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Life Events, Mortgage

Open Credit Report Disputes Can Sabotage Your Chance For a Mortgage

The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

Purchase agreement for house

After months of searching through listings, you’ve finally found your dream home. Your offer has been accepted and you’ve started daydreaming about future dinner parties, contemporary light fixtures, and planting a backyard herb garden. Just one problem — the financing hasn’t been approved.

The mortgage underwriting process can seemingly last a lifetime when it’s standing between you and your dream home. However, the timeline hasn’t always been such a nail-biter for prospective homebuyers.

The housing bubble leading up to The Great Recession created a hunger from investors for mortgage-backed securities. As a result, borrowing costs were lowered, lending standards were loosened, and many homebuyers were approved for loans they couldn’t afford. When the housing market collapsed, many Americans were in trouble. These predatory lending practices contributed to both the financial crisis and The Great Recession.

A direct response to The Great Recession, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act or “Dodd-Frank” was signed into law in 2010. This financial reform legislation included the creation of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau who established the Ability to Repay and Qualified Mortgage Standards Under the Truth in Lending Act.

These new standards include a much more comprehensive financial verification process for mortgages including a closer look at an applicant’s credit history.

Why Do Credit Scores Matter?

Before you begin the home buying process, it’s smart to review your credit report and have a copy of your FICO score handy. Your FICO score is assigned by the credit reporting agencies based on the information within your credit report. A FICO score also factors into your Ability to Repay qualifications.

Tip: You can request a free credit report once a year from AnnualCreditReport.com.

Credit scores aren’t the only thing mortgage loan officers worry about, but a FICO score can heavily influence the interest rate you are able to secure. The highest scores qualify consumers for the best possible mortgage rates.

It’s critical to arm yourself with this information in advance. Plus, it gives you the opportunity to dispute any inaccuracies you’ve discovered and clean up your report.

What is a Credit Report Dispute?

Credit report inaccuracies are relatively common. Inaccurate information can happen for a variety of reasons — a clerical error, a shared name, or even identity theft. And inaccurate information in your credit report can harm your score. That’s why it’s important to regularly keep track of what’s happening.

Under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), consumers have the right to dispute inaccurate information. Fortunately, it’s easier than ever to file a dispute with all three credit reporting agencies online.

The problem is, many disputes can go unresolved for long periods of time. An unresolved dispute can be particularly troublesome for consumers applying for a mortgage. Many applicants don’t realize an open credit report dispute can raise a red flag to lenders, and may even prevent mortgage approval.

[Learn more about Fannie Mae’s Frequently Asked Underwriting Questions here.]

How Open Credit Report Disputes Hurt a Mortgage Application

If open credit report disputes are relatively common, how can they hurt a mortgage application?

When a dispute is filed, credit reporting agencies are required to label the item as “in dispute.” An item being actively disputed can not harm your FICO score. In fact, your score will be temporarily inflated while harmful items are being investigated.

Lenders know credit reports with disputed items are not the most accurate picture of a consumer’s history and many require for this status to be removed before approving a mortgage application. This leaves some consumers with a difficult decision to make — accept costly credit report errors or delay applying for a loan until disputes have been resolved.

Fannie Mae & Freddie Mac

Fannie Mae’s automated underwriting system, Desktop Underwriter (DU), automatically issues the warning message “consumer disputed” when a credit report reveals a 30-day or more delinquency reported within 2 years of the inquiry. The lender must confirm the accuracy and completeness of the borrower’s credit report by obtaining a new report without the dispute or manually underwrite the loan.

Loan Prospector, Freddie Mac’s automated underwriting system, follows a similar process. Gaining access to a new credit report with updated information is not an option for the borrower if the creditor won’t correct the information. And when a consumer files a complaint with the credit reporting agencies (TransUnion, Equifax, and Experian), the agencies will often defer to the creditor.

Last fall, the National Consumer Law Center wrote a letter to the Federal Housing Finance Agency, urging reform for the treatment of consumers with credit report disputes. They believe lenders who reject applicants because they don’t want to manually underwrite the loan are in violation of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA).

FHA Approved Mortgages

FHA approved mortgages will approve an application with a disputed credit report, however, the process may still be time consuming.

A couple of years ago, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development decided to look more closely at open disputes and provided new instructions for lenders in a Mortgagee Letter (ML). This ML addresses both derogatory and non-derogatory disputes and requires lenders to more carefully evaluate the risk associated with a consumer.

What To Do if You’re Still Struggling

Dealing with an unresolved credit report dispute can turn into a consumer nightmare. Even if you’ve followed best practices, like submitting credit report disputes both in writing and online, you may still be unhappy with the results.

Fortunately, you can still submit a complaint to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. They will forward your complaint directly to the company in dispute and work to get a response from them. Another option is to seek guidance from a consumer advocate or an attorney. The National Foundation for Credit Counseling may be a helpful place to start.

Because a credit report and FICO score have such a strong influence on lifelong financial health, the best defense is to be proactive. Regularly monitoring your credit report and working to fix inaccuracies before applying for a mortgage is the best way to prevent major problems.

Kate Dore
Kate Dore |

Kate Dore is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Kate at kate@magnifymoney.com

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5 Things You Shouldn’t Do Before Buying a Home

The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

Source: iStock

There’s a lot more to qualifying for a mortgage than simply saving up money for a down payment. You need to find a good real estate agent, have money on hand for closing costs, and understand your budget and taxes.

But for as much as there is to do while you’re preparing to buy a home, there are also things you shouldn’t do. Taking any one of these actions can jeopardize your purchase, leaving you disappointed at best, and potentially in a financial bind.

Don’t take on new debt

Mortgage underwriters consider your debt-to-income ratio when evaluating your ability to make monthly payments. If you have too much debt, it can affect how much you can borrow or whether or not you can even get a mortgage. Neil Cannon, a mortgage loan officer at PenFed Credit Union, encourages potential homeowners to start thinking about their debt usage as soon as they start planning to save for a down payment.

“If you want to own a home in two years, but you need to buy a car now, the decision on the car can affect your home purchase in two years,” Cannon explains.

He gives the following example: If you purchase a used car for $6,000 and pay it off within two years, you’ll look much better financially than someone who bought a $50,000 car with 0% financing and still has four years left on their auto loan.

While you should carefully evaluate any decision to take on debt years before purchasing a home, it’s especially vital to do so before closing. Cannon notes that if you prequalify for a mortgage, and then take out a loan for a car or other purchase prior to closing, it can threaten the entire deal.

Don’t switch jobs

Cannon says that before closing, your lender will perform a Verification of Employment — also known as a VOE. The VOE typically occurs up to two weeks before closing, though it can happen as late as hours before you sign on the dotted line.

If you’ve resigned between prequalification and closing, you will not be able to close. If you’ve switched jobs, you must have already reported to work at the time the VOE is completed if you want your new salary to be included.

Generally, though, it’s wise to stay with the same employer for at least two years before closing on your home. This is because compensation like bonuses, overtime, and commissions are variable, and your underwriter will need two years’ worth of documentation if you want this money to be considered as income on your mortgage application.

Cannon also notes that underwriters consider bonuses discretionary, no matter how your employer may pitch them.

“I have had dozens of clients tell me they have a ‘guaranteed bonus,’” says Cannon. “If that is the case, then it is not a bonus, and your employer is torturing the English language.”

This means that your bonus may not be counted as guaranteed income on your mortgage application, even if you feel confident your bonus will come in as it has in years past. If your bonus is particularly large, this could impact how much money you qualify to borrow — or if you qualify to borrow at all.

Don’t move money around

“If we cannot track the source of large deposits, we can’t use the assets for qualifying,” says Cannon.

“I had a recently married couple have a deposit of $14,000 into their savings account. It was all wedding presents, and it was basically all cash. It could not be traced. We could not use it.”

The couple was lucky: Their parents were able to give them a documented gift of $14,000 to make up the difference. Without their parents’ generosity, the couple wouldn’t have qualified, even though they had the money on hand.

If you cannot properly document where your money came from, the best-case scenario would be that your underwriter would not allow the funds to factor into the equation — meaning you can’t count them as an asset toward purchasing or closing on the home.

The worst-case scenario is that the underwriter could assume the money is recently acquired debt. Without documentation, the lender has no way of knowing. This could negatively affect your debt-to-income ratio.

Cannon notes that while it is possible to move money around, it’s wise to do so with guidance from your loan officer — especially during the 60 days prior to filling out your mortgage application all the way through closing.

Don’t sign a contract before getting prequalified

“You always want to be prequalified before you start shopping for a home so you do not make knee-jerk emotional decisions,” says Cannon. Signing a contract puts you under legal obligation. Doing so without being prequalified is a risky move, as you’ll lose any earnest money you put down in good faith at the time you signed the contract should you not qualify. You could also end up with a lawsuit against you, depending on how far the seller is willing to go.

Even if your contract has a financing contingency clause — meaning you have a set amount of days to secure a loan or terminate the contract — it’s still in your best interest to get prequalified. You may have as little as 15 days to secure a loan with the contingency.

If you are unable to, and you do not terminate the contract in writing within the specified time frame, some contracts will still legally obligate you to purchase the home. Because you lack capital, you won’t be able to. If the seller chooses to sue, you could end up in court.

Don’t assume you know as much as your real estate agent

With so much knowledge at their fingertips, it’s easy for today’s homebuyers to feel empowered. There are calculators that tell you how much you should theoretically be able to borrow. You can easily obtain an estimate on a house’s market value versus asking price. You can even research all the first-time homebuyer assistance programs in your area from the comfort of your couch.

But don’t mistake the ease of obtaining information for professional expertise. As a buyer, using a real estate agent costs you nothing. Your agent has likely gone through the home-buying process more than you will in your entire lifetime, and their depth of knowledge — especially of your local market — is something to take advantage of.

“If you are a buyer, you likely need guidance to figure out why this home seems overpriced to you and why that home looks like a great bargain,” says Cannon. “Realtors are compensated fairly, and good Realtors create value for their clients.”

Brynne Conroy
Brynne Conroy |

Brynne Conroy is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Brynne at brynne@magnifymoney.com

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The Best Mortgages That Require No or Low Down Payment

The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

If you’re considering buying a home, you’re probably wondering how much you’ll need for a down payment. It’s not unusual to be concerned about coming up with a down payment. According to Trulia’s report Housing in 2017, saving for a down payment is most often cited as the biggest obstacle to homeownership.

Maybe you’ve heard that you should put 20% down when you purchase a home. It’s true that 20% is the gold standard. If you can afford a big down payment, it’s easier to get a mortgage, you may be eligible for a lower interest rate, and more money down means borrowing less, which means you’ll have a smaller monthly payment.

But the biggest incentive to put 20% down is that it allows you to avoid paying for private mortgage insurance. Mortgage insurance is extra insurance that some private lenders require from homebuyers who obtain loans in which the down payment is less than 20% of the sales price or appraised value. Unlike homeowners insurance, mortgage protects the lender – not you – if you stop making payments on your loan. Mortgage insurance typically costs between 0.5% and 1% of the entire loan amount on an annual basis. Depending on how expensive the home you buy is, that can be a pretty hefty sum.

While these are excellent reasons to put 20% down on a home, the fact is that many people just can’t scrape together a down payment that large, especially when the median price of a home in the U.S. is a whopping $345,800.

Fortunately, there are many options for homebuyers with little money for a down payment. You may even be able to buy a house with no down payment at all.

Here’s an overview of the best mortgages you can be approved for without 20% down.

FHA Loans

An FHA loan is a home loan that is insured by the Federal Housing Administration. These loans are designed to promote homeownership and make it easier for people to qualify for a mortgage. The FHA does this by making a guarantee to your bank that they will repay your loan if you quit making payments. FHA loans don’t come directly from the FHA, but rather an FHA-approved lender. Not all FHA-approved lenders offer the same interest rates and costs, even for the same type of loan, so it’s important to shop around.

Down payment requirements

FHA loans allow you to buy a home with a down payment as low as 3.5%, although people with FICO credit scores between 500 and 579 are required to pay at least 10% down.

Approval requirements

Because these loans are geared toward lower income borrowers, you don’t need excellent credit or a large income, but you will have to provide a lot of documentation. Your lender will ask you to provide documents that prove income, savings, and credit information. If you already own any property, you’ll have to have documentation for that as well.

Some of the information you’ll need includes:

  • Two years of complete tax returns (three years for self-employed individuals)
  • Two years of W-2s, 1099s, or other income statements
  • Most recent month of pay stubs
  • A year-to-date profit-and-loss statement for self-employed individuals
  • Most recent three months of bank, retirement, and investment account statements

Mortgage insurance requirements

The FHA requires both upfront and annual mortgage insurance for all borrowers, regardless of their down payment. On a typical 30-year mortgage with a base loan amount of less than $625,500, your annual mortgage insurance premium will be 0.85% as of this writing. The current upfront mortgage insurance premium is 1.75% of the base loan amount.

Casey Fleming, a mortgage adviser with C2 Financial Corporation and author of The Loan Guide: How to Get the Best Possible Mortgage, also reminds buyers that mortgage insurance on an FHA loan is permanent. With other loans, you can request the lenders to cancel private mortgage insurance (MIP) once you have paid down the mortgage balance to 80% of the home’s original appraised value, or wait until the balance drops to 78% when the mortgage servicer is required to eliminate the MIP. But mortgage insurance on an FHA loan cannot be canceled or terminated. For that reason, Fleming says “it’s best if the homebuyer has a plan to get out in a couple of years.”

Where to find an FHA-approved lender

As we mentioned earlier, FHA loans don’t come directly from the FHA, but rather an FHA-approved lender. Not all FHA-approved lenders offer the same interest rates and costs, even for the same type of loan, so it’s important to shop around.

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has a searchable database where you can find lenders in your area approved for FHA loans.

First, fill in your location and the radius in which you’d like to search.

Next, you’ll be taken to a list of FHA-approved lenders in your area.

Who FHA loans are best for

FHA loans are flexible about how you come up with the down payment. You can use your savings, a cash gift from a family member, or a grant from a state or local government down-payment assistance program.

However, FHA loans are not the best option for everyone. The upfront and ongoing mortgage insurance premiums can cost more than private mortgage insurance. If you have good credit, you may be better off with a non-FHA loan with a low down payment and lower loan costs.

And if you’re buying an expensive home in a high-cost area, an FHA loan may not be able to provide you with a large enough mortgage. The FHA has a national loan limit, which is recalculated on an annual basis. For 2017, in high-cost areas, the FHA national loan limit ceiling is $636,150. You can check HUD.gov for a complete list of FHA lending limits by state.

SoFi

For borrowers who can afford a large monthly payment but haven’t saved up a big down payment, SoFi offers mortgages of up to $3 million. Interest rates will vary based on whether you’re looking for a 30-year fixed loan, a 15-year fixed loan, or an adjustable rate loan, which has a fixed rate for the first seven years, after which the interest rate may increase or decrease. Mortgage rates started as low as 3.09% for a 15-year mortgage as of this writing. You can find your rate using SoFi’s online rate quote tool without affecting your credit.

Down payment requirements

SoFi requires a minimum down payment of at least 10% of the purchase price for a new loan.

Approval requirements

Like most lenders, SoFi analyzes FICO scores as a part of its application process. However, it also considers factors such as professional history and career prospects, income, and history of on-time bill payments to determine an applicant’s overall financial health.

Mortgage insurance requirements

SoFi does not charge private mortgage insurance, even on loans for which less than 20% is put down.

What we like/don’t like

In addition to not requiring private mortgage insurance on any of their loans, SoFi doesn’t charge any loan origination, application, or broker commission fees. The average closing fee is 2% to 5% for most mortgages (it varies by location), so on a $300,000 home loan, that is $3,000. Avoiding those fees can save buyers a significant amount and make it a bit easier to come up with closing costs. Keep in mind, though, that you’ll still need to pay standard third-party closing costs that vary depending on loan type and location of the property.

There’s not much to dislike about SoFi unless you’re buying a very inexpensive home in a lower-cost market. They do have a minimum loan amount of $100,000.

Who SoFi mortgages are best for

SoFi mortgages are really only available for people with excellent credit and a solid income. They don’t work with people with poor credit.

SoFi does not publish minimum income or credit score requirements.

VA Loans

Rates can vary by lender, but currently, rates for a $225,000 30-year fixed-rate loan run at around 3.25%, according to LendingTree. (Disclosure: LendingTree is the parent company of MagnifyMoney.)

Down payment requirements

Eligible borrowers can get a VA loan with no down payment. Although the costs associated with getting a VA loan are generally lower than other types of low-down-payment mortgages, Fleming says there is a one-time funding fee, unless the veteran or military member has a service-related disability or you are the surviving spouse of a veteran who died in service or from a service-related disability.

That funding fee varies by the type of veteran and down-payment percentage, but for a new-purchase loan, the funding fee can run from 1.25% to 2.4% of the loan amount.

Approval requirements

VA loans are typically easier to qualify for than conventional mortgages. To be eligible, you must have suitable credit, sufficient income to make the monthly payment, and a valid Certificate of Eligibility (COE). The COE verifies to the lender that you are eligible for a VA-backed loan. You can apply for a COE online, through your lender, or by mail using VA Form 26-1880.

The VA does not require a minimum credit score, but lenders generally have their own requirements. Most ask for a credit score of 620 or higher.

If you’d like help seeing if you are qualified for a VA loan, check to see if there’s a HUD-approved housing counseling agency in your area.

Mortgage insurance requirements

Because VA loans are guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs, they do not require mortgage insurance. However, as we mentioned previously, be prepared to pay an additional funding fee of 1.25% to 2.4%.

What we like/don’t like

There’s no cap on the amount you can borrow. However, there are limits on the amount the VA can insure, which usually affects the loan amount a lender is willing to offer. Loan limits vary by county and are the same as the Federal Housing Finance Agency’s limits, which you can find here.

HomeReady

 

The HomeReady program is offered by Fannie Mae. HomeReady mortgage is aimed at consumers who have decent credit but low- to middle-income earnings. Borrowers do not have to be first-time home buyers but do have to complete a housing education program.

Approval requirements

HomeReady loans are available for purchasing and refinancing any single-family home, as long as the borrower meets income limits, which vary by property location. For properties in low-income areas (as determined by the U.S. Census), there is no income limit. For other properties, the income eligibility limit is 100% of the area median income.

The minimum credit score for a Fannie Mae loan, including HomeReady, is 620.

To qualify, borrowers must complete an online education program, which costs $75 and helps buyers understand the home-buying process and prepare for homeownership.

Down payment requirements

HomeReady is available through all Fannie Mae-approved lenders and offers down payments as low as 3%.

Reiss says buyers can combine a HomeReady mortgage with a Community Seconds loan, which can provide all or part of the down payment and closing costs. “Combined with a Community Seconds mortgage, a Fannie borrower can have a combined loan-to-value ratio of up to 105%,” Reiss says. The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is the ratio of outstanding loan balance to the value of the property. When you pay down your mortgage balance or your property value increases, your LTV ratio goes down.

Mortgage insurance requirements

While HomeReady mortgages do require mortgage insurance when the buyer puts less than 20% down, unlike an FHA loan, the mortgage insurance is removed once the loan-to-value ratio reaches 78% or less.

What we like/don’t like

HomeReady loans do require private mortgage insurance, but the cost is generally lower than those charged by other lenders. Fannie Mae also makes it easier for borrowers to get creative with their down payment, allowing them to borrow it through a Community Seconds loan or have the down payment gifted from a friend or family member. Also, if you’re planning on having a roommate, income from that roommate will help you qualify for the loan.

However, be sure to talk to your lender to compare other options. The HomeReady program may have higher interest rates than other mortgage programs that advertise no or low down payments.

USDA Loan

USDA loans are guaranteed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Although the USDA doesn’t cap the amount a homeowner can borrow, most USDA-approved lenders extend financing for up to $417,000.

Rates vary by lender, but the agency gives a baseline interest rate. As of August 2016, that rate was just 2.875%

Approval requirements

USDA loans are available for purchasing and refinancing homes that meet the USDA’s definition of “rural.” The USDA provides a property eligibility map to give potential buyers a general idea of qualified locations. In general, the property must be located in “open country” or an area that has a population less than 10,000, or 20,000 in areas that are deemed as having a serious lack of mortgage credit.

USDA loans are not available directly from the USDA, but are issued by approved lenders. Most lenders require a minimum credit score of 620 to 640 with no foreclosures, bankruptcies, or major delinquencies in the past several years. Borrowers must have an income of no more than 115% of the median income for the area.

Down payment requirements

Eligible borrowers can get a home loan with no down payment. Other closing costs vary by lender, but the USDA loan program does allow borrowers to use money gifted from friends and family to pay for closing costs.

Mortgage insurance requirements

While USDA-backed mortgages do not require mortgage insurance, borrowers instead pay an upfront premium of 2% of the purchase price. The USDA also allows borrowers to finance that 2% with the home loan.

What we like/don’t like

Some buyers may dismiss USDA loans because they aren’t buying a home in a rural area, but many suburbs of metropolitan areas and small towns fall within the eligible zones. It could be worth a glance at the eligibility map to see if you qualify.

At a Glance: Low-Down-Payment Mortgage Options

To see how different low-down-payment mortgage options might look in the real world, let’s assume a buyer with an excellent credit score applies for a 30-year fixed-rate mortgage on a home that costs $250,000.

As you can see in the table below, their monthly mortgage payment would vary a lot depending on which lender they use.

 

Down Payment


Total Borrowed


Interest Rate


Principal & Interest


Mortgage Insurance


Total Monthly Payment

FHA


FHA

3.5%
($8,750)

$241,250

4.625%

$1,083

$4,222 up front
$171 per month

$1,254

SoFi


SoFi

10%
($25,000)

$225,000

3.37%

$995

$0

$995

VA


VA Loan

0%
($0)

$250,000

3.25%

$1,088

$0

$1,088

HomeReady


homeready

3%
($7,500)

$242,500

4.25%

$1,193

$222 per month

$1,349

USDA


homeready

0%

$250,000

2.875%

$1,037

$5,000 up front,
can be included in
total financed

$1,037

Note that this comparison doesn’t include any closing costs other than the upfront mortgage insurance required by the FHA and USDA loans. The total monthly payments do not include homeowners insurance or property taxes that are typically included in the monthly payment.

ANALYSIS: Should I put down less than 20% on a new home just because I can?

So, if you can take advantage of a low- or no-down-payment loan, should you? For some people, it might make financial sense to keep more cash on hand for emergencies and get into the market sooner in a period of rising home prices. But before you apply, know what it will cost you. Let’s run the numbers to compare the cost of using a conventional loan with 20% down versus a 3% down payment.

Besides private mortgage insurance, there are other downsides to a smaller down payment. Lenders may charge higher interest rates, which translates into higher monthly payments and more money spent over the loan term. Also, because many closing costs are a percentage of the total loan amount, putting less money down means higher closing costs.

For this example, we’ll assume a $250,000 purchase price and a loan term of 30 years. According to Freddie Mac, during the week of June 22, 2017, the average rate for a 30-year fixed-rate mortgage was 3.90%.

Using the Loan Amortization Calculator from MortgageCalculator.org:

Assuming you don’t make any extra principal payments, you will have to pay private mortgage insurance for 112 months before the principal balance of the loan drops below 78% of the home’s original appraised value. That means in addition to paying $169,265.17 in interest, you’ll pay $11,316.48 for private mortgage insurance.

The bottom line

Under some circumstances, a low- or no-down-payment mortgage, even with private mortgage insurance, could be considered a worthwhile investment. If saving for a 20% down payment means you’ll be paying rent longer while you watch home prices and mortgage rates rise, it could make sense. In the past year alone, average home prices increased 16.8%, and Kiplinger is predicting that the average 30-year fixed mortgage rate will rise to 4.1% by the end of 2017.

If you do choose a loan that requires private mortgage insurance, consider making extra principal payments to reach 20% equity faster and request that your lender cancels private mortgage insurance. Even if you have to spend a few hundred dollars to have your home appraised, the monthly savings from private mortgage insurance premiums could quickly offset that cost.

Keep in mind, though, that the down payment is only one part of the home-buying equation. Sonja Bullard, a sales manager with Bay Equity Home Loans in Alpharetta, Ga., says whether you’re interested in an FHA loan or a conventional (i.e., non-government-backed) loan, there are other out-of-pocket costs when buying a home.

“Through my experience, when people hear zero down payment, they think that means there are no costs for obtaining the loan,” Bullard says. “People don’t realize there are still fees required to be paid.”

According to Bullard, those fees include:

  • Inspection: $300 to $1,000, based on the size of the home
  • Appraisal: $375 to $1,000, based on the size of the home
  • Homeowners insurance premiums, prepaid for one year, due at closing: $300 to $2,500, depending on coverage
  • Closing costs: $4,000 to $10,000, depending on sales price and loan amount
  • HOA initiation fees

So don’t let a seemingly insurmountable 20% down payment get in the way of homeownership. When you’re ready to take the plunge, talk to a lender or submit a loan application online. You might be surprised at what you qualify for.

Janet Berry-Johnson
Janet Berry-Johnson |

Janet Berry-Johnson is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Janet here

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It’s Now Easier for Millions of Student Loan Borrowers to Get a Mortgage

The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

Student loan borrowers who are making reduced income-driven repayments on their loans will have an easier time getting mortgages under a new policy announced recently by Fannie Mae.

Nearly one-quarter of federal student loan borrowers benefit from reduced monthly student loan payments based on their income, Fannie Mae says. However, there’s been some confusion about how banks should treat the lower monthly payments when they calculate a would-be mortgage borrower’s debt-to-income ratio (DTI): Should banks consider the reduced payment, the payment borrowers would have to pay without the income-based “discount,” or something in between?

It’s a tricky question, because student loan borrowers have to renew their qualification for the lower payments each year, meaning a borrower’s monthly DTI could change dramatically a year or two after qualifying for a mortgage. The banks’ confusion over which payment amount to use can mean the difference between a borrower qualifying for a home loan and staying stuck in a rental apartment.

There’s even more confusion when a mortgage applicant qualifies for a $0 income-driven student loan payment, or when there’s no payment amount listed on the applicant’s credit report. Previously, in that situation, Fannie Mae required banks to use 1% of the balance or a full payment term.

As of last week, Fannie has declared that mortgage lenders can instead use $0 as a student loan payment when determining DTI, as long as the borrower can back that up with documentation.

That announcement followed another Fannie update issued in April telling lenders that they could use the lower income-based monthly payment, rather than a larger payment based on the full balance of the loan, when calculating borrowers’ monthly debt obligations.

“We are simplifying the options available to calculate the monthly payment amount for student loans. The resulting policy will be easier for lenders to apply, and may result in a lower qualifying payment for borrowers with student loans,” Fannie said in its statement.

Taken together, the two announcements could immediately benefit the roughly 6 million borrowers currently using income-driven repayment plans known as Pay As You Earn (PAYE), Revised Pay As You Earn (REPAYE), Income-Contingent Repayment (ICR), and Income-Based Repayment (IBR).
Freddie Mac didn’t immediately respond to an inquiry about its policy in the same situation.

What This Means for Student Loan Borrowers Looking to Buy

Michigan-based mortgage broker Cassandra Evers said the changes “allow a lot more borrowers to qualify for a home.” Previously, there was a lot of confusion among borrowers, lenders, and brokers, Evers said. “[The rules have] changed at least five or six times in the last five years.”

The broader change announced in April, which allowed lenders to use the income-driven payment amount in calculations, could make a huge difference to millions of borrowers, Evers said.

“Imagine you have $60,000 in student loan debt and are on IBR with a payment of $150 a month,” she said. Before April’s guidance, lenders may have used $600 (1% of the balance of the student loans) as the monthly loan amount when determining DTI, “basically overriding actual debt with a fake/inflated number.”

“Imagine you are 28 and making $40,000 per year. Well, even if you’re fiscally responsible, that added $450-a-month inflated payment would absolutely destroy your ability to buy a decent home … This opens up the door to a lot more lenders being able to use the actual IBR payment,” Evers said.

The Fannie Mae change regarding borrowers on income-driven plans with a $0 monthly payment could be a big deal for some mortgage applicants with large student loans. A borrower with an outstanding $50,000 loan but a $0-a-month payment would see the monthly expenses side of their debt-to-income ratio fall by $500.

It’s unclear how many would-be homebuyers could qualify for a mortgage with an income low enough to qualify for a $0-per-month income-driven student loan repayment plan. Fannie did not have an estimate, spokeswoman Alicia Jones said.

“If your income is low enough to merit a zero payment, then it is probably going to be hard to qualify for a mortgage with a number of lenders. But, with the share of IBR now at almost a full 25% of all federally insured debt, it’s suspected that there will be plenty of potential borrowers who do,” Jones said. “The motivation for the original policy and clarification came from lenders’ requests.”

Bob Sullivan
Bob Sullivan |

Bob Sullivan is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Bob here

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How to Buy a House With a Friend — The Right Way

The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

It’s completely possible for you to purchase a house or other property with someone who isn’t your spouse, like a friend or family member.

“It’s a beautiful occasion, but it’s also a complex business transaction,” says Senior Managing Partner of New York City-based Law Firm of Kishner & Miller, Bryan Kishner. “There are tremendous positives to the overall thing, but people need to be careful with the unforeseen items, and a lot of people say they didn’t think about that.”

For friends who are unable to afford a home in their area on a single income, or cohabiting couples, buying a home together can help both parties boost their net worth or simply achieve a goal of becoming a homeowner.

That being said, purchasing a home with a friend can be more complicated than buying a house with your spouse. The key to a successful co-homeownership arrangement is to set yourselves up for success from the get-go.

Choose the Right Joint Homeownership Structure

When you buy a home, you’ll get a title, which proves the property is yours. The paper the title is printed on is called a deed, and it explains how you, the co-owners, have agreed to share the title. The way the title is structured becomes important when you need to figure out what happens when a co-owner needs to part with the property.

These are the two most common ways to approach joint homeownership:

1. Tenants in Common

A tenants in common, or tenancy in common, is the most common structure people use when they purchase a property for personal use. This outlines who owns what percentage of the property and allows each owner to control what happens if they pass away. For example, a co-owner can pass their share onto any beneficiaries in a will, and that will be honored.

The TIC allows co-owners to own unequal shares of the property, which can come in handy if one owner will occupy a significant majority or minority of the shared home. For example, if two friends decide to buy a multifamily home, but one friend pays more because one friend’s space has much more square footage than the other friend’s space, they can split their shares of the home accordingly.

Kishner says to make sure you “reference and evidence your intent to use the tenants in common structure on the deed,” as it’s the primary evidence of your ownership — meaning you would write who owns what percentage of the property on the deed and note the parties chose a TIC structure.

The Pros of a TIC structure

Ownership can be unevenly split

You can own as much or as little as you want of the property as long as the combined ownership adds up to 100%. So, if you’re putting up 60% of the down payment, you can work it out with the other co-owner(s) to own 60% of the property on the title.

You don’t have to live there

You can own part of the property without living there. This is relevant for someone who simply wants to be a partial owner, but doesn’t want to live at the property.

You get to decide what happens to your share after you pass away

The TIC allows you the flexibility to decide what happens to your interest in the property in the event you pass away. You can decide if it will go to the other co-owners or to an heir. Regardless, the decision is yours.

The Cons of a TIC structure

Co-owners can sell their interest without telling you

Co-owners in a TIC can sell their interest in the property at any time, without the permission of others in the agreement. However, if they are also on the mortgage loan, they are still on the hook to make payments, says Rafael Reyes, a loan officer based in New York City.

2. Joint Tenants with Rights of Survivorship

This arrangement is different from a tenants in common arrangement in that in the case of one co-owner’s death, the deceased party’s shares will be automatically absorbed by the living co-owners. For this reason, this type of structure is more common among family members or cohabiting partners looking to purchase property together.

If, for example, you are purchasing with a family member and would like them to automatically absorb your portion in case you pass away unexpectedly, this is the option you’d go with. Even if the deceased has it written in their will to pass their interest to a beneficiary, that likely won’t be honored.

A joint tenants agreement requires these four essential components:

  1. Co-owners must all acquire the property at the same time.
  2. Co-owners must all have the same title on assets.
  3. Each co-owner must own equal interests in the property. So if you buy with one friend, you’ll own 50%, but if you buy with two friends, you’d own one-third of the property. This may be an important consideration if co-owners will occupy different amounts of space in the property.
  4. Co-owners must each have the same right to possess the entirety of the assets.

The Pros of a joint tenants agreement

Everyone owns an equal share in the property

There’s not arguing over shares if you go with a joint tenants arrangement, since it requires all co-owners to have an equal interest. So each co-owner has the same right to use, take loans out against, or sell the property.

No decisions to make if someone dies

There’s nothing for co-owners or family members to fight over after you pass away. Your ownership shares are automatically inherited by the other co-owners when you pass away, regardless of what might be written in a will.

The Cons of a joint tenants agreement

Equal ownership

Equal ownership can be a con as much as it’s a pro. If you’re going to occupy more than 50% of the space, or put up more of the mortgage or down payment, you may want to own more than your equal share of the property. If that will bother you, a TIC agreement is best.

How to Create a Co-ownership Agreement

Before you even start the mortgage lending process, it’s recommended to work out an agreement on how you’ll split equity in the home, who will be responsible for maintenance costs, and what will happen in the event of major life events such as death, marriage, or having children.

“You are more or less going into business together” when you purchase a home with a friend or relative, says Kishner. And like any smart business owner, you’ll want to protect yourself in case things go south down the road.

A real estate attorney can help you set up an official co-ownership agreement.

Kishner recommends each person in the agreement get their own attorney, who can represent each party’s personal concerns and interests during negotiation. Rates vary by location, but he estimates a good real estate lawyer would charge around $1,000.

Ideally, Kishner says, this agreement is created and signed before closing the mortgage loan. That way, if simply going through all of the what-ifs scares someone off, they have the opportunity to pull out.

3 Questions Every Co-ownership Agreement Should Answer

The co-ownership agreement you draft and sign will need to address many issues. Here are three common scenarios the experts offered us:

1. What happens if someone wants out?

Your agreement should outline an exit plan in case one or more of you want out of the property. This could be because of a number of reasons but is the area where things can get extremely complicated. For example, what if one of the co-owners wants to be bought out by the other co-owners?

Let’s say you’ve got three people on a mortgage and on the title to a property. If the other two can come up with the money for the equity, you’ve solved that problem.

But if someone wants to sell their interest in the property, for example, Reyes says they can’t just take the cash and walk away, since they’ll still have some financial obligation to the home if they are on the mortgage. So you’d need to also refinance the mortgage to get them off of it, and that could affect the other co-owner’s financial picture. The only way to relieve someone of their financial obligation to the mortgage is to refinance with the lender. That’s because if they leave and decide to stop making mortgage payments, that will affect your credit score.

Be prepared. When you refinance, the remaining co-owners will need to qualify again for the mortgage. If you decided to add a co-owner because you couldn’t originally qualify for the property based on your income, you might not qualify to own after a refinance.

If you can’t refinance, you all may decide to arrange for the departing member to rent out their living space in the household … then you’d need to deal with the issues surrounding finding a roommate or having a tenant. However you all want to go about handling this kind of situation should already be outlined in the co-ownership agreement, so you’ll have one less thing to argue over in a split.

2. What happens if a co-owner loses their job?

You want to be prepared to fulfill your financial obligations if someone loses their income. That’s why it’s recommended to create a shared emergency fund, which you can draw from in the case that one of the owners runs into financial issues (or, of course, to handle any maintenance needs). You can establish the contributions and rules surrounding a shared emergency fund in your co-ownership agreement.

Reyes advises putting away about six months’ worth of the property expenses into a shared savings account.

“That six-month reserve, at least, is important because ultimately, God forbid, if there is some kind of financial turbulence like job loss, they can cover the mortgage or they could sell the home within six months in this market,” said Reyes.

3. How will you pay bills and taxes?

The co-ownership agreement also needs to address how you all will split up housing costs. Kauffman says you should set up a joint account and agree on what each party should contribute to the fund each pay period.

You should consider the repairs, maintenance, and upkeep on the house, as well as things that could increase over time such as property tax and homeowner’s insurance, too, Kauffman adds. In the event those costs exceed what you’ve set aside to pay for them in escrow accounts, the co-ownership agreement needs to outline how the extra bill will be paid.

Applying for a Mortgage as a Joint Homeowner

If you want to purchase a home with a friend or relative, you’ll first have to decide whether or not both of your names will be on the mortgage.

A lender will consider both of your credit scores during the underwriting process, which means a person with a lower credit score could drag down your collective credit score, leading to higher mortgage rates.

Kauffman strongly advises reaching out to figure out your financing before applying for a loan with friends.

“Each of them might understand what they can afford on their own, but they may not be aware of how their purchasing power changes,” Kauffman says. You may find you qualify for more or less house than you thought you could afford.

He adds there are some serious things to consider when you decide to enter into an investment with other people that you’re not necessarily tied to. Carefully consider your personal relationships with the people you’re going into homeownership with.

“You’ve got to really consider who you’re getting into it with and really consider all of these things that are bound to happen when you have [multiple] lives,” says Kauffman.

It can also be potentially awkward when friends or colleagues realize they must reveal aspects of their finances that they might prefer to keep private, such as their credit score, credit history, and total income.

“Oftentimes people learn a lot about their [co-owner] through a credit report, and it becomes embarrassing and uncomfortable sometimes,” says Rick Herrick, a loan officer at Bedford, N.H.-based Loan Originator.

Brittney Laryea
Brittney Laryea |

Brittney Laryea is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Brittney at brittney@magnifymoney.com

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U.S. Mortgage Market Statistics: 2017

The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

Homeownership rates in America are at all-time lows. The housing crisis of 2006-2009 made banks skittish to issue new mortgages. Despite programs designed to lower down payment requirements, mortgage originations haven’t recovered to pre-crisis levels, and many Americans cannot afford to buy homes.

Will a new generation of Americans have access to home financing that drove the wealth of previous generations? We’ve gathered the latest data on mortgage debt statistics to explain who gets home financing, how mortgages are structured, and how Americans are managing our debt.

Summary:

  • Total Mortgage Debt: $9.8 trillion1
  • Average Mortgage Balance: $137,0002
  • Average New Mortgage Balance: $244,0003
  • % Homeowners (Owner-Occupied Homes): 63.4%4
  • % Homeowners with a Mortgage: 65%5
  • Median Credit Score for a New Mortgage: 7646
  • Average Down Payment Required: $12,8297
  • Mortgages Originated in 2016: $2.065 trillion8
  • % of Mortgages Originated by Banks: 43.9%9
  • % of Mortgages Originated by Credit Unions: 9%9
  • % of Mortgages Originated by Non-Depository Lenders: 47.1%9

Key Insights:

  • The median borrower in America puts 5% down on their home purchase. This leads to a median loan-to-value ratio of 95%. A decade ago, the median borrower put down 20%.10
  • Credit score requirements make mortgages tougher than ever to get. The median mortgage borrower had a credit score of 764.6
  • 1.67% of all mortgages are in delinquency. In 2010, mortgage delinquency reached as high as 8.89%.11

Home Ownership and Equity Levels

In the first quarter of 2017, real estate values in the United States recovered to their pre-recession levels. The total value of real estate owned by individuals in the United States is $23 trillion dollars, and total mortgages clock in at $9.8 trillion dollars. This means that Americans have $13.7 trillion in homeowners equity.12 This is the highest value of home equity Americans have ever seen.

However, real estate wealth is becoming increasingly concentrated as overall homeownership rates fall. In 2004, 69% of all Americans owned homes. Today, that number is down to 63.4%.4 While home affordability remains a question for many Americans, the downward trend in homeownership corresponds to banks tightening credit standards for new mortgages.

New Mortgage Originations

Mortgage origination levels show signs of recovery from their housing crisis lows. In 2008, financial institutions issued just $1.4 trillion dollars of new mortgages. In 2016, new first lien mortgages topped $2 trillion for the first time since the end of the housing crisis. Despite the growth in the mortgage market, mortgage originations are still 25% lower than their pre-recession average.8

As recently as 2010, three banks (Wells Fargo, Bank of America, and Chase) originated 56% of all mortgages.13 In 2016, all banks put together originate just 44% of all loans.9

In a growing trend toward “non-bank” lending, both credit unions and non-depository lenders cut into banks’ share of the mortgage market. In 2016, credit unions issued 9% of all mortgages. Additionally, 47% of all mortgages in 2016 came from non-depository lending institutions like Quicken Loans and PennyMac. Behind Wells Fargo ($249 billion) and Chase ($117 billion), Quicken ($96 billion) was the third largest issuer of mortgages in 2016. In the fourth quarter of 2016, PennyMac issued $22 billion in loans and was the fourth largest lender overall.9

Government vs. Private Securitization

Banks tend to be more willing to lend mortgages to consumers if a third party will buy the mortgage in the secondary market. This is a process called loan securitization. Consumers can’t directly influence who buys their mortgage. Nonetheless, mortgage securitization influences who gets mortgages and their rates. Over the last five years government securitization enterprises, FHA and VA loans, and portfolio loan securitization have risen. However, today private loan securitization is almost extinct.

Government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) have traditionally played an important role in ensuring that banks will issue new mortgages. In 2016, 46% of all loans issued were securitized by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. However, in absolute terms, Fannie and Freddie purchased 20% fewer loans than they did in the years leading up to 2006.8

In 2016, a tiny fraction (0.4%) of all loans were purchased by private securitization companies.8 Prior to 2007, private securitization companies held $1.6 trillion in subprime and Alt-A (near prime) mortgages. In 2005 alone, private securitization companies purchased $1.1 trillion worth of mortgages. Today private securitization companies hold just $500 billion in total assets, including $440 billion in subprime and Alt-A loans.14

As private securitization firms exited the mortgage landscape, programs from the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) have filled in some of the gap. The FHA and VA are designed to help borrowers get loans despite having smaller down payments or lower incomes. FHA and VA loans accounted for 23% of all loans issued in 2016. These loan programs are the only mortgages that grew in absolute terms from the pre-mortgage crisis. Prior to 2006, FHA and VA loans only accounted for $155 billion in loans per year. In 2016, FHA and VA loans accounted for $470 billion in loans issued.8

Portfolio loans, mortgages held by banks, accounted for $639 billion in new mortgages in 2016. Despite tripling in volume from their 2009 low, portfolio loans remain down 24% from their pre-crisis average.8

Mortgage Credit Characteristics

Since banks are issuing 21% fewer mortgages compared to pre-crisis averages, borrowers need higher incomes and better credit to get a mortgage.

The median FICO score for an originated mortgage rose from 707 in late 2006 to 764 today. The scores on the bottom decile of mortgage borrowers rose even more dramatically from 578 to 657.6

In 2016, 23% of all first lien mortgages were financed through FHA or VA programs. First-time FHA borrowers had an average credit score of 677. This puts the average first-time FHA borrower in the bottom quartile of all mortgage borrowers.8

Prior to 2009, an average of 20% of all volumes originated went to people with subprime credit scores (<660). In the first quarter of 2017, just 8% of all mortgages were issued to borrowers with subprime credit scores. Mortgages for people with excellent credit (scores above 760) more than doubled. Between 2003 and 2008 just 27% of all mortgages went to people with excellent credit. In the first quarter of 2017, 61% of all mortgages went to people with excellent credit.6

Banks have also tightened lending standards related to maximum debt-to-income ratios for their mortgages. In 2007, conventional mortgages had an average debt-to-income ratio of 38.6%; today the average ratio is 34.3%.15 The lower debt-to-income ratio is in line with pre-crisis levels.

LTV and Delinquency Trends

Banks continue to screen customers on the basis of credit score and income, but customers who take on mortgages are taking on bigger mortgages than ever before. Today a new mortgage has an average unpaid balance of $244,000, according to data from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.3

The primary drivers behind larger loans are higher home prices, but lower down payments also play a role. Prior to the housing crisis, more than half of all borrowers put down at least 20%. The average loan-to-value ratio at loan origination was 82%.10

Today, half of all borrowers put down 5% or less. A quarter of all borrowers have just 3.5% equity at the time of mortgage origination. As a result, the average loan-to-value ratio at origination has climbed to 88%.10

Despite a growing trend toward smaller down payments, growing home prices mean that overall loan-to-value ratios in the broader market show healthy trends. Today, the average loan-to-value ratio across all homes in the United States is an estimated 48%. The average LTV on mortgaged homes is 73%.16

This is substantially higher than the pre-recession LTV ratio of approximately 60%. However, homeowners saw very healthy improvements in loan-to-value ratios of 94% in early 2011. Between 2009 and 2011 more than a quarter of all mortgaged homes had negative equity. Today, just 6.2% of homes have negative equity.17

Although the current LTV on mortgaged homes remains above historical averages, Americans continue to manage mortgage debt well. Current homeowners have mortgage payments that make up an average of just 16.5% of their annual household income.18

After falling for 20 straight quarters, mortgage delinquency rates reached an eight-year low (1.57%) in the fourth quarter of 2016. Delinquency rates ticked up to 1.67% for the first time in Q1 2017, but remain substantially below the 2010 high of 8.89% delinquency.11

Despite the general progress, delinquency rates are still six basis points higher than their 2003-2006 average of 1.07%. It remains to be seen if delinquency rates will return to their pre-crisis lows, or if the housing market is entering a new normal.

Sources:

  1. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households and Nonprofit Organizations; Home Mortgages; Liability, Level [HHMSDODNS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HHMSDODNS, June 22, 2017.
  2. Survey of Consumer Expectations Housing Survey – 2017,” Credit Quality and Inclusion, from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Accessed June 22, 2017.
  3. Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, “Average Loan Amount, 1-4 family dwelling, 2015.” Accessed June 22, 2017.
  4. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Homeownership Rate for the United States [USHOWN], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/USHOWN, June 22, 2017. (Calculated as percent of all housing units occupied by an owner occupant.)
  5. “U.S. Census Bureau, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates,” Mortgage Status, Owner-Occupied Housing Units. Accessed June 22, 2017.
  6. Quarterly Report on Household Debt and Credit May 2017.” Credit Score at Origination: Mortgages, from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and Equifax Consumer Credit Panel. Accessed June 22, 2017.
  7. Calculated metric:
    1. Down Payment Value = Home Price* Average Down Payment Amount (Average Unpaid Balance on a New Mortgageb / Median LTV on a New Loanc) * (1 – Median LTV on a New Loanc)
    2. Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, “Average Loan Amount, 1-4 family dwelling, 2015.” Accessed June 22, 2017. Gives an average unpaid principal balance on a new loan = $244K.
    3. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, May 2017.” Combined LTV at Origination from the Urban Institute, Urban Institute, calculated from: Corelogic, eMBS, HMDA, SIFMA, and Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff.
  8. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, May 2017.” First Lien Origination Volume from the Urban Institute. Source: Inside Mortgage Finance and the Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff.
  9. Mortgage Daily. 2017. “Mortgage Daily 2016 Biggest Lender Ranking” [Press Release] Retrieved from https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2017/04/03/953457/0/en/Mortgage-Daily-2016-Biggest-Lender-Ranking.html.
  10. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, May 2017.” Combined LTV at Origination from the Urban Institute, Urban Institute, calculated from: Corelogic, eMBS, HMDA, SIFMA, and Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff.
  11. Quarterly Report on Household Debt and Credit May 2017.” Mortgage Delinquency Rates, from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and Equifax Consumer Credit Panel. Accessed June 22, 2017.
  12. Calculated metric: Value of U.S. Real Estatea – Mortgage Debt Held by Individualsb
    1. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households; Owner-Occupied Real Estate including Vacant Land and Mobile Homes at Market Value [HOOREVLMHMV], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HOOREVLMHMV, June 22, 2017.
    2. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households and Nonprofit Organizations; Home Mortgages; Liability, Level [HHMSDODNS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HHMSDODNS, June 22, 2017.
  13. Mortgage Daily, 2017. “3 Biggest Lenders Close over Half of U.S. Mortgages” [Press Release]. Retrieved from http://www.mortgagedaily.com/PressRelease021511.asp?spcode=chronicle.
  14. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, May 2017” from the Urban Institute Private Label Securities by Product Type, Urban Institute, calculated from: Corelogic and the Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff.
  15. Fannie Mae Statistical Summary Tables: April 2017” from Fannie Mae. Accessed June 22, 2017; and “Single Family Loan-Level Dataset Summary Statistics” from Freddie Mac. Accessed June 22, 2017. Combined debt-to-income ratios weighted using original unpaid balance from both datasets.
  16. Calculated metrics:
    1. All Houses LTV = Value of All Mortgagesc / Value of All U.S. Homesd
    2. Mortgages Houses LTV = Value of All Mortgagesc / (Value of All Homesd – Value of Homes with No Mortgagee)
    3. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households; Owner-Occupied Real Estate including Vacant Land and Mobile Homes at Market Value [HOOREVLMHMV], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HOOREVLMHMV, June 22, 2017.
    4. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households and Nonprofit Organizations; Home Mortgages; Liability, Level [HHMSDODNS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HHMSDODNS, June 22, 2017.
    5. U.S. Census Bureau, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Aggregate Value (Dollars) by Mortgage Status, June 22, 2017.
  17. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, May 2017.” Negative Equity Share. Source: CoreLogic and the Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff.
  18. Survey of Consumer Expectations Housing Survey – 2017,” Credit Quality and Inclusion, from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Accessed June 22, 2017.
Hannah Rounds
Hannah Rounds |

Hannah Rounds is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Hannah at hannah@magnifymoney.com

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7 Reasons Your Mortgage Application Was Denied

The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

There are few things more nerve-racking for homebuyers than waiting to find out if they were approved for a mortgage loan.

Nearly 627,000 mortgage applications were denied in 2015, according to the latest data from the Federal Reserve, down slightly (-1.1%) year over year. If your mortgage application was denied, you may be naturally curious as to why you failed to pass muster with your lender.

There are many reasons you could have been denied, even if you’re extremely wealthy or have a perfect 850 credit score. We spoke with several mortgage experts to find out where prospective homebuyers are tripping up in the mortgage process.

Here are seven reasons your mortgage application could be denied:

You recently opened a new credit card or personal loan

Taking on new debts prior to beginning the mortgage application process is a “big no-no,” says Denver, Colo.-based loan officer Jason Kauffman. That includes every type of debt — from credit cards and personal loans to buying a car or financing furniture for your new digs.

That’s because lenders will have to factor any new debt into your debt-to-income ratio.

Your debt-to-income ratio is fairly simple to calculate: Add up all your monthly debt payments and divide that number by your monthly gross income.

A good rule of thumb is to avoid opening or applying for any new debts during the six months prior to applying for your mortgage loan, according to Larry Bettag, attorney and vice president of Cherry Creek Mortgage in Saint Charles, Ill.

For a conventional mortgage loan, lenders like to see a debt-to-income ratio below 40%. And if you’re toeing the line of 40% already, any new debts can easily nudge you over.

Rick Herrick, a loan officer at Bedford, N.H.-based Loan Originator told MagnifyMoney about a time a client opened up a Best Buy credit card in order to save 10% on his purchase just before closing on a new home. Before they were able to close his loan, they had to get a statement from Best Buy showing what his payments would be, and the store refused to do so until the first billing cycle was complete.

“Just avoid it all by not opening a new line of credit. If you do, your second call needs to be to your loan officer,” says Herrick. “Talk to your loan officer if you’re having your credit pulled for any reason whatsoever.”

Your job status has changed

Most lenders prefer to see two consistent years of employment, according to Kauffman. So if you recently lost your job or started a new job for any reason during the loan process, it could hurt your chances of approval.

Changing employment during the process can be a deal killer, but Herrick says it may not be as big a deal if there is very high demand for your job in the area and you are highly likely to keep your new job or get a new one quickly. For example, if you’re an educator buying a home in an area with a shortage of educators or a brain surgeon buying a home just about anywhere, you should be OK if you’re just starting a new job.

If you have a less-portable profession and get a new job, you may need to have your new employer verify your employment with an offer letter and submit pay stubs to requalify for approval. Even then, some employers may not agree to or be able to verify your employment. Furthermore, if your salary includes bonuses, many employers won’t guarantee them.

Bettag says one of his clients found out he lost his job the day before they were due to close, when Bettag called his employer for one last check of his employment status. “He was in tears. He found out at 10 a.m. Friday, and we were supposed to close on Saturday.”

You’ve been missing debt payments

During the loan process, any recent negative activity on your credit report, which goes back seven years, can raise concerns. The real danger zone is any activity reported within the last two years, says Bettag, which is the time period lenders play closest attention to.

That’s why he encourages loan applicants to make sure their credit reports are accurate and that old items that should have fallen off your report after seven years aren’t still appearing.

“Many things show on credit reports beyond seven years. That’s a huge issue, so we want to get dated items removed at the bureau level,” Bettag says.

For first-time homebuyers, he cautions against making any late payments six months prior to applying for a mortgage. They won’t always be a total deal-breaker, but they can obviously ding your credit, and a lower credit score can lead to a loan denial or a more expensive mortgage rate.

Existing homeowners, Bettag says, shouldn’t have any late mortgage payments in the 12 months prior to applying for a new mortgage or a refinance.

“There are workarounds, but it can be as laborious as brain surgery,” says Bettag.

You accepted a monetary gift

Your lender will be on the lookout for any out-of-place deposits to your bank accounts during the approval process. Bettag advises homebuyers not to accept any large monetary gifts at least two months or longer before you apply, and to keep a paper trail if the lender has any questions.

Any cash that can’t be traced back to a verifiable source, such as an annual bonus, or a gift from a family friend, could raise red flags.

This can be tricky for homebuyers who are relying on help from family to purchase their home. If you receive a gift of money for a down payment, it has to be deemed “acceptable” by your lender. The definition of acceptable depends on the type of mortgage loan that you are applying for and the laws that govern the process in your state.

For example, Bettag says, the Federal Housing Authority doesn’t care if a borrower’s entire down payment comes as a gift when they are applying for an FHA loan. However, the gifted funds may not be eligible to use as a down payment for a conventional loan through a bank.

You moved a large amount of money around

Ideally, avoid moving large sums of money about two months before applying.

Herrick says many borrowers make the mistake of shuffling too much cash around just before co-signing, making themselves look suspicious to bank regulators. Herrick says not to move anything more than $1,000 at a time, and none if you can help yourself.

For example, If you’re considering moving money from all of your savings accounts into one account to deliver the cashier’s check for the down payment, don’t do it. You don’t need to have everything in one account for the cashier’s check for your closing. You can submit multiple cashier’s checks. All the lender cares about is that all of the money adds up. You may be able to simply avoid some of this hassle by arranging to pay using a wire transfer. Just be sure to schedule it in time.

You overdrafted your checking account

If you have a credit issue already, says Bettag, overdrafting your checking account can be a deal-breaker, but it won’t cause as much of an issue if you have great credit and offer a good down payment. Still avoid overdrafting for at least two months prior to applying for the mortgage loan.

You may be the type to keep a low checking account balance in favor of saving more money. But if an unexpected bill could risk overdrafting your account, try keeping a few extra dollars in the account for padding, just in case.

You forgot to include debts or other information on your loan application

Your loan officer should carefully review your application to make sure it’s filled out completely and accurately. Missing a zero on your income, or accidentally skipping a section, for example, could mean rejection. A small mistake could mean losing your dream home.

There’s also the chance you accidentally omitted information the underwriter caught in the more extensive screening process, like money owed to the IRS. Disclose all of your debt to your loan officer up front. Otherwise, they may not be able to help you if the debt comes up and disqualifies you for your dream home later on.

If you owe the IRS money and are in a payment plan, Bettag says your loan officer can still work with you. However, they want to see that you’ve been in a plan for at least three months and made on-time payments to move forward.

“Can you imagine not paying your IRS debt, getting into a payment plan, and then not paying on the agreed plan? Not cool for lenders to see, but we do,” says Bettag.

The Bottom Line

There is no hard and fast rule on how long before you begin the mortgage process that you should heed these warnings. It all varies, according to Bettag. If you have excellent credit and a strong income, you might be able to get away with a recently opened credit card or other discrepancies — minor faults that might totally derail the application of a person who has bad credit and inconsistent income.

Whatever the case may be, Bettag encourages prospective homebuyers to stick to one general rule: “Don’t do anything until you’ve consulted with your loan officer.”

Brittney Laryea
Brittney Laryea |

Brittney Laryea is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Brittney at brittney@magnifymoney.com

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Mortgage

Risks to Consider Before Co-signing Your Kid’s Mortgage

The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

Homeownership is a cornerstone of the American Dream for most, but many millennials are finding it difficult to afford to buy in.

Overall, millennials are still far behind in homeownership compared to previous generations were at their age. Only 39.1% of millennials lived in a home they owned in 2016 compared with 63.2% of Gen Xers, according to an analysis by Trulia Economist Felipe Chacón.

Student debt and stagnant incomes could share some of the blame. Millennials earn 78.2 cents for every dollar a Gen Xer earned at their age, Chacón found. Nearly half of millennial homebuyers report carrying student loan debt, according to the 2016 National Association of Realtors Home Buyer and Seller Generational Trends survey. They carry a median loan balance of $25,000.

Loan officers have to take a borrower’s total debt picture into account when running their application, and it’s become increasingly hard to qualify for a mortgage with a vast amount of student debt.

When they can’t get approved for a mortgage, it’s common for homebuyers to seek out a co-signer for their loan. Often, that person is a parent.

Co-signing a child’s mortgage loan is a serious decision, and parents should weigh all of the risks before making any promises. We asked financial experts what risks are worth worrying about to help clear out the noise.

1. You’re on the hook if your kid stops making mortgage payments

When you co-sign a loan, you agree to be responsible for payments if the primary borrower defaults. If you’re expecting to retire during the life of the mortgage loan, co-signing is an even larger risk, as you may be living on fixed income.

Dublin, Ohio-based certified financial planner Mark Beaver says he’d be wary of a parent co-signing a mortgage for their adult child. “If they need a co-signer, it likely means they cannot afford the house, otherwise the bank wouldn’t require the co-signer,” says Beaver.

By co-signing, you effectively take on a risk the bank doesn’t want. And the list of potential scenarios in which your child may no longer be able to afford their house payments can be vast.

“What if your daughter marries a jerk and they get divorced, or he/she starts a business and loses money, or doesn’t pay their taxes. The risk is ‘what can happen that can make this blow up,’” says Troy, Mich.- based lawyer and Certified Financial Planner, Leon LaBrecque.

Bottom line: If you wouldn’t be able to comfortably afford the payments in case that happens, don’t co-sign.

2. You’re putting your credit at risk

A default isn’t the only event that could negatively affect your finances. The mortgage will show up on your credit report, too, even if you haven’t taken over payments. So, if your child so much as misses one payment, your credit score could take a hit.

This may not be the end of the world for an older parent who doesn’t anticipate needing any new lines of credit in the future, Beaver says, but it’s still wise to be cautious.

You might think your child is ready to become a homeowner, but a closer look at their finances may reveal they aren’t yet that financially mature. Don’t be afraid to ask about their income and spending habits. You should have a good idea of how your child handles their own finances before you agree to help them.

“Sure, we don’t want to meddle and pry into our children’s business; however, you are putting yourself financially on the line. They need to understand that and be open about their own habits,” says Andover, Mass.-based Certified Financial Planner John Barnes.

3. Your relationship with your child could change

Co-signing you child’s mortgage is bound to change the dynamics of your relationship. Your financial futures will be entangled for 15 to 30 years, depending on how long it takes them to pay off the loan.

Seal Beach, Calif.-based certified financial planner Howard Erman says not to let your feelings get in the way of making the correct decision for your budget. Think of how often you communicate and the depth and strength of your relationship with your child. If saying no might create serious tension in your relationship, you likely dodged a bullet.

“If your child conditions their love on getting money, then the parent has a much bigger problem,” says Erman.

Similarly, you should consider how your relationship would be affected if somehow your child ends up defaulting on the mortgage, leaving you to make payments to the bank.

4. You might need to let go of future borrowing plans

Co-signing adds the mortgage to the debts on your credit report, making it tougher for you to qualify for additional credit. If you dreamed of one day owning a vacation home, just know that a lender will have to consider your child’s mortgage as part of your overall debt-to-income ratio as well.

Although co-signing a large loan such as a mortgage generally puts a temporary crimp in your ability to borrow, keep in mind you may be affected differently based on the dollar amount of the mortgage loan and your own credit history and financial situation.

How to Say “No” to Co-signing Your Child’s Mortgage

There is a chance you’ll need to deny your child’s request to co-sign the loan. If you feel pressured to say yes, but really want to say no, Barnes suggests you say no and place the blame on a financial adviser.

“Having [someone like] me say no is like a doctor telling a patient he or she can’t run the marathon until that ankle is healed. It is the same principle,” says Barnes.

He advises parents facing the decision to co-sign a loan for a family member to meet with a financial planner to analyze the situation and give a recommendation for action.

If you choose to take the blame yourself, you may want to take the time to explain your reasoning to your child if you feel it’s warranted. If you said no based on something they can change, give them a plan to follow to get a “yes” from you instead.

LaBrecque suggests that parents who want to help out but don’t want to take on the risks of co-signing instead give the child a down payment and treat it as an advance in the estate plan. So if you “gift” your kid $30,000 to make the down payment, you would reduce their inheritance by $30,000.

The “gift the down payment” method grants you some additional benefits too.

“[The] method has a more positive parent/child relationship than the potential awkwardness of Thanksgiving with the kid(s) and late payments on the mortgage. Also, the ‘down payment gift’ is a quick victory. The kid’s now made their bed with the mortgage; let them sleep in it,” says LaBrecque.

Similarly, you could choose to help your child pay down their debts, so they’ll be in a better position to get approved on their own.

If you must say no, try to do so in a way that will motivate them toward the goal rather than deflate them. Erman recommends lovingly explaining to your child how important it is for them to be able to achieve this success on their own.

How to Protect Yourself as Co-signer

The best way to protect yourself against the risks of co-signing is to have a backup plan.

“If a child is responsible with money, then I generally do not see a problem with co-signing a loan, provided insurance is in place to protect the co-signer (the parent),” says Barnes.

He adds parents should make sure the child, the primary borrower, has life insurance and disability insurance in case the widowed son or daughter-in-law still needs to live in the home, or your child becomes disabled and is unable to work.

The insurance payments will also help to protect your own credit history and future borrowing power in case your child dies or becomes disabled. But these protections would be useless in the event your child loses their job.

If that happens, “insurance will not pay your bill unfortunately, so even if you are well insured, budgeting is vitally important,” Beaver says.

If you choose to take on the risk and co-sign, Barnes says to make sure you and your child have a plan in place that details payment, when to sell, and what would happen if your child is unable to make payments for any reason.

Additionally, LaBrecque recommends you get your name on the deed. Don’t forget to address present or future spouses. Ask your lawyer about having both kids sign back a quit-claim deed to the parent. If you get one, he says, you’ll be protected in case the marriage goes south, or payments are made late, because you would be able to remove a potential ex off the note.

Brittney Laryea
Brittney Laryea |

Brittney Laryea is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Brittney at brittney@magnifymoney.com

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Life Events, Mortgage

The Hidden Costs of Selling A Home

The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

With home values picking back up, many homeowners may be already dreaming of the money they’d make selling their home. Although the aim is to make money on a home sale, or at least break even, it’s easy to forget one important thing: selling a house costs money, too.

A joint analysis by online real estate and rental marketplace Zillow and freelance site Thumbtack found American homeowners spend upward of $15,000 on extra or hidden costs associated with a home sale.

Most of those expenses come before homeowners see any returns on their home sale. Most of the money is spent in three categories: closing costs, home preparation, and location.

Here are a few hidden costs to prepare for when you sell your home.

Pre-sale repairs and renovations

Zillow’s analysis shows sellers should plan to spend a median $2,658 on things like staging, repairs, and carpet cleaning to get the property ready.

Buyers are generally expected to pay their own inspection costs; however, if you’ve lived in the home for a number of years and want to avoid any surprises, you might also consider spending about $200 to $400 on a home inspection before listing the property for sale. That way, you can get ahead of surprise repairs that may decrease your home’s value.

Staging is another unavoidable cost for any sellers. Staging, which involves giving your home’s interior design a facelift and removing clutter and personal items from the home, is often encouraged because it can help make properties more appealing to interested buyers. Not only will you need to stage the home for viewing, but sellers often need to have great photos and construct strong descriptions of the property online to help maximize exposure of the property to potential buyers. If your agent is handling the staging and online listing, keep an eye on the “wow” factors they add on. Yes, a 3-D video walk-through of your house looks really cool, but it might place extra pressure on you budget.

You could save a large chunk on home preparation costs if you decide to DIY, but if you outsource, expect a bill.

ZIP code

Location drove home-selling costs up for many respondents in ZIllow’s analysis, as many extra costs were influenced by regional differences — like whether or not sellers are required to pay state or transfer taxes.

With a median cost of $55,000 for closing and maintenance expenses, San Francisco ranked highest among the most-expensive places to sell a home. At the other extreme, sellers in Cleveland, Ohio, pay little more than a median $10,100 to cover their selling costs.

Generally, selling costs correlate with the cost of the property, so expect to pay a little more if you live in an area with higher-than-average living costs or have a lot of land to groom for sale. Take a look at Zillow’s rankings below.

Closing costs

Closing costs are the single largest added expense of the home-selling process, coming in at a median cost of $12,532, according to Zillow. Closing costs include real estate agent commissions and state sales and/or transfer taxes. There may be other closing costs such as title insurance or escrow fees to pay, too.

Real Trends, a research and advisory company that monitors realty brokerage firms and compiles data on sales and commission rates of sales agents across the country, reported the national average was 5.26% in 2015.

Real Trends says rates are being weighed down by:

  • an increasing number of agents working for companies like Re/Max that give them flexibility to set commission rates without a minimum requirement
  • more competition from discount brokers like Redfin, an online brokerage service that charges sellers as low as 1%
  • an overall shortage of homes for sale pressuring agents to negotiate commission rates

The firm’s president, Steve Murray, told The Washington Post he predicts agent commissions will fall below 5% in the coming years.

Luckily, some closing costs are negotiable.

To save on real estate agent commissions, you can either negotiate their fee down or find a flat-fee brokerage firm like Denver-based Trelora, which advertises a flat $2,500 fee to list a house regardless of its selling price. Larger companies like Re/Max give their agents full control over their commission rates, so you may have better luck negotiating with them.

If you have the time on your hands, you could also list the home for-sale-by-owner to save on closing costs. Selling your home on your own is a more complicated and time-intensive approach to home selling and can be more difficult for those with little or no experience.

Other costs to consider:

Utilities on the empty home

If you’re moving out prior to the sale, you should budget to keep utilities on at your old place until the property is sold.

It will help you sell your home since potential buyers won’t fumble through your cold, dark home looking around. It may also prevent your home from facing other issues like mold in the humid summertime. Be sure to have all of your utilities running on the buyer’s final walk through the home, then turn everything off on closing day and handle your bills.

Make room in your household’s budget to pay for double utilities until the home is sold.

Insurance during vacancy

Again, prepare to pay double for insurance if you are moving out before your home sells. You’ll still need homeowner’s insurance to ensure coverage of your old property until the sale is finalized. Check the terms first, as your homeowner’s insurance policy might not apply to a vacant home. If that’s the case, you can ask to pay for a rider — an add-on to your basic insurance policy — for the vacancy period.

Capital gains tax

If you could make more than $250,000 on the home’s sale (or $500,000 if you’re married and filing jointly), you’ll want to take a look at the rules on capital gains tax. If your proceeds come up to less than $250,000 after subtracting selling costs, you’ll avoid the tax. However, if you don’t qualify for any of the exceptions, the gains above those thresholds could be subject to a 25% to 28% capital gains tax.

The Key Takeaway

Selling a home will cost you some money up front, but there are many ways you can plan for and reduce the largest costs. If you’re planning to sell your home this year, do your research and keep in mind falling commission costs when you negotiate.

List all of the costs you’re expecting and calculate how they might affect the profit you’d make on the sale and your household’s overall financial picture. If you’re unsure of your costs, you can use a sale proceeds calculator from sites like Redfin or Zillow to get a ballpark estimate of your potential selling costs, or consult a real estate agent.

Brittney Laryea
Brittney Laryea |

Brittney Laryea is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Brittney at brittney@magnifymoney.com

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Mortgage, Pay Down My Debt

Should You Use a Mortgage to Refinance Student Loans?

The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

Fannie Mae, the largest backer of mortgage credit in America, recently made it a little easier for homeowners to refinance their student loans. In an update to its Selling Guide, the mortgage giant introduced a student loan cash-out refinance feature, permitting originators that sell loans to Fannie Mae to offer a new refinance option for paying off one or more student loans.

That means you could potentially use a mortgage refi to consolidate your student loan debt. Student loan mortgage refis are relatively new. Fannie Mae and SoFi, an alternative lender that offers both student loans and mortgages, announced a pilot program for cash-out refinancing of student loans in November 2016. This new program is an expansion of that option, which was previously available only to SoFi customers.

Amy Jurek, a Realtor at RE/MAX Advantage Plus in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minn., says people with home equity have always had a cash-out option, but it typically came with extra fees and higher interest rates. Jurek says the new program eliminates the extra fees and allows borrowers to refinance at lower mortgage interest rates. The policy change could allow homeowners to save a significant amount of money because interest rates on mortgages are typically much lower than those for student loans, especially private student loans and PLUS loans.

But is it a good idea?

Your student debt isn’t eliminated; it’s added to your mortgage loan.

This may be stating the obvious, but swapping mortgage debt for student loan debt doesn’t reduce your debt; it just trades one form of debt (student loan) for another (mortgage).

Brian Benham, president of Benham Advisory Group in Indianapolis, Ind., says refinancing student loans with a mortgage could be more appealing to borrowers with private student loans rather than federal student loans.

Although mortgage rates are on the rise, they are still at near-historic lows, hovering around 4%. Federal student loans are near the same levels. But private student loans can range anywhere from 3.9% up to near 13%. “If you’re at the upper end of the spectrum, refinancing may help you lower your rate and your monthly payments,” Benham says.

So, the first thing anyone considering using a mortgage to refinance student loans should consider is whether you will, in fact, get a lower interest rate. Even with a lower rate, it’s wise to consider whether you’ll save money over the long term. You may pay a lower rate but over a longer term. The standard student loan repayment plan is 10 years, and most mortgages are 30-year loans. Refinancing could save you money today, but result in more interest paid over time, so keep the big picture in mind.

You need to actually have equity in your home.

To be eligible for the cash-out refinance option, you must have a loan-to-value ratio of no more than 80%, and the cash-out must entirely pay off one or more of your student loans. That means you’ve got to have enough equity in your home to cover your entire student loan balance and still leave 20% of your home’s value that isn’t being borrowed against. That can be tough for newer homeowners who haven’t owned the home long enough to build up substantial equity.

To illustrate, say your home is valued at $100,000, your current mortgage balance is $60,000, and you have one student loan with a balance of $20,000. When you refinance your existing mortgage and student loan, the new loan amount would be $80,000. That scenario meets the 80% loan-to-value ratio, but if your existing mortgage or student loan balances were higher, you would not be eligible.

You’ll lose certain options.

Depending on the type of student loan you have, you could end up losing valuable benefits if you refinance student loans with a mortgage.

Income-driven repayment options

Federal student loan borrowers may be eligible for income-driven repayment plans that can help keep loan payments affordable with payment caps based on income and family size. Income-based repayment plans also forgive remaining debt, if any, after 25 years of qualifying payments. These programs can help borrowers avoid default – and preserve their credit – during periods of unemployment or other financial hardships.

Student loan forgiveness

In certain situations, employees in public service jobs can have their student loans forgiven. A percentage of the student loan is forgiven or discharged for each year of service completed, depending on the type of work performed. Private student loans don’t offer forgiveness, but if you have federal student loans and work as a teacher or in public service, including a military, nonprofit, or government job, you may be eligible for a variety of government programs that are not available when your student loan has been refinanced with a mortgage.

Economic hardship deferments and forbearances

Some federal student loan borrowers may be eligible for deferment or forbearance, allowing them to temporarily stop making student loan payments or temporarily reduce the amount they must pay. These programs can help avoid loan default in the event of job loss or other financial hardships and during service in the Peace Corps or military.

Borrowers may also be eligible for deferment if they decide to go back to school. Enrollment in a college or career school could qualify a student loan for deferment. Some mortgage lenders have loss mitigation programs to assist you if you experience a temporary reduction in income or other financial hardship, but eligibility varies by lender and is typically not available for homeowners returning to school.

You could lose out on tax benefits.

Traditional wisdom favors mortgage debt over other kinds of debt because mortgage debt is tax deductible. But to take advantage of that mortgage interest deduction on your taxes, you must itemize. In today’s low-interest rate environment, most taxpayers receive greater benefits from the standard deduction. As a reminder, taxpayers can choose to itemize deductions or take the standard deduction. According to the Tax Foundation, 68.5% of households choose to take the standard deduction, which means they receive no tax benefit from paying mortgage interest.

On the other hand, the student loan interest deduction allows taxpayers to deduct up to $2,500 in interest on federal and private student loans. Because it’s an “above-the-line” deduction, you can claim it even if you don’t itemize. It also reduces your Adjusted Gross Income (AGI), which could expand the availability of other tax benefits.

You could lose your home.

Unlike student debt, a mortgage is secured by collateral: your home. If you default on the mortgage, your lender ultimately has the right to foreclose on your home. Defaulting on student loans may ruin your credit, but at least you won’t lose the roof over your head.

Refinancing student loans with a mortgage could be an attractive option for homeowners with a stable career and secure income, but anyone with financial concerns should be careful about putting their home at risk. “Your home is a valuable asset,” Benham says, “so be sure to factor that in before cashing it out.” Cashing out your home equity puts you at risk of carrying a mortgage into retirement. If you do take this option, set up a plan and a budget so you can pay off your mortgage before you retire.

Janet Berry-Johnson
Janet Berry-Johnson |

Janet Berry-Johnson is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Janet here

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