost to this month’s budget.

“People feel constrained by their paycheck all through the year, then suddenly this windfall of money gives them the ability to splurge. The temptation can be hard to resist,” says Kinney.

Here are a few ways you can manage the temptation, and the time.

While you wait…

Weigh your wants vs. needs

The waiting period is supposed to help you to spend your tax refund responsibly, right? Consider all of the expenses the money could go toward. Should you buy the new iPad or pay off your credit card? How about that car loan? Time to weigh your options.

Sullivan says that means you should pit your “wants” against your “needs.”

“A need that you haven’t already bought is rare. Wants are everywhere. Time to reflect might have you making a more mature decision with your money,” says Sullivan.

Do some soul searching to see where your financial priorities lie. You might find your need to pay off your credit card this month to avoid paying more in interest outweighs how badly you want that new gadget. Think about it.

Review your finances

Since your tax refund might consume your every thought for three days, you might as well use the time to think about your overall financial picture.

“Sit down and think about other pressing financial issues, and how you plan on paying for them,” says David Frisch, a Melville, N.Y.-based financial planner. He suggests you review bank statements, brokerage accounts, long-term goals, and other financial considerations, then give some thought to whether or not you’re on track to achieve them.

For example, if you realize you don’t have enough in your emergency fund to cover three to six months of expenses, you might decide to put the money there instead of spending it. Or, if your refund could completely pay off a high-interest debt like a credit card, you might decide to free yourself from the debt burden.

Make sure you don’t get a huge refund every year

Most Americans receive a refund because the government withheld too much in taxes. The government uses information you gave them to decide how much of your paycheck to withhold each pay period.

“Changing your withholding will give you more of your money during the year so that you will not get a large refund that you might be tempted to spend frivolously,” says Alfred Giovetti, president of the National Society of Accountants.

You can change information on your withholding forms on your own if you’d like. Use this IRS calculator to determine your proper withholding and figure out what information you need to correct on your W-4 form. Then, contact your employer’s human resources department to turn in a new W-4 with the correct information.

If you’d rather have some assistance, you can contact a professional. Work with your accountant or financial adviser to change information on your W-4 and its equivalent withholding form for the state in which you reside.

“Plan with a good tax accountant to get a small refund or a small liability by changing your withholding, so that you do not rely on the refund as ‘mad money,’” says Giovetti.

Treat yourself

We admit, waiting sucks, but it doesn’t have to be complete torture. Sullivan suggests taking the edge off with a small reward for each day you wait.

“It could be an ice cream cone, a long phone chat with a friend, an hour reading a trashy novel, or whatever makes you happy,” she says.

Just make sure the reward you choose isn’t too expensive, and you should avoid getting into more debt. Your “reward” could serve as a break while you comb through your finances.

The takeaway

Take some time to think before spending whenever you receive unexpected income, and you might make better spending decisions. Maybe you need only 24 hours, instead of 72, or maybe you need a little longer to decide what to do with money, but the same lesson applies. If you’re considering a purchase that’s a “want” and not a “need,” think before you buy.

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Featured

7 Money Rules Freelancers Should Live By

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Freelance journalist

For years, Russell Wild was one of millions of Americans who didn’t know from where or when his next check was coming. The former freelance journalist says he’s very familiar with living with volatile income, some months raking in far more than he needed and other months scraping by while waiting for the next check to arrive.

“Both the income side is volatile, and the expense side, especially where health care is concerned, because freelancers don’t have corporate coverage,” says Wild.

Nearly one-third (34%) of Americans said they faced large swings in income from 2014 to 2015, according to a recent analysis by PEW Charitable Trusts. The research group defines a “volatile” income change to be an increase or decrease of at least 25%. Among households whose earnings declined, the median loss was 49%.

In 2004, Wild dropped his freelance writing career for something more stable. He’s now a registered financial adviser and author based in Philadelphia, Pa. He says he watched fellow freelancers “go into panic when they saw that there was little chance of covering the next month’s rent, or the latest doctor’s bill.”

Year over year fluctuations in household income occur for a number of reasons. A worker might get an annual bonus or promotion. On the flip side, a worker could experience a sudden illness or job loss. Those in contract or freelance occupations are especially vulnerable to income volatility. Researchers also found Hispanic, less-educated, and low-income American households are most susceptible to income volatility.

Households experiencing inconsistent or irregular income may be able to leverage the following tips to better manage financially and get prepared in case of a financial emergency.

  1. Base your budget on your lowest grossing month

Your household’s income might be volatile, but your goal should be to make sure your lifestyle is as predictable as possible. You can add some stability to your life by establishing a budget.

“Try to live within a fixed income — the lowest point of your fluctuating annual or monthly household income,” says Arlington,Va.-based financial planner Hui-chin Chen. Those with volatile income should also try to limit debt and unnecessary spending.

Monitor your household’s cash flow carefully to see what you’re spending money on, then cut out the unnecessary expenses until you are left with your fixed costs, such as housing or monthly bills.

“Without being aware of what you’re spending and where, you can overspend your sometimes low income without realizing it, or treat yourself to more than you should when there’s a big month,” says Stephen Fletcher, an adviser at BlueSky Wealth Advisors in New Bern, N.C.

Keeping record of your spending might be tough to do at first, but budgeting apps like EveryDollar, Level Money, and Mint can help you keep an eye on yourself or your household.

“Volatile incomes require discipline, otherwise you can end up feeling like you are living paycheck to paycheck,” says Fletcher.

  1. Set your lifestyle now

Once you’ve got your budget together, don’t fall prey to lifestyle inflation when you have a couple of months of steady work or receive a large influx of cash. Try to develop regular spending and saving patterns.

“If you know what you need to keep the lights on and you know what you need to pay yourself (save), it’s much easier to plan for influxes of cash that need to be set aside,” says Chicago-based financial planner Nick Cosky. He says households can get started by setting monthly and annual spending and savings goals.

Try to make as many monthly and annual expenses as possible predictable and planned. For example, if you know your expenses totaled about $5,000 last month, then you should plan to spend no more than $5,000 this month and the following month.

“Live below your means, especially until you have achieved sufficient cash reserves and savings,” says Anne C. Chernish, president and managing member of Anchor Capital Management in Ithaca, N.Y.

Once you’ve maintained a certain level of monthly cash flow and your emergency stash is all set, you can adjust your quality of life accordingly. If you can afford to, Patrick Amey, a financial planner at KHC Wealth Management in Overland Park, Kan., suggests those who experience regular volatility keep one to two years of living expenses available — just in case you need to maintain your lifestyle without a paycheck for a while.

  1. Anticipate large expenditures

If you are aware of a large expense coming up — maybe your car needs repair or you’re aware of necessary medical services or even paying your taxes each year — you should plan to save as much as you can before the bill comes.

Create a separate savings account and allocate funds toward it periodically for the upcoming expense. Make sure your savings goal considers all of associated costs, so you won’t get caught off guard.

“With purchases like cars, homes, and other large items, these types of purchases require insurance, property taxes, etc., so buying when you have just enough cash to make the purchase can have serious and crippling long-term effects,” says Fletcher.

  1. Always plan ahead for taxes

If your income varies because you’re a contractor or work for yourself, you’ll need to budget for tax withholding. You can plan ahead and pay your taxes quarterly. You’ll get the payment out of the way, plus you won’t feel it as much as you would if you pay when you file your taxes.

Unfortunately, if you experience income volatility, you might pay a different amount in taxes if you have a particularly good — or bad — year and enter a different tax bracket.

“Higher taxes follow good earnings years and, if one has insufficient reserves for tax, can deliver a double whammy. Just as the income turns down, the tax from the previous year is due,” says Chernish.

For that reason, Cosky recommends you get 6 to 12 months ahead of the tax liability and keep your CPA or tax preparer in the loop so they can help you plan tax withholding.

If you’re doing your taxes on your own, you can use this IRS form to estimate your taxes owed each quarter.

  1. Have multiple income streams

When your main income stream is inconsistent, it might help to pick up a second job to help cover expenses during economic downswings or simply to ensure your expenses will be covered.

As an added benefit, you might also feel more financially stable, as you could possibly put more money into your savings.

Wild, a former president of the American Society of Journalists and Authors, says for most freelancers that might mean accepting a corporate contract and working on your more creative projects in-between the corporate job’s deadlines.

“When I was writing full time, before I started financial planning, I always had a steady gig. I was for years a regular contributor to various magazines, and later I had book contracts with decent advances,” says Wild.

  1. Save at least a year’s worth of expenses

Lynn Dunston, Senior Wealth Manager at Dunston Financial Group in Denver, Colo., suggests those with volatile income have enough money saved in an emergency account to cover a year’s worth of expenses, instead of the usual 3- to 6-month savings recommendation for those with stable income.

“It is critical that if there is a down month, they are not having to accumulate credit card debt or take out loans in order to continue their standard of living,” says Fletcher.

  1. Make sure your money is working for you

After you have your emergency savings funded, it might not make as much sense to continue to put ALL of your extra savings there. Since interest rates on savings accounts currently lag behind inflation, your money would actually lose value in the typical savings account today.

You can stash “near cash” in higher-yield savings options like short-term bonds or CDs. Mark R. Morley, president of Warburton Capital Management in Tulsa, Okla., tells his clients to create a “currency escrow” or a safe bond portfolio that can be liquidated as needed for currency needs. The escrow ideally holds at least one year of expenses in short-term investment bonds. Morley says it can be used to supplement income or added to when income is high.

Fletcher says to avoid tying up all of your cash savings in retirement accounts like a 401(k) or IRA to avoid penalty charges in case you need to withdraw the funds early. Instead, he suggests you invest excess funds in a brokerage account, since you can take money out of that with little or no tax implications.

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Health

How to Use Your Health Savings Account (HSA) as a Retirement Tool

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Medical expenses are no joke, and that is especially true for consumers saddled with high-deductible health plans (HDHPs). Since 2011, the rate of workers enrolled in HDHPs jumped from 11% to 29%, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation.

For people enrolled in one of these HDHPs, chances are they’re familiar with the HSA, which stands for health savings account. HSAs are useful, tax-advantaged savings vehicles that allow consumers to contribute pre-tax dollars to a fund they can use for out-of-pocket medical expenses.

What HSA users may not realize, however, is that they can also hack their HSA and transform it into a tool for future retirement savings.

Before we explain further, you need to understand how HSAs normally work and who can take advantage of them. From there, you can use a strategy that allows you to use your health savings account as a powerful retirement tool that will help you manage your biggest expense once you retire.

How to Invest Through a Health Savings Account (HSA)

Health savings accounts allow you to contribute a set amount each year. As an individual, you can contribute up to $3,400 for 2017. Families can contribute up to $6,750, and the catch-up contribution for those over 50 allows you to put in an additional $1,000.

The money you contribute is tax free, meaning it reduces your taxable income in the current year. Once your money is in an HSA, you can hold it in cash or invest your savings to increase its earning potential. If you choose to invest, you can explore a variety of options.

But before you get too excited about the possibilities here, remember: not everyone gets access to HSAs. As we noted before, you need to have a high-deductible health plan before you qualify to open one of these accounts, which may or may not make sense for your financial situation.

You don’t have to use the HSA provider associated with your employer’s health insurance company, says Mark Struthers, a Certified Financial Planner and certified public accountant with Sona Financial.

“HSAs are individual accounts that don’t have to go through your employer. You can shop around for the lowest fees and best investment options,” Struthers says. And unlike their close cousin the Flexible Savings Account, HSAs are portable, meaning you can take your HSA with you if you leave the employer you opened it with.

Within the HSA itself, explains Struthers, you also get to choose many types of investments. “In addition to low-risk, savings-type accounts, you can invest in the same type of fixed income and equity mutual funds that may be in your 401(k) or IRA,” he says.

Just like all other investments, protecting against the risk of losing your hard-earned money is an essential step to take. Tony Madsen, Certified Financial Planner and president of New Leaf Financial Guidance recommends taking a hybrid approach.

“I typically advise my clients to leave two years’ worth of the maximum out-of-pocket expenses in cash in their HSAs,” Madsen explains. “Then, we include the rest in investments that are in line with the client’s overall retirement allocation.”

When you’re ready to withdraw your HSA contributions or your earnings, you can do so without penalty — and again without paying tax — anytime, so long as you spend the money on qualified health care expenses.

Examples of qualified expenses include doctor’s fees and dental treatments, vision care, ambulance services, nursing home costs, and even services like acupuncture or treatment for weight loss. It also includes things like crutches, wheelchairs, and prescription drugs (but does not include over-the-counter medications).

Why HSAs Are Great for Retirement Savings

Here’s what makes your HSA such an attractive vehicle for retirement savings:

If you can contribute to your HSA, invest it wisely, and leave the money in the account just like you would leave the money in your 401(k) or IRA until retirement, you can build a sizable nest egg to use specifically on health care costs after you retire.

Not only will you have a fund for medical expenses, but it’s also money you can use tax free!

That’s a big deal, because health care will likely be your largest expense in retirement. Fidelity estimates couples retiring in 2016 can expect to pay up to $390,000 for medical expenses and long-term care during their golden years.

Health savings accounts are designed to help you pay for medical expenses, tax free. No other account offers so many tax advantages for savers.

You can contribute money to the account tax free. Then you can invest that money, and the earnings are also tax free. If you withdraw the money and use it on qualified health expenses, that money is free from tax too.

In addition to the tax advantages, the funds you contribute to an HSA roll over from year to year. That means you don’t have to spend what you saved until you choose to do so.

(This is different from a Flexible Spending Account, where funds are subjected to a use-it-or-lose-it policy. If you don’t spend the money you put into the account by the end of the year, you don’t get it back.)

And health savings accounts aren’t just liquid savings vehicles. You can invest money within them, often within the same kind of mutual or index funds that you might invest in within a Roth IRA or brokerage account.

When It Doesn’t Make Sense to Use an HSA for Retirement Savings

While HSAs can provide a great, tax-free way to save and pay for qualified medical expenses, your priority should be on selecting the best health care plan for your needs first and foremost. If an HDHP makes sense for you, then you can look at using a health savings account.

If you have an HSA already or currently qualify for one, the next step is to consider hacking it to make it work even harder for you. You can transform your account from a good way to manage medical costs into a tool that makes it easier to bear the brunt of your projected retirement expenses.

This strategy may not work if you currently feel overwhelmed with the cost of your health care and need to take advantage of the tax-free savings and spending power today, instead of waiting for retirement.

Because you’re already in a high-deductible health plan if you have an HSA, that also means you are liable for greater out-of-pocket expenses if you seek treatment.

At a minimum, HDHP deductibles start at $1,300 for an individual or $2,600 for a family. Many HDHPs come with deductibles that range upward of $4,000.

Unless you already have an emergency fund with at least enough money to cover the cost of your deductible should you need to pay it, taking on an HDHP can leave you in a bad financial situation if a serious medical concern arises.

Here’s what you need to think about and ask before you switch to an HDHP:

  • Do you expect to spend a lot of money on health care expenses in the next 5 to 10 years? If you’re young and have no health concerns, your expenses will likely be low and manageable.
  • Do you currently have room in your monthly cash flow for occasional unexpected or increased expenses? If your budget can handle a few doctor’s bills here and there, you may be able to handle health care costs with regular income while you’re young.
  • Do you have an emergency fund, and if so, is it fully funded? Would paying your full deductible wipe out that savings? If so, you may want to create a bigger rainy day fund before you take on an HDHP.
  • Will you save on premiums if you switch to an HDHP? Often the higher deductible can provide you with a lower monthly premium, which can help free up more money in your monthly cash flow to pay for health needs as they arise — but that’s not always the case, so compare plans before making decisions.
  • Can you contribute a significant amount to your HSA? Switching to an HDHP just to get an HSA doesn’t make sense if you’re not close to making the maximum contribution to the account each year.

You can also use a tool created by Hui-chin Chen, Certified Financial Planner with Pavlov Financial Planning. She designed a decision matrix where you can input your own financial information and numbers, and see if an HSA makes sense for you based on that information.

If you’re already on an HDHP and like your plan or if you decide you want to switch to one, open an HSA and start saving. At the very least, you can save money tax free, invest it tax free, and use it tax free on qualified medical expenses.

And that’s a great situation, even if you can’t contribute money and leave it in the account all the way until retirement. If you’re able to contribute and let your savings compound until you retire, great! Use your HSA as a retirement tool to help you cover your biggest expected expense in life after work.

“A ‘good’ HSA decision is to have one and use the funds you saved as you need them,” explains Brian Hanks, Certified Financial Planner. “‘Better’ is maximizing your family contribution each year and using the funds as needed. A ‘best’ situation is to maximize your family contribution, not use the HSA account for medical expenses, and treat it as a second 401(k) or retirement account instead.”

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Building Credit, Featured

12 Million People Are About to Get a Credit Score Boost — Here’s Why

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12 Million People Are About to Get a Credit Score Boost

Some serious tax liens and civil judgments will soon disappear from millions of credit reports, the Consumer Data Industry Association announced this week. As a result, millions of consumers could see their FICO scores improve dramatically.

The CDIA, the trade organization that represents all three major credit bureaus — Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion — says they have agreed to remove from consumer credit reports any tax lien and civil judgment data that doesn’t include all of a consumer’s information. That information can include the consumer’s full name, address, Social Security number, or date of birth. The changes are set to take effect July 1.

Roughly 12 million U.S. consumers should expect to see their FICO scores rise as a result of the change says Ethan Dornhelm, vice president of scores and analytics at FICO. The vast majority will see a boost of 20 points or so, he added, while some 700,000 consumers will see a 40-point boost or higher.

Even a small 20-point increase could improve access to lower rates on financial products for these consumers.

“For consumers, the news is all good,” says credit expert John Ulzheimer. “Your score can’t go down because of the removal of a lien or a judgment.”

The change will apply to all new tax lien and civil-judgment information that’s added to consumers’ credit reports as well as data already on the reports. Ulzheimer says consumers who currently have tax liens or judgments on their credit reports that are weighing down their credit scores will be able to reap the rewards of removal almost immediately

“The minute the stuff is gone, your score will adjust and you’re going to find yourself in a better position to leverage that better score,” says Ulzheimer.

But, importantly, he notes that just because credit reporting bureaus will no longer count tax liens or civil judgments against you, it does not mean they no longer exist at all. Consumers could still be impacted by wage garnishment and other punishments associated with the liens and judgments.

“This is the equivalent of taking white-out and whiting it out on your credit report. You can’t see it any longer, but you still have a lien, you still a have a judgment,” Ulzheimer says.

Solution to a longstanding problem

Many tax liens and most civil judgments have incomplete consumer information.

The changes are part of the CDIA’s National Consumer Assistance program that has already removed non-loan-related items sent to collections firms, such as past-due accounts for gym memberships or libraries. The program also has set a 2018 goal to remove from credit reports medical debt that consumers have already paid off.

“Some creditors may have liked having inaccurate credit reports, as long as they were skewed in their favor. That’s not the way the system is supposed to work. This action is just one more proof that the CFPB [Consumer Financial Protection Bureau] works, and works well, and shouldn’t be weakened by special interest influence over Congress,” says Edmund Mierzwinski, consumer program director at the U.S. Public Interest Research Group.

The move is likely the result of several state settlements and pressure from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the federal financial industry watchdog.  Beginning in 2015, the reporting agencies reached settlements with 32 different state Attorneys General over several practices, including how they handle errors. The CFPB also released a report earlier this month that examined credit bureaus and recommended they raise their standards for recording public record data.


Time to start shopping for better loan rates?

High credit scores can lead to long-term savings. Borrowers who expect their scores to improve as a result of these changes may find better deals if they can wait a few months to buy a new house, refinance a mortgage, or purchase a new car. Even a 10-point difference can lead to lower rates on loans.

If you expect the credit reporting changes might benefit you, Ulzheimer suggests holding off on taking out new loans or shopping for refi deals, such as student loan refinancing.
“Let it happen, pull your own credit reports to verify the information is gone, then take advantage of the higher scores,” Ulzheimer says.

Ulzheimer also says the changes may not be permanent. “There is a possibility that if the credit reporting bureau is able to find the missing information, the negative information could reappear on consumer credit reports,” he says.

There isn’t anything in the law that forbids the reporting of liens and judgments anymore, and lenders can still check public records on their own to find missing information.

Ulzheimer says if he were the CEO of a reporting agency, that’s exactly what he would do.

“I would embark on a project to get this information immediately back in the credit reporting system,” he says, then adds all he’d need to do is find an economic way to populate the missing data.

“From a business perspective, I would do it in a New York minute. Because I would immediately have a competitive advantage over my two competitors,” says Ulzheimer.

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Featured, Life Events

The 3 Secrets to Retiring Early

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The 3 Secrets to Retiring Early

You’ve likely read articles about people retiring early. Is it possible for you, and if so what will it really take? First let’s establish the age at which most people retire.

Age 66 is considered full retirement age by the Social Security Administration, but that clearly hasn’t stopped people from exiting the workforce a lot earlier. According to a 2016 Gallup survey, retirees said they stopped working at an average age of 61.

The definition of early retirement can be pretty subjective. You cannot draw from Social Security until age 62, but under certain circumstances you can begin withdrawing from your 401(k) at age 55 (age 50 if you’re a public safety employee like a firefighter). So for the purposes of this conversation we’ll peg early retirement as any age before 50.

The key to retiring early? Low expenses, no debt, and high income.

Retiring early is no easy feat, and in most situations it will require several events to occur, some of which you may not have control over. In the vast majority of cases you will need to keep your current cost of living extremely low, earn a high salary, and have little to no debt. These barriers automatically make it harder for the 42.4 million Americans with student loan debt, according to latest data from the U.S. Department of Education; the class of 2016 alone had an average of about $37,000 in loans.

Though debt always plays a factor, cost of living may be the biggest hurdle to overcome on your path to early retirement. Peter Adeney, who runs a very popular financial blog called Mr. Money Mustache, retired at 30 and has become one of the most popular names behind the FIRE (Financial Independence Retire Early) movement. (Pete does not reveal his last name to media to protect his family’s privacy).

But he is hardly kicking back at an island villa sipping cocktails all day. According to an interview in MarketWatch, his family of three subsists on $25,000 per year in Longmont, Colo. Not everyone is able (or willing) to cut back their expenses to fit under such a low threshold. Where you choose to live can determine how much of your income you can save. MagnifyMoney recently analyzed over 200 U.S. cities to find the best and worst places to retire early.

Choosing the right career with a high salary on the front end can be a huge boost, Travis and Amanda of the blog Freedom with Bruno saved $1 million by 30 and retired to Asheville, N.C., according to Forbes. Thanks to a career in tech they were earning a combined income of $200,000. Jeremy of Go Curry Cracker, who made nearly $140,000 per year at Microsoft, saved 70% of his income, and lived on less than $2,000 per month, also retired at 30. It is also important to know that Pete and his wife (mentioned earlier) were also in the tech industry.

Not everyone can relocate to an inexpensive region of the country due to their job or the need to be close to their family, nor do most Americans have the privilege of a six-figure salary, but there are some great lessons that can be applied to your situation, no matter your income or age.

What you would need to retire early

Regardless of salary, debt, or cost of living, having a clear and defined goal is what gives people the confidence to retire early. Without it, they wouldn’t know the amount needed to leave their jobs. You will need to know how much you should be saving toward retirement each year and how much you will need while in retirement. Bankrate has a free retirement calculator here to help you visualize your retirement savings.

The typical rule of thumb is to live off of 4% of your total retirement savings. If you can live comfortably off of $40,000 per year in retirement, you would need about $1 million by the time you retire. If you could live comfortably off of about $25,000, you would only need about $600,000; this is what Pete from Mr. Money Mustache saved when he retired. Another easy way to get to that number is by multiplying your ideal retirement income by 25. So someone needing $55,000 in retirement would need $1,375,000. Once you figure out what you would be comfortable living on, you’ll need to select quality, low-cost investments. For many early retirees this comes in the form of index funds.

If you’re looking into cutting your cost and putting more toward retirement, you may have to get creative or put some serious efforts into increasing your income. This may include keeping a car on the road that’s 19 years old, cooking for every single meal, or moving in with your adult siblings to pay off your debts. Early retirement will require serious commitment and discipline. If you’re in the right position to do it, then this may be the path for you.

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About MagnifyMoney

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At MagnifyMoney, all of our writers — both freelance and full-time staff — must adhere to a strict editorial code of ethics whether they are developing product reviews, recommendations, personal finance guides, features, investigative reports, or videos.

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Affiliate links help keep the MagnifyMoney site and financial education tools free, but they in no way influence our recommendations, reviews, and other editorial content. You can learn how we make money here.

When articles are clearly based on commentary or opinion, we will note that visibly to the reader.

Whenever there is potential conflict with a source or product mentioned in one of our articles, we will be transparent and forthcoming with that information.

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Our writers strive for 100% accuracy in their work. They must verify all data, names and other pertinent information before publication. Additionally, our team of editors and copy editors provide additional layers of fact checking for all articles.

When corrections or updates to stories are necessary, writers and/or editors must bring it to the Executive Editor’s attention immediately so that any changes are made as speedily as possible.

When information is corrected after publication, the writer or editor will make a note at the end of the story to provide further context.  We will attribute all sources where possible and never plagiarize our content.

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Investing, Life Events, Strategies to Save

Guide to Choosing the Right IRA: Traditional or Roth?

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The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

The Roth IRA versus traditional IRA debate has raged on for years.

What many retirement savers may not know is that most of the debate about whether it’s better to contribute to a traditional IRA or a Roth IRA is flawed.

You’ve probably heard that young investors are better off contributing to a Roth IRA because they’ll likely be in a higher tax bracket when they’re older. You’ve probably also heard that if you’re in the same tax bracket now and in retirement, a traditional IRA and Roth IRA will produce the same result.

These arguments are part of the conventional wisdom upon which many people make their decisions, and yet each misses some important nuance and, in some cases, is downright incorrect.

The Biggest Difference Between Traditional and Roth IRAs

There are several differences between traditional and Roth IRAs, and we’ll get into many of them below.

The key difference is in the tax breaks they offer.

Contributions to a traditional IRA are not taxed up front. They are tax-deductible, meaning they decrease your taxable income for the year in which you make the contribution. The money grows tax-free inside the account. However, your withdrawals in retirement are treated as taxable income.

Contributions to a Roth IRA are taxed up front at your current income tax rate. The money grows tax-free while inside the account. And when you make withdrawals in retirement, those withdrawals are not taxed.

Whether it’s better to get the tax break when you make the contribution or when you withdraw it in retirement is the centerpiece of the traditional vs. Roth IRA debate, and it’s also where a lot of people use some faulty logic.

We’ll debunk the conventional wisdom in just a bit, but first we need to take a very quick detour to understand a couple of key tax concepts.

The Important Difference Between Marginal and Effective Tax Rates

Don’t worry. We’re not going too far into the tax weeds here. But there’s a key point that’s important to understand if you’re going to make a true comparison between traditional and Roth IRAs, and that’s the difference between your marginal tax rate and your effective tax rate.

When people talk about tax rates, they’re typically referring to your marginal tax rate. This is the tax rate you pay on your last dollar of income, and it’s the same as your current tax bracket. For example, if you’re in the 15% tax bracket, you have a 15% marginal tax rate, and you’ll owe 15 cents in taxes on the next dollar you earn.

Your effective tax rate, however, divides your total tax bill by your total income to calculate your average tax rate across every dollar you earned.

And these tax rates are different because of our progressive federal income tax, which taxes different dollars at different rates. For example, someone in the 15% tax bracket actually pays 0% on some of their income, 10% on some of their income, and 15% on the rest of their income. Which means that their total tax bill is actually less than 15% of their total income.

For a simple example, a 32-year-old couple making $65,000 per year with one child will likely fall in the 15% tax bracket. That’s their marginal tax rate.

But after factoring in our progressive tax code and various tax breaks like the standard deduction and personal exemptions, they will only actually pay a total of $4,114 in taxes, making their effective tax rate just 6.33% (calculated using TurboTax’s TaxCaster).

As you can see, the couple’s effective tax rate is much lower than their marginal tax rate. And that’s almost always the case, no matter what your situation.

Keep that in mind as we move forward.

Why the Conventional Traditional vs. Roth IRA Wisdom Is Wrong

Most of the discussion around traditional and Roth IRAs focuses on your marginal tax rate. The logic says that if your marginal tax rate is higher now than it will be in retirement, the traditional IRA is the way to go. If it will be higher in retirement, the Roth IRA is the way to go. If your marginal tax rate will be the same in retirement as it is now, you’ll get the same result whether you contribute to a traditional IRA or a Roth IRA.

By this conventional wisdom, the Roth IRA typically comes out ahead for younger investors who plan on increasing their income over time and therefore moving into a higher tax bracket or at least staying in the same tax bracket.

But that conventional wisdom is flawed.

When you’re torn between contributing to a traditional or Roth IRA, it’s almost always better to compare your marginal tax rate today to your effective rate in retirement, for two reasons:

  1. Your traditional IRA contributions will likely provide a tax break at or near your marginal tax rate. This is because federal tax brackets typically span tens of thousands of dollars, while your IRA contributions max out at $5,500 for an individual or $11,000 for a couple. So it’s unlikely that your traditional IRA contribution will move you into a lower tax bracket, and even if it does, it will likely be only a small part of your contribution.
  2. Your traditional IRA withdrawals, on the other hand, are very likely to span multiple tax brackets given that you will likely be withdrawing tens of thousands of dollars per year. Given that reality, your effective tax rate is a more accurate representation of the tax cost of those withdrawals in retirement.

And when you look at it this way, comparing your marginal tax rate today to your effective tax rate in the future, the traditional IRA starts to look a lot more attractive.

Let’s run the numbers with a case study.

A Case Study: Should Mark and Jane Contribute to a Traditional IRA or a Roth IRA?

Mark and Jane are 32, married, and have a 2-year-old child. They currently make $65,000 per year combined, putting them squarely in the 15% tax bracket.

They’re ready to save for retirement, and they’re trying to decide between a traditional IRA and a Roth IRA. They’ve figured out that they can afford to make either of the following annual contributions:

  • $11,000 to a traditional IRA, which is the annual maximum.
  • $9,350 to a Roth IRA, which is that same $11,000 contribution after the 15% tax cost is taken out. (Since Roth IRA contributions are nondeductible, factoring taxes into the contribution is the right way to properly compare equivalent after-tax contributions to each account.)

So the big question is this: Which account, the traditional IRA or Roth IRA, will give them more income in retirement?

Using conventional wisdom, they would probably contribute to the Roth IRA. After all, they’re young and in a relatively low tax bracket.

But Mark and Jane are curious people, so they decided to run the numbers themselves. Here are the assumptions they made in order to do that:

  • They will continue working until age 67 (full Social Security retirement age).
  • They will continue making $65,000 per year, adjusted for inflation.
  • They will receive $26,964 per year in Social Security income starting at age 67 (estimated here).
  • They will receive an inflation-adjusted investment return of 5% per year (7% return minus 2% inflation).
  • At retirement, they will withdraw 4% of their final IRA balance per year to supplement their Social Security income (based on the 4% safe withdrawal rate).
  • They will file taxes jointly every year, both now and in retirement.

You can see all the details laid out in a spreadsheet here, but here’s the bottom line:

  • The Roth IRA will provide Mark and Jane with $35,469 in annual tax-free income on top of their Social Security income.
  • The traditional IRA will provide $37,544 in annual after-tax income on top of their Social Security income. That’s after paying $4,184 in taxes on their $41,728 withdrawal, calculating using TurboTax’s TaxCaster.

In other words, the traditional IRA will provide an extra $2,075 in annual income for Mark and Jane in retirement.

That’s a nice vacation, a whole bunch of date nights, gifts for the grandkids, or simply extra money that might be needed to cover necessary expenses.

It’s worth noting that using the assumptions above, Mark and Jane are in the 15% tax bracket both now and in retirement. According to the conventional wisdom, a traditional IRA and Roth IRA should provide the same result.

But they don’t, and the reason has everything to do with the difference between marginal tax rates and effective tax rates.

Right now, their contributions to the traditional IRA get them a 15% tax break, meaning they can contribute 15% more to a traditional IRA than they can to a Roth IRA without affecting their budget in any way.

But in retirement, the effective tax rate on their traditional IRA withdrawals is only 10%. Due again to a combination of our progressive tax code and tax breaks like the standard deduction and personal exemptions, some of it isn’t taxed, some of it is taxed at 10%, and only a portion of it is taxed at 15%.

That 5% difference between now and later is why they end up with more money from a traditional IRA than a Roth IRA.

And it’s that same unconventional wisdom that can give you more retirement income as well if you plan smartly.

5 Good Reasons to Use a Roth IRA

The main takeaway from everything above is that the conventional traditional versus Roth IRA wisdom is wrong. Comparing marginal tax rates typically underestimates the value of a traditional IRA.

Of course, the Roth IRA is still a great account, and there are plenty of situations in which it makes sense to use it. I have a Roth IRA myself, and I’m very happy with it.

So here are five good reasons to use a Roth IRA.

1. You Might Contribute More to a Roth IRA

Our case study above assumes that you would make equivalent after-tax contributions to each account. That is, if you’re in the 15% tax bracket, you would contribute 15% less to a Roth IRA than to a traditional IRA because of the tax cost.

That’s technically the right way to make the comparison, but it’s not the way most people think.

There’s a good chance that you have a certain amount of money you want to contribute and that you would make that same contribution to either a traditional IRA or a Roth IRA. Maybe you want to max out your contribution and the only question is which account to use.

If that’s the case, a Roth IRA will come out ahead every time simply because that money will never be taxed again.

2. Backdoor Roth IRA

If you make too much to either contribute to a Roth IRA or deduct contributions to a traditional IRA, you still might be eligible to do what’s called a backdoor Roth IRA.

If so, it’s a great way to give yourself some extra tax-free income in retirement, and you can only do it with a Roth IRA.

3. You Might Have Other Income

Social Security income was already factored into the example above. But any additional income, such as pension income, would increase the cost of those traditional IRA withdrawals in retirement by increasing both the marginal and effective tax rate.

Depending on your other income sources, the tax-free nature of a Roth IRA may be helpful.

4. Tax Diversification

You can make the most reasonable assumptions in the world, but the reality is that there’s no way to know what your situation will look like 30-plus years down the road.

We encourage people to diversify their investments because it reduces the risk that any one bad company could bring down your entire portfolio. Similarly, diversifying your retirement accounts can reduce the risk that a change in circumstances would result in you drastically overpaying in taxes.

Having some money in a Roth IRA and some money in a traditional IRA or 401(k) could give you room to adapt to changing tax circumstances in retirement by giving you some taxable money and some tax-free money.

5. Financial Flexibility

Roth IRAs are extremely flexible accounts that can be used for a variety of financial goals throughout your lifetime.

One reason for this is that your contributions are available at any time and for any reason, without tax or penalty. Ideally you would be able to keep the money in your account to grow for retirement, but it could be used to buy a house, start a business, or simply in case of emergency.

Roth IRAs also have some special characteristics that can make them effective college savings accounts, and as of now Roth IRAs are not subject to required minimum distributions in retirement, though that could certainly change.

All in all, Roth IRAs are more flexible than traditional IRAs in terms of using the money for nonretirement purposes.

3 Good Reasons to Use a Traditional IRA

People love the Roth IRA because it gives you tax-free money in retirement, but, as we saw in the case study above, that doesn’t always result in more retirement income. Even factoring in taxes, and even in situations where you might not expect it, the traditional IRA often comes out ahead.

And the truth is that there are even MORE tax advantages to the traditional IRA than what we discussed earlier. Here are three of the biggest.

1. You Can Convert to a Roth IRA at Any Time

One of the downsides of contributing to a Roth IRA is that you lock in the tax cost at the point of contribution. There’s no getting that money back.

On the other hand, contributing to a traditional IRA gives you the tax break now while also preserving your ability to convert some or all of that money to a Roth IRA at your convenience, giving you more control over when and how you take the tax hit.

For example, let’s say that you contribute to a traditional IRA this year, and then a few years down the line either you or your spouse decides to stay home with the kids, or start a business, or change careers. Any of those decisions could lead to a significant reduction in income, which might be a perfect opportunity to convert some or all of your traditional IRA money to a Roth IRA.

The amount you convert will count as taxable income, but because you’re temporarily in a lower tax bracket you’ll receive a smaller tax bill.

You can get pretty fancy with this if you want. Brandon from the Mad Fientist, has explained how to build a Roth IRA Conversion Ladder to fund early retirement. Financial planner Michael Kitces has demonstrated how to use partial conversions and recharacterizations to optimize your tax cost.

Of course, there are downsides to this strategy as well. Primarily there’s the fact that taxes are complicated, and you could unknowingly cost yourself a lot of money if you’re not careful. And unlike direct contributions to a Roth IRA, you have to wait five years before you’re able to withdraw the money you’ve converted without penalty. It’s typically best to speak to a tax professional or financial planner before converting to a Roth IRA.

But the overall point is that contributing to a traditional IRA now gives you greater ability to control your tax spending both now and in the future. You may be able to save yourself a lot of money by converting to a Roth IRA sometime in the future rather than contributing to it directly today.

2. You Could Avoid or Reduce State Income Tax

Traditional IRA contributions are deductible for state income tax purposes as well as federal income tax purposes. That wasn’t factored into the case study above, but there are situations in which this can significantly increase the benefit of a traditional IRA.

First, if you live in a state with a progressive income tax code, you may get a boost from the difference in marginal and effective tax rates just like with federal income taxes. While your contributions today may be deductible at the margin, your future withdrawals may at least partially be taxed at lower rates.

Second, it’s possible that you could eventually move to a state with either lower state income tax rates or no income tax at all. If so, you could save money on the difference between your current and future tax rates, and possibly avoid state income taxes altogether. Of course, if you move to a state with higher income taxes, you may end up losing money on the difference.

3. It Helps You Gain Eligibility for Tax Breaks

Contributing to a traditional IRA lowers what’s called your adjusted gross income (AGI), which is why you end up paying less income tax.

But there are a number of other tax breaks that rely on your AGI to determine eligibility, and by contributing to a traditional IRA you lower your AGI you make it more likely to qualify for those tax breaks.

Here’s a sample of common tax breaks that rely on AGI:

  • Saver’s credit – Provides a tax credit for people who make contributions to a qualified retirement plan and make under a certain level of AGI. For 2017, the maximum credit is $2,000 for individuals and $4,000 for couples.
  • Child and dependent care credit – Provides a credit of up to $2,100 for expenses related to the care of children and other dependents, though the amount decreases as your AGI increases. Parents with young children in child care are the most common recipients of this credit.
  • Medical expense deduction – Medical expenses that exceed 10% of your AGI are deductible. The lower your AGI, the more likely you are to qualify for this deduction.
  • 0% dividend and capital gains tax rate – If you’re in the 15% income tax bracket or below, any dividends and long-term capital gains you earn during the year are not taxed. Lowering your AGI could move you into this lower tax bracket.

Making a Smarter Decision

There’s a lot more to the traditional vs. Roth IRA debate than the conventional wisdom would have you believe. And the truth is that the more you dive in, the more you realize just how powerful the traditional IRA is.

That’s not to say that you should never use a Roth IRA. It’s a fantastic account, and it certainly has its place. It’s just that the tax breaks a traditional IRA offers are often understated.

It’s also important to recognize that every situation is different and that it’s impossible to know ahead of time which account will come out ahead. There are too many variables and too many unknowns to say for sure.

But with the information above, you should be able to make a smarter choice that makes it a little bit easier to reach retirement sooner and with more money.

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Reviews

Wells Fargo Way2Save Savings Account Review: 0.01% APY, $25 Minimum Deposit

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Wells Fargo is a major bank with 6,000 physical branch locations and 13,000 ATMs. It acquired Wachovia for $15 billion dollars in 2008 and now serves 70 million customers globally. You’ve probably seen Wells Fargo make headlines recently for news that’s a little less pleasant than the huge acquisition.

In 2016, Wells Fargo accepted responsibility for employing sales associates and managers who were opening fake debit and credit card accounts under customer names without their consent to meet sales goals.

Wells Fargo was fined $185 million dollars for the account fraud. The bank refunded $5 million dollars to customers affected and terminated 5,300 employees tied to the misconduct. Wells Fargo announced the removal of sales goals at retail branches to dial back on the aggressive sales culture that led to fraud. And executives went on an apology tour at the end of 2016 to restore consumer faith.

Despite the scandal, Wells Fargo is still one of the largest U.S. banks and offers many products, from savings accounts to mortgage and education loans.

In this post, we’re going to dive into the Wells Fargo Way2Save Savings account to review the terms and how this account could fit into your savings strategy.

Wells Fargo Way2Save Savings Account Basics

The Wells Fargo Way2Save Savings account has the traditional fees and terms that you can expect from a brick-and-mortar bank. There’s a monthly fee if you don’t follow certain rules and a minimum balance required to open the account.

Here’s an overview of the account fees and terms:

  • Minimum deposit required to open an account – $25
  • Annual percentage yield (APY) – 0.01%
  • Monthly fee of $5, unless:
    • You maintain a $300 daily balance, or
    • You set up and maintain monthly automatic deposits of $25 or more into the account
    • You are under the age of 18 or 19 in Alabama

Wells Fargo Way2Save Savings Account Tools

Extra features of the Wells Fargo Way2Save Savings account include tools that encourage you to save more money.

If you sign up for the Save As You Go transfer tool, Wells Fargo will move $1 from your checking account to your savings account every time you:

  • Pay bills through Wells Fargo Bill Pay
  • Make a debit card purchase
  • Make automatic payments from the connected checking account

Let’s say you make 20 qualifying transactions a month. In this scenario, $240 per year will be transferred into your savings account automatically. That can add up.

You can also set up monthly or daily transfers from a linked checking account to your savings account. If you set up monthly transfers, the minimum you can transfer each month is $25.

If you do daily transfers, you have to transfer at least $1.

How to Apply for the Way2Save Savings Account

To apply for a Wells Fargo savings account, you’ll need your:

  • Social Security number
  • Valid ID (driver’s license, state ID, or Matricula card)
  • $25 to deposit (If you already have a Wells Fargo account, you can transfer $25 from it; you can also use a debit or credit card, or check for this deposit.)

Filling out the application gives Wells Fargo permission to pull your credit history. Your application can be denied if you have negative history from other bank accounts like unpaid overdraft fees.

A Comparison of Fees and APY Against Our Top Choice for Savings

The APY offered by Wells Fargo for the Way2Save Savings account is nothing to write home about.

Wells Fargo offers the Way2Save Savings account with just 0.01% APY when other online-only and credit union savings accounts offer as much as 1.05% APY.

We have a roundup of the best savings accounts that we update regularly here for you to check out.

As for fees and account terms, there are also several savings accounts in the roundup we mention above that have the Way2Save Savings account beat.

Wells Fargo charges $5 per month in the event that you can’t maintain the minimum $300 daily balance and you don’t have enough money to set up $25 monthly automatic transfers from checking to savings.

Let’s be real here, life happens, and there may be a situation where you’re in a financial pinch and can’t meet these conditions.

In comparison, the High Yield Savings account from Synchrony is currently our top recommendation and doesn’t have the same fine print. The Synchrony High Yield Savings account offers 1.05% APY with no minimum account balance required and no monthly fees.

APY of the Way2Save Savings account from Wells Fargo vs. High Yield Savings from Synchrony

Both accounts compound interest daily and pay out monthly.

If you keep $1,000 in a Wells Fargo account for 12 months at 0.01% APY, you’ll earn just $2 in interest for the year. Barely enough for a coffee.

If you put $1,000 in the Synchrony High Yield Savings account for a year at 1.05% APY, you’ll earn about $21 in interest. That’s a few mornings worth of Dunkin’ Donuts coffee.

APY-Way2save-2

Of course, this is savings you shouldn’t be using for a caffeine fix, but you get the idea. When your money is sitting in a savings account, it should be earning you as much money as possible.

Downside of Having Savings Connected to Checking

Wells Fargo touts the ease of connecting your Wells Fargo checking account to a savings account as one of the Way2Save Savings account benefits, but that’s not always ideal.

Keeping all of your cash in accounts that are connected to each other may cause you to rely on savings more often than you should. If you’re already a Wells Fargo checking account customer, keeping a Way2Save Savings account for emergencies in addition to an online-only account could be a good savings strategy.

In fact, it’s the strategy that I use as a Wells Fargo customer. I put money that I may need more urgently into the Wells Fargo savings account. The rest I put in a savings account that’s harder to reach. It can be easier to resist temptation and grow savings when money isn’t sitting pretty in an account you have access to instantly.

Should You Open a CD Instead?

To answer this question, CDs can be a good choice. A CD with Wells Fargo — not so much.

A certificate of deposit is an account that you put money into for a certain term, and the money earns interest. During the CD term, you’re not able to deposit any money into the account. You can get charged a fee if you withdraw money before the CD matures. The longer you hold money in a CD account, the more interest you’ll earn.

This type of account is one you may want to open instead of another savings account if you have extra funds that you do not need for a long period of time.

Wells Fargo offers standard and special CDs requiring a minimum deposit of $2,500 to $5,000. These accounts earn 0.01% APY to 0.50% APY plus an interest bonus if you have the CD linked to a Portfolio by Wells Fargo product. Find out more about Wells Fargo CDs here.

Interestingly enough, the APY for Wells Fargo CDs is lower than what you can get from one of the regular high-yield savings accounts we have in our “best of” roundup. You can check out that roundup here.

If you’re shopping for a CD with a more competitive rate and a minimal initial deposit, Ally Bank is a good place to start. Ally Bank has a CD that requires no minimum balance to open and pays out 1.20% APY.

Find out more about Ally Bank CDs here and a roundup of our other favorite CDs here.

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