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Featured, Personal Loans, Reviews

Marcus by Goldman Sachs Review: GS Bank Takes on Online Savings, CDs, and Personal Loans

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Marcus by Goldman Sachs
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Most Americans probably think of fancy white-collar stock traders on Wall Street when they think of Goldman Sachs, a global investment firm that’s been around since the late 19th century.

In recent years, Goldman made a major pivot, launching a new arm of the company called GS Bank, which would provide internet-only savings accounts to the masses.

They also launched Marcus by Goldman Sachs®, a line of personal loans. Eventually, they decided to rebrand their savings account business, putting it under the Marcus umbrella as well.

Today, through Marcus, you’ll find three product offerings: personal loans, savings accounts, and CDs.

In this article, we’ll take a deep dive into all three products. We’ll tell you what you need to know before opening an account, including what rates they are offering.

All rates are current as of May 15, 2018.

Marcus by Goldman Sachs savings account

A very high interest rate and no fees make this one of the best savings accounts out there.

APY

Minimum Balance Amount

1.70%

None

  • Minimum opening deposit: None. However, you’ll need to deposit at least $1.00 if you want to earn any interest.
  • Monthly account maintenance fee: None.
  • Overdraft fee: None.

This is a great account for almost anyone. However, before you click that “Learn More” button below, there are a couple of things to know.

No ATMs. First, Marcus by Goldman Sachs doesn’t offer ATM access to your savings account. You’ll either need to deposit or withdraw money by sending in a physical check, setting up direct deposits, or by moving the money to and from your other bank accounts via ACH or wire transfer.

No checking account. Second, Marcus does’t offer a corresponding checking account. That means you can only use this account as an external place to park your cash from your everyday money flow.

Keeping a separate savings account does have its benefits. For example, it’s harder to tempt yourself to withdraw the cash if you’re a chronic over-spender. But, it also means that there might be a delay of a few days if you need to transfer the money out of your Goldman Sachs online savings account and into your other checking account.

How to open a Goldman Sachs online savings account

It’s really easy to open an online savings account with Marcus by Goldman Sachs. You can do it online or over the phone as long as you’re 18 years or older, have a physical street address, and a Social Security Number or Individual Taxpayer Identification Number.

You’ll be required to sign a form which you can do online, or by mail if you’re opening the account over the phone.

LEARN MORE Secured

on Goldman Sachs Bank USA’s secure website

Member FDIC

How their online savings account compares

Marcus’ online savings account can easily be described with one word: outstanding.

You’ll get a relatively high interest rate with this account, which is among the best online savings account rates you’ll find today. In fact, these rates are currently over seven times higher than the average savings account interest rate.

Even better, this account won’t charge you any fees for the privilege of keeping your money stashed there. It’s a tall order to find another bank that offers these high interest rates with terms this good.

Marcus by Goldman Sachs CD rates

Sky-high CD rates, but watch out for early withdrawal limitations.

Term

APY

Minimum Deposit Amount

6 months

0.60%

$500

9 months

0.70%

$500

12 months

2.20%

$500

18 months

2.25%

$500

24 months

2.30%

$500

3 years

2.35%

$500

4 years

2.40%

$500

5 years

2.80%

$500

6 years

2.85%

$500

  • Minimum amount to open account: $500
  • Minimum amount to earn APY: $500
  • Early withdrawal penalty: For CDs under 12 months, 90 days’ worth of interest. For CDs of 12 months to 5 years, 270 days’ worth of interest. For CDs of 5 years or over, 365 days’ worth of interest.

Marcus’ CDs work a little differently from other CDs. Rather than having to set up and fund your account all at once, Goldman Sachs will give you 30 days to fully fund your account.

Once open, your interest will be tallied up and credited to your CD account each month. You can withdraw the interest earned at any time without paying an early withdrawal penalty, but heads up: If you withdraw the interest, your returns will be lower than the stated APY when you opened your account.

If you need to withdraw the money from your CD, you can only do so by pulling out the entire CD balance and paying the required early withdrawal penalty. There is no option for partial withdrawals of your cash.

Finally, once your CD has fully matured, you’ll have a 10-day grace period to withdraw the money, add more funds, and/or switch to a different CD term. If you don’t do anything, Marcus will automatically roll over your CD into another one of the same type, but with the current interest rate of the day.

How to open a Goldman Sachs CD

Marcus has made it super simple to open up a CD. First, you’ll need to be at least 18 years old, and have either a Social Security Number or an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number.

You can open an account easily online, or call them up by phone. You’ll need to sign an account opening form, which you can do online or via a hard-copy mailed form. Then, simply fund your CD account within 30 days, and you’re all set.

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How their CDs compare

The interest rates that Marcus offers on their CDs are top-notch. In fact, a few of their CD terms are among the current contenders for the best CD rates.

If you’re interested in pursuing a CD ladder approach, Marcus is one of our top picks because each of their CD terms offer above-average rates. This means you can rest easy that you’ll get the best rates for your CD ladder without having to complicate things by spreading out all of your CDs among a handful of different banks.

The only downside to these CDs compared with many other banks is that you can’t withdraw a portion of your cash if you need it. It’s either all-in, or all-out. However, once out, you’re still free to open a new CD with the surplus cash, as long as it’s at least the $500 minimum deposit size.

Marcus by Goldman Sachs personal loan

Personal loans offered by Marcus have low APRs, flexible terms, and no fees.

Terms

APR

Credit Required

Fees

Max Loan Amount

36-72 months

6.99%-24.99%

Varies

None

$40,000

Marcus by Goldman Sachs personal loans can be used for just about anything, from consolidating debt to financing a large home improvement project. They offer some of the best rates available, with APRs as low as 6.99%, and you’ll not only be able to choose between a range of loan terms, but you can also choose the specific day of the month when you want to make your loan payments.

While there are no specific credit requirements to get a loan through Marcus, the company does try to target those that have “prime” credit, which is usually those with a FICO score higher than 660. Even with a less than excellent credit score, you may be able to qualify for a personal loan from Marcus, though, those that have recent, negative marks on their credit report, such as missed payments, will likely be rejected.

Applicants must be over 18 (19 in Alabama and Nebraska, 21 in Mississippi and Puerto Rico) and have a valid U.S. bank account. You are also required to have a Social Security or Individual Tax I.D. Number.

No fees. Marcus charges no extra fees for their personal loans. There are no origination fees associated with getting a loan, but there are also no late fees associated with missing payments. Those missed payments simply accrue more interest and your loan will be extended.

Defer payments. Once you have made on-time payments for a full year, you will have the ability to defer a payment. This means that if an unexpected expense or lost job hurts your budget one month, you can push that payment back by a month without negatively impacting your credit report.

How to apply for a Marcus personal loan

Marcus by Goldman Sachs offers a process that is completely online, allowing you to apply, choose the loan you want, submit all of your documents, and get approved without having to leave home. Here are the steps that you will complete to get a personal loan from Marcus:

  1. Fill out the information that is required in the online application, including your basic personal and financial information, as well as how much you would like to borrow and what you will use the money for.
  2. After a soft pull on your credit, and if you qualify, you will be presented a list of different loan options that may include different rates and terms.
  3. Once you have chosen the loan you want, you will need to provide additional information to verify your identity. You may also be asked for information that can be used to verify your income and you will need to provide your bank account information so that the money can be distributed.
  4. You will receive your funds 1 – 4 business days after your loan has been approved.

APPLY NOW Secured

on Marcus By Goldman Sachs®’s secure website

How their personal loans compare

Marcus offers low APRs and flexible terms with their personal loans, but their main feature is that they have no fees. If you are looking for a straightforward lending experience with no hidden fees or costs, Marcus will be perfect for you since you won’t even have to worry about late fees if you happen to miss a payment.

While Marcus offers some great perks, you may be able to get a lower rate if you choose to go with another lender, such as LightStream or SoFi. Both of these lenders offer lower APR ranges and they don’t charge origination fees, though, LightStreamwill do a hard pull on your credit to preapprove you.

LendingClub and Peerform both have lower credit requirements than Marcus, but they also charge origination fees and, being P2P lending platforms, you will need to wait for your loan to be funded and you run the risk that other users might not fund your loan.

Overall review of Marcus by Goldman Sachs‘ products

Marcus has really hit it out of the park with their personal loans, online savings, and CD accounts. Each of these accounts offers some of the best features available on the market, while shrinking the fees down to a minuscule, or even nonexistent, amount. Their website is also slick and easy to use for online-savvy people.

The only thing we can find to complain about with Marcus is that they don’t offer an equally-awesome checking account to accompany their other deposit products. Indeed, it seems like Marcus has turned their former hoity-toity image around: Today, they’re a bank that we’d recommend to anyone, even blue-collar folks.

Advertiser Disclosure: The card offers that appear on this site are from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all card companies or all card offers available in the marketplace.

Lindsay VanSomeren
Lindsay VanSomeren |

Lindsay VanSomeren is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Lindsay here

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Featured

Survey: People Are More Concerned About Equifax Data Breach Than Facebook Scandal

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

The Facebook-Cambridge Analytica scandal is certainly the bigger headline grabber these days, but in a new survey by MagnifyMoney, we found more than half of Americans — 54%— are more concerned about the September 2017 Equifax breach than the social media snafu.

Based on our survey, which polled 1,000 U.S. adults, the knowledge that information like your Social Security Number and past addresses are in the hands of hackers is slightly more disconcerting than the idea of a political consulting firm using your Facebook data to influence an election. The survey was conducted March 27-28, just days after news broke about the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica scandal and several months since the Equifax breach was first made public.

Despite these concerns, half of Americans have taken NO action to protect their data since the the Equifax breach.

As far as the Equifax scandal is concerned, 50% of Americans say they haven’t taken any action to protect their sensitive information in the months since the September 2017 breach. The most reported action was simply checking one’s credit report for shady activity, which only 22% of respondents reported having done. Ten percent have closed unused credit accounts, frozen or locked their credit files (8%) or changed their ATM PIN information (7%).

1 in 4 people are considering no longer using the internet or apps to access bank/financial accounts:

Among those who currently access accounts online, about a quarter of respondents said they are considering no longer accessing their bank and financial accounts with mobile apps or via the internet. To get an idea of what kind of impact that may make, in 2016, the Federal Reserve reported 43% of all mobile phone owners with a bank account had used mobile banking. That figure jumps up to 53% among smartphone owners with a bank account.

Facebook could lose a substantial portion of its fan base

1 in 5 Americans surveyed are considering deleting their Facebook account post-data scandal. The remainder said they would take other precautions, such as using the social media platform less often, using the “share” button less and removing things they have “liked” in the past.

Facebook and Equifax scandals: A quick primer

Facebook: In the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica scandal, a Russian-American developer, Aleksandr Kogan, built a Facebook quiz that was able to exploit a loophole in Facebook’s app interface. The loophole helped to gather information on not only the 250,000+ people who took the quiz, but on all their friends, too — without their knowledge. Cambridge Analytica obtained that data and sold it to Strategic Communication Laboratories, a British consulting firm that worked on the Trump campaign, although the data’s sale was prohibited by Facebook. SCL group touts it’s an expert in “psychological warfare” and “influence operations.” The main issue here is the loophole that led to the initial access to users’ friends’ Facebook data. As of this writing, Facebook’s Chief Executive Mark Zuckerberg is said to testify before Congress regarding the data scandal on April 10th.

Equifax breach: In September 2017, Equifax, one of three major credit reporting agencies, announced hackers obtained the sensitive data of about 143 million Americans, or about 44% of the population. The stolen information was sensitive information like names, Social Security numbers, birth dates, addresses and, in some instances, driver’s license numbers that thieves can use to commit identity and financial fraud. Equifax later announced about 2.5 million additional U.S. consumers were potentially impacted. Then in March 2018, it announced an additional 2.4 million people were impacted by the cybersecurity breach, bringing the total about 148 million people, or roughly 45% of the American population.

What to do to protect your data

Although the survey reports 54% of respondents were more concerned about their data being stolen in the Equifax breach, the same survey shows many Americans have taken little to no precautions to protect themselves from said identity thieves.

You are your first line of defense against identity theft. If you want to make sure you’ve done your part to protect your sensitive data and avoid the hassle of dealing with the aftermath of identity theft, you may consider taking at least one of the following precautions:

Sign up for credit monitoring

Credit monitoring services can let you easily see the information on your credit report so you can look out for any shady activity. Several free and paid services exist to help you keep tabs on your credit report. Free options include credit monitoring offered through LendingTree (the parent company of MagnifyMoney), Credit Karma, Discover, Mint, Wells Fargo and Capital One®. Some identity theft protection services like the ones offered through myFICO charge a monthly fee to monitor your credit year-round and provide identity theft insurance.

Temporarily lock your credit report with a credit lock

You can use a credit lock to restrict access to your credit report, making it difficult for other new credit accounts to open in your name. You can lock your credit for free with two of the three major credit reporting bureaus. TransUnion offers TrueID which lets you instantly lock and unlock your report online or via a mobile app. It also offers free credit monitoring. Equifax’s Lock & Alert does the same thing. Experian’s CreditLock service acts similarly but it is not free. It’s included in the agency’s $24.99 a month CreditWorks Premium service.

Freeze your credit report with a credit freeze

A credit freeze does the same thing as a credit lock does as it prevents anyone from applying for credit in your name until the freeze is removed. A credit freeze is different from a credit lock in that it’s not a company product, but a feature the credit bureaus are required to offer by law. In some states, you will need to pay a fee to freeze or unfreeze your credit report. Because the service is guaranteed by law, it may give consumers more rights in the event that fraud happens after a freeze is put in place. However, it can be much more difficult to remove a freeze. You can thaw a freeze if you need to apply for credit, for example, but in some cases, the credit bureau may ask you to mail them a letter requesting a thaw, which can take days to arrive. A credit lock requires less hassle.

Make a plan to respond to identity theft

Make sure you know what to do in the event your identity is stolen. Having a plan in play may help you notice the theft sooner, and minimize the damage and stress it can cause. Credit monitoring can help you find out about theft sooner rather than later. Here’s a guide on identity theft resolution, so you know what to do in case you see anything suspicious.

 

Advertiser Disclosure: The card offers that appear on this site are from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all card companies or all card offers available in the marketplace.

Brittney Laryea
Brittney Laryea |

Brittney Laryea is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Brittney at brittney@magnifymoney.com

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Credit Cards, Featured, News

Average Household Credit Card Debt in the U.S. in 2018

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Even as household income and employment rates are ticking up in the U.S., credit card balances are approaching all-time highs. What’s behind the growth of credit card spending among consumers? In an updated report on credit card debt in America, MagnifyMoney analyzed credit debt trends in the U.S. to find out exactly how much credit debt consumers are really taking on and, crucially, how they are managing their growing reliance on plastic.

Key Insights:

  • Credit card debt is on the rise with the average indebted household that doesn’t pay cards in full each month carrying $8,683 in credit card debt. That’s an increase of more than $650 per household compared with this time last year — a full 8.6 percent increase. Despite the rise in debt levels, current debt levels are 22.8 percent lower than October 2008, when household credit card debt among those that don’e pay in full each month peaked at $11,248.
  • Credit card balances and credit card debt are not the same thing. The 78 million Americans who pay their bill in full each month have credit card balances reported to the major credit reporting bureaus.
  • Assessing financial health means focusing on credit card debt trends rather than credit card use trends.

Credit Card Debt in the U.S. — By the Numbers

Credit Card Use

  • Number of Americans who use credit cards: 200 million1
  • Average number of credit cards per consumer: 2.32
  • Number of Americans who carry credit card debt: 122 million3

Credit Card Debt

The following estimates only include the credit card balances of those who carry credit card debt from month to month – they exclude balances of those who pay in full each month.

  • Total credit card debt in the U.S. (not paid in full each month): $542 billion4
  • Average credit card debt per person: $4,4535
  • Average credit card debt per household: $8,6836
  • Average APR: 14.99%
  • Average interest owed over 12 months: $1,183 (assuming 2.5% minimum monthly payments)

Credit Card Balances

The following figures include the credit card statement balances of all credit card users, including those who pay their bill in full each month.

  • Total credit card balances: $808 billion as of July 2017, an increase of 8.1 percent from the previous year.7
  • Average balance per person: $4,0418

Who Pays Off Their Credit Card Bills?

  • 45 percent of households pay off their credit card bills in full each month
  • 28 percent of households carry a balance all year
  • 26 percent of households sometimes carry a balance9

Credit Card Balances vs. Household Credit Debt

At first glance, it may seem that Americans are taking on near record levels of credit debt. Over a quarter (28 percent) of American households9 carry credit card debt from month to month, and another quarter (26 percent) carried credit card debt at least once last year.

If you look at the total credit card balances among U.S. households, the figure appears astronomical — $808 billion. But that figure includes households that are paying their credit debt in full each month as well as those that are carrying a balance from month to month.

While credit balances are increasing, the amount of debt that households are carrying from month to month is somewhat lower than it was leading up to the 2008 financial crisis. The total of credit card balances for households that actually carry debt from month to month is $542 billion.

As of the third quarter of 2017, households with credit card debt owed an average of $8,6833 That is a decrease of 22.8 percent compared to October 2008, when household credit card debt peaked at $11,248.10J

And as household incomes have risen in recent years, this has helped to lower the ratio of credit card debt to income. Today, indebted households with average debt and median household incomes have a credit card debt to income ratio of 14.7 percent.11 Back in 2008, the ratio was 20.1 percent12.

Delinquency Rates

Credit card debt becomes delinquent when a bank reports a missed payment to the major credit reporting bureaus. Banks typically don’t report a missed payment until a person is at least 30 days late in paying. When a consumer doesn’t pay for at least 90 days, the credit card balance becomes seriously delinquent. Banks are very likely to take a total loss on seriously delinquent balances.

In the second quarter of 2010, serious delinquency rates on credit cards were 13.74 percent of all balances owed, nearly twice as what they are today. Today, credit card delinquency rates are down to 7.47 percent.13

How We Calculated Household Credit Card Debt

Credit card debt doesn’t appear on the precipice of disaster, but the recent growth in balances is cause for some concern. Still, our estimates for household credit card debt remain modest.

In fact, MagnifyMoney’s estimates of household credit card debt is two-thirds that of other leading financial journals. Why are our estimates comparatively low?

A common estimate of household credit card debt is:

This method overstates credit card debt. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York/Equifax Consumer Credit Panel (CCP) does not release a figure called credit card indebtedness. Instead, they release a figure on national credit card balances. Representatives of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the Philadelphia Federal Reserve Bank both confirmed that the CCP includes the statement balances of people who go on to pay their bills in full each month.

Another method of estimating household credit card debt is to use the estimate from the Federal Reserve’s Survey of Consumer Finances. The 2016 survey found that the average household with credit card debt had $570014 in debt. Unfortunately, households in this survey tended to underreport their debt according to another Federal Reserve study.

To find a better estimate of credit card debt, we found methods to exclude the statement balances of full paying households from our credit card debt estimates. Statement balances are the balances owed to a credit card company at the end of a billing cycle. Even though full payers pay off their statement balance each month, their balances are included in the CCP’s figures on credit card balances.

To exclude full payer balances, we turned to academic research outside of the Federal Reserve Banks. The paper, Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards, by Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, found full payers had mean statement balances of $3,412. We used this figure, multiplied by the estimated number of full payers to find the statement balances of full payers.

Our credit card debt estimate is:3

Per Person Credit Card Debt

Once we adjust for these effects, we see that an estimated 122 million Americans carry $542 billion of credit card debt from month to month. Back in 2008, 20 million fewer Americans carried debt, but total credit card debt in late 2008 hovered around $589 billion.16 That means people with credit card debt in 2008 had far more debt than people with credit card debt today.

Average credit card debt among those who carry a balance today is $4,453 per person2 or $8,683 per household.3 In late 2008, the 102 million17 Americans with credit card debt owed an average of $5,858 per person10I or $11,248 per household.10J

Credit Card Debt: Do We Know What We Owe?

Academic papers, consumer finance surveys, and the CCP each use different methods to measure average credit card debt among credit card revolvers. Since methodologies vary, credit card debt statistics vary based on the source consulted.

MagnifyMoney surveyed these sources to present a range of credit card debt statistics.

 

Low Estimate

High Estimate

People with Credit Card Debt

110 million18A

134 million18B

Households with Credit Card Debt

55 million19

69 million20

Median Household Credit Card Debt

$2,30021

$3,50022

Average Household Credit Card Debt

$5,70023

$9,60024

MagnifyMoney Estimated Credit Card Debt per Person

$4,3515

$4,5555

Are We Paying Down Credit Card Debt?

A Pew Research Center study25 showed that Americans have an uneasy relationship with credit card debt. More than two-thirds (68 percent) of Americans believe that loans and credit card debt expanded their opportunities. And 85 percent believe that Americans use debt to live beyond their means.

Academic research shows the conflicting attitude is justified. Some credit card users aggressively pay off debt. Others pay off their bills in full each month.

However, a substantial minority (44 percent)26 of revolvers pay within $50 of their minimum payment. Minimum payers are at a high risk of carrying unsustainable credit card balances with high interest.

In fact, 14 percent of consumers have credit card balances above $10,000.27 At current rates, consumers with balances of $10,000 will spend close to $1,500 per year on interest charges alone.28

Even an average revolver will spend between $65230 and $68331 on credit card interest each year.

Credit Debt Burden by Income

Those with the highest credit card debts aren’t necessarily the most financially insecure. According to the 2016 Survey of Consumer Finances, the top 10 percent of income earners who carried credit card debt had nearly twice as much debt as average.

However, people with lower incomes have more burdensome credit card debt loads. Consumers in the lowest earning quintile had an average credit card debt of $2,100. However, their debt-to-income ratio was 13.9 percent. On the high end, earners in the top decile had an average of $12,500 in credit card debt. But debt-to-income ratio was just 4.8 percent.

Income Percentile

Median Income

Average CC Debt

CC Debt: Income Ratio

0%-20%

$15,100

$2,100

13.9%

20%-40%

$31,400

$3,800

12.1%

40%-60%

$52,700

$4,400

8.3%

60%-80%

$86,100

$6,800

7.9%

80%-90%

$136,000

$8,700

6.4%

90%-100%

$260,200

$12,500

4.8%

Although high-income earners have more manageable credit card debt loads on average, they aren’t taking steps to pay off the debt faster than lower income debt carriers. In fact, high-income earners are as likely to pay the minimum as those with below average incomes.33 If an economic recession leads to job losses at all wage levels, we could see high levels of credit card debt in default.

Generational Differences in Credit Card Use

In 2017, Generation X surpassed the baby boomer generation to have the highest credit card balances. Experian estimates that on average, Generation X has a balance of $7,750 per person, 21.94% more than the national average ($6,354). Boomers carry nearly as much as Generation X with an average balance of $7,550.

At the other end of the spectrum, millennials, who are often characterized as frivolous spenders and are too quick to take on debt, have nearly the lowest credit card balances. Their median balance clocks in at $4,315. The youngest generation, Gen Z, has the smallest average balance of $2,047 per person.34

Better Consumer Behavior Driving Bank Profitability

You may think that lower balances spell bad news for banks, but that isn’t the case. Credit card lending is more profitable than ever thanks to steadily declining credit card delinquency. Credit card delinquency is near an all-time low 7.47 percent.13

Despite better borrowing behavior, banks held interest on credit cards steady between 13% and 14%35 since 2010. Today, interest rates on credit accounts (assessed interest) is nearly 15%. This means bank profits on credit cards are at all-time highs. In 2015, banks earned over $102 billion dollars from credit card interest and fees.36 This is 15 percent more than banks earned in 2010.

How Does Your State Compare?

Using data from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York Consumer Credit Panel and Equifax, you can compare median credit card balances and credit card delinquency. You can even see how each generation in your state compares with the national median.

State

Credit Card Debt Per Debtor

Credit Card Debt Per House

Alabama

$3,710.56

$7,198.48

Alaska

$5,879.85

$11,406.91

Arizona

$4,299.70

$8,341.42

Arkansas

$3,289.01

$6,380.69

California

$4,569.51

$8,864.85

Colorado

$4,898.56

$9,503.20

Connecticut

$5,171.89

$10,033.47

Delaware

$4,338.88

$8,417.42

Florida

$4,318.35

$8,377.59

Georgia

$4,727.46

$9,171.27

Hawaii

$5,330.46

$10,341.09

Idaho

$3,791.84

$7,356.18

Illinois

$4,412.71

$8,560.65

Indiana

$3,624.05

$7,030.65

Iowa

$3,169.16

$6,148.17

Kansas

$3,854.05

$7,476.85

Kentucky

$3,457.67

$6,707.88

Louisiana

$3,767.91

$7,309.75

Maine

$3,905.56

$7,576.78

Maryland

$5,287.61

$10,257.96

Massachusetts

$4,720.53

$9,157.83

Michigan

$3,458.51

$6,709.51

Minnesota

$4,257.26

$8,259.08

Mississippi

$3,204.95

$6,217.60

Missouri

$3,763.46

$7,301.11

Montana

$3,732.83

$7,241.69

Nebraska

$3,594.46

$6,973.25

Nevada

$4,263.19

$8,270.59

New Hampshire

$4,943.44

$9,590.27

New Jersey

$5,361.06

$10,400.47

New Mexico

$4,185.93

$8,120.71

New York

$4,969.84

$9,641.50

North Carolina

$4,124.04

$8,000.63

North Dakota

$3,756.19

$7,287.00

Ohio

$3,738.95

$7,253.56

Oklahoma

$4,038.90

$7,835.47

Oregon

$3,881.17

$7,529.48

Pennsylvania

$4,209.21

$8,165.86

Rhode Island

$4,376.34

$8,490.10

South Carolina

$4,187.65

$8,124.04

South Dakota

$3,608.28

$7,000.07

Tennessee

$3,903.24

$7,572.28

Texas

$4,937.00

$9,577.78

Utah

$3,775.21

$7,323.92

Vermont

$4,199.77

$8,147.56

Virginia

$5,404.32

$10,484.38

Washington

$4,568.09

$8,862.09

West Virginia

$3,381.36

$6,559.84

Wisconsin

$3,410.29

$6,615.96

Wyoming

$3,944.72

$7,652.76

State

Delinquency Rate

Alaska

11.3%

Alabama

8.5%

Arkansas

9.1%

Arizona

10%

California

8.1%

Colorado

6.9%

Connecticut

7.3%

Delaware

10.4%

Florida

10.8%

Georgia

10.8%

Hawaii

6.5%

Iowa

6.7%

Idaho

6.9%

Illinois

7.3%

Indiana

6%

Kansas

6.5%

Kentucky

8.7%

Louisiana

10.2%

Massachusetts

6.9%

Maryland

8.5%

Maine

7%

Michigan

7.2%

Minnesota

5.3%

Missouri

12%

Mississippi

7.9%

Montana

6%

North Carolina

7.36%

North Dakota

4.22%

Nebraska

4.82%

New Hampshire

6.07%

New Jersey

7.20%

New Mexico

8.32%

Nevada

9.88%

New York

8.22%

Ohio

6.81%

Oklahoma

7.22%

Oregon

6.08%

Pennsylvania

7.05%

Rhode Island

7.06%

South Carolina

7.65%

South Dakota

5.73%

Tennessee

6.67%

Texas

7.84%

Utah

5.56%

Virginia

5.87%

Vermont

5.46%

Washington

5.36%

Wisconsin

4.47%

West Virginia

7.34%

Wyoming

6.49%

State

Silent

Boomers

Gen X

Millennials

Gen Z

Alaska

$5,456

$9,495

$8,995

$4,464


$1,518


Alabama

$3,511

$6,461

$6,485


$3,324


$1,455




Arkansas

$3,194

$5,995

$6,197


$3,240


$1,803


Arizona

$4,149

$6,967

$6,778


$3,575


$1,555


California

$4,232

$7,050

$6,578


$3,654


$1,596


Colorado

$4,004

$7,499

$7,439


$3,833



$1,514


Connecticut

$4,091

$8,179

$8,046


$3,716



$2,567


Dist. of Columbia

$5,486

$7,976

$7,393


$4,596



$2,814


Delaware

$4,147

$7,128

$7,144


$3,285



$1,608


Florida

$4,311

$7,047

$6,615


$3,639



$1,837


Georgia

$4,356

$7,517

$6,972


$3,540


$1,835


Hawaii

$4,386

$7,073

$7,355


$4,203


$1,657


Iowa

$2,367

$5,297

$6,163


$2,857


$935


Idaho

$3,477

$6,147

$6,332


$3,193


$928


Illinois

$3,641

$7,054

$7,040


$3,537


$1,556


Indiana

$3,137

$5,998

$6,174


$3,003


$1,402


Kansas

$3,187

$6,514

$6,930


$3,292


$1,421


Kentucky

$3,044

$5,727

$6,080


$3,082


$1,372


Louisiana

$3,679

$6,598

$6,561


$3,425


$1,971


Massachusetts

$3,481

$7,017

$7,022


$3,479

$1,882


Maryland

$4,341

$7,994

$7,458


$3,671


$1,749


Maine

$3,107

$6,054

$6,531


$3,375


$1,286


Michigan

$3,436

$6,049

$6,113


$2,971


$1,523


Minnesota

$3,025

$6,299

$6,898


$3,244


$1,338


Missouri

$3,265

$6,333

$6,757


$3,279


$1,346


Mississippi

$3,218

$5,634

$5,718


$3,043


$2,011


Montana

$3,285

$5,977

$6,868


$3,385


$1,506


North Carolina

$3,481

$6,566

$6,710


$3,397


$1,486


North Dakota

$2,141

$5,362

$6,646


$3,326


$1,467


Nebraska

$2,717

$5,909

$6,498


$3,136


$1,388


New Hampshire

$3,582

$7,140

$7,443


$3,519


$1,666


New Jersey

$4,126

$8,011

$7,882


$3,928


$2,241


New Mexico

$4,373

$6,906

$6,534


$3,532


$1,207


Nevada

$4,733

$6,993

$6,357


$3,700


$1,185


New York

$3,906

$7,127

$7,234


$3,986


$2,495


Ohio

$3,313

$6,383

$6,530


$3,135


$1,465


Oklahoma

$3,484

$6,789

$6,900


$3,493


$1,641


Oregon

$3,618

$6,502

$6,481


$3,245


$856


Pennsylvania

$3,282

$6,550

$7,059

$3,457


$1,545


Rhode Island

$3,524

$7,162

$7,313


$3,371


$1,786


South Carolina

$4,019

$6,537

$6,559


$3,281

$1,375


South Dakota

$2,584

$5,710

$6,900

$3,250


$1,531


Tennessee

$3,388

$6,309

$6,505


$3,308


$1,737


Texas

$4,350

$7,591

$7,119


$3,779


$1,945


Utah

$3,364

$6,411

$6,713


$3,070


$932


Virginia

$4,132

$7,956

$7,968


$3,985

$1,692


Vermont

$3,681

$6,197

$6,547


$3,297


$2,511


Washington

$3,947

$7,365

$7,190


$3,500


$1,355


Wisconsin

$2,740

$5,673

$6,289


$2,914


$992


West Virginia

$2,914

$5,573

$6,158


$3,238


$1,166


Wyoming

$3,523

$6,356

$6,889

$3,663

$1,442

Footnotes:

    1. Calculated metric using the following sources:
      1. Federal Reserve Bank of New York/Equifax Consumer Credit Panel, tabulated by the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia and Minneapolis and accessed via the Consumer Credit Explorer, % with Credit Card Debt, Accessed on January 28, 2018
      2. November 2017 Report on Household Debt and Credit, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Page 3 and Page 20, calculated metric, Accessed on January 28, 2018

Notes: 74.6% carry a credit card balancea X 268b million adults with credit reports in Q3 2017 = 199 million credit card users.

  1. November 2017 Report on Household Debt and Credit, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Page 4, Q3 2017, Accessed on January 28, 2018465 million credit card accounts. 465 million credit card accounts / 199 million credit card users1 = 2.3 credit cards per person.
  2. Calculated metric using the following sources:
    1. 2016 Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Page 35, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    2. Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards, Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, Page 50, Table 1 Summary Statistics, Accessed on January 28, 2018

    Notes: 199 million1 * 55% a (Carried debt at some point last year) = 110 million people with credit card debt.

    199 million1 * 67% (Not full payers) b = 134 million people with credit card debt.

    Average estimate is 122 million with credit card debt.

  3. Calculated Metric using the following sources:
    1. 2016 Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Page 35, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    2. Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards, Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, Page 50, Table 1 Summary Statistics, Accessed on January 28, 2018

    Notes: 199 million1 * 55% (Carried debt at some point last year) * $4,5555e in debt per person = $501 billion in debt

    194 million1 * 67% (Carried debt at some point last year) * $4,3505d in debt per person = $583 billion in debt

    Average estimated total credit card debt is $550 billion.

  4. Calculated metric using the following sources:
    1. November 2017 Report on Household Debt and Credit, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Page 3, Debt Balance Credit Card Debt Q3 2017, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    2. Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards, Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, Page 59, Table A-1 Summary Statistics by Payer Type, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    3. 2016 Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Page 35, Accessed on January 28, 2018

    Notes:

    5d- estimate of average credit card debt using Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards
    $808 billion in outstanding credit card balancesa
    Estimate that 33% pay balance in full each monthb
    Full payers carry an average balance of $3412 before paying it offb

    [$808 billion – ($3,412 (full payer balance) * 33% full payer * 199 million credit card users1)] / (199 million credit card users * (100% – 33% not full payers)) = $4,350

    5e- estimate of average credit card debt using 2016 Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households

    $808 billion in outstanding credit card balancesa
    Estimate that 45% pay balance in full each monthc
    Full payers carry an average balance of $3412 before paying it offb

    [$808 billion – ($3,412 (full payer balance) * 45% full payer * 199 million credit card users1)] / (199 million credit card users * (100% – 45% not full payers)) = $4,555

    Average estimated credit card debt per person is $4,453.

  5. Calculated metric using the following sources:Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, Table HH6 Average Population Per Household and Family: 1940 to Present, Accessed January 28, 2018Average per person credit card is $4,4535 and the average household contains 1.95 adults over the age of 18. $4,453 * 1.95 = $8,683.
  6. November 2017 Report on Household Debt and Credit, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Page 3, Debt Balance Credit Card Debt Q3 2017 and Q3 2016, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  7. Calculated metric using the following sources:November 2017 Report on Household Debt and Credit, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Page 3, Debt Balance Credit Card Debt Q3 2017, Accessed on January 28, 2018Notes: $808 billion / 199 million1 = $4,041.
  8. 2016 Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Page 35, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  9. Calculated metrics using the following sources:
    1. Federal Reserve Bank of New York/Equifax Consumer Credit Panel, tabulated by the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia and Minneapolis and accessed via the Consumer Credit Explorer, % with Credit Card Debt September 2008, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    2. November 2017 Report on Household Debt and Credit, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Page 20 and Page 3, Calculated metric, number of people with credit reports Q3 2008 Accessed on January 28, 2018
    3. November 2017 Report on Household Debt and Credit, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Page 3, Outstanding credit card balances Q3 2008, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    4. Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2008 Panel, Wave 4, US Census Bureau, Debt by Year, Table 2. Percent Holding Debt for Households, by Type of Debt and Selected Characteristics: 2009, Credit card debt, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    5. Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, Table HH6 Average Population Per Household and Family: 1940 to Present, Average number of adults per family, 2008, Accessed January 28, 2018
    6. Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards, Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, Page 59, Table A-1 Summary Statistics by Payer Type, Accessed on January 28, 2018

    Estimate G:

    76.6% of people with credit reports had balances on credit cards in September 2008a x 240 million adults with credit reports in Q3 2008b= 183 million credit card users.

    $866 billion in outstanding credit card debt in Q3 2008c
    Average balance of $3,412 for “full payers.”f
    33% full payersf

    [$866 billionc – ($3,412f (full payer balance) * 33% full payerf * 183a/b million credit card users)] / (183a/b million credit card users * (100% – 33%f not full payers)) = $5,365

    Estimate H:

    76.6% of people with credit reports had balances on credit cards in September 2008a x 240 million adults with credit reports in Q3 2008b= 183 million credit card users.

    $866 billion in outstanding credit card debt in Q3 2008c
    Average balance of $3,412 for “full payers.”d
    44.5% in debtd

    [$866 billion – ($3,412 (full payer balance) * (100% – 44.5% (estimate of full payer)) * 240 million people with credit reports)] / (240 million people with credit reports * (44.5% in debt)) = $6,352

    Estimate I:

    Average estimated credit card debt per person is $5,858.

    Estimate J:

    Average per person credit card is $5,85810I X 1.92 adults per housee = $11,248.

  10. Calculated metric using:
    1. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Real Median Household Income in the United States [MEHOINUSA672N], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/MEHOINUSA672N, Accessed January 28, 2018.
    2. Average household credit card debt Metric 6

    Credit card debt to income ratio = 8,0683b/59,039a=14.7%

  11. Calculated metric using:
    1. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Real Median Household Income in the United States [MEHOINUSA672N], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/MEHOINUSA672N, Accessed January 28, 2018.
    2. Average household credit card debt Metric 12J

    Credit card debt to income ratio = 11,248b/56,076a=20.1%

  12. November 2017 Report on Household Debt and Credit, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Page 12, % of Total Balance 90+ Days Delinquent, Credit Cards, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  13. 2016 Survey of Consumer Finances, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Table 13 16 Means Credit Card Debt, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  14. Statement balances are the balances owed to a credit card company at the end of a billing cycle. Full payers will pay off the entirety of their statement balance each month. Finding an estimate of full payers’ statement balances was not an easy task. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York does not provide estimates of full payers compared to people who carry a balance.In order to get our estimates, we turned to academic research outside of the Federal Reserve Banks. In the paper, Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards by Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, we found robust estimates of the statement balances of “full payers.” According to their analysis (see Table 1-A), full payers had mean statement balances of $3,412 (when summarized across all credit cards) before they went on to pay off the debt.We multiplied $3,412 by the estimated number of full payers to get the estimated balances of full payers.
  15. Calculated Metric using the following sources:
    1. Federal Reserve Bank of New York/Equifax Consumer Credit Panel, tabulated by the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia and Minneapolis and accessed via the Consumer Credit Explorer, % with Credit Card Debt September 2008, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    2. November 2017 Report on Household Debt and Credit, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Page 20 and Page 3, Calculated metric, number of people with credit reports Q3 2008 Accessed on January 28, 2018
    3. November 2017 Report on Household Debt and Credit, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Page 3, Outstanding credit card balances Q3 2008, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    4. Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards, Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, Page 59, Table A-1 Summary Statistics by Payer Type, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    5. Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2008 Panel, Wave 4, US Census Bureau, Debt by Year, Table 2. Percent Holding Debt for Households, by Type of Debt and Selected Characteristics: 2009, Credit card debt, Accessed on January 28, 2018

    Estimate G:
    76.6% of people with credit reports had balances on credit cards in September 2008a x 240 million adults with credit reports in Q3 2008b= 183 million credit card users.

    $866 billion in outstanding credit card debt in Q3 2008c
    Average balance of $3,412 for “full payers.”d
    33% full payers, we calculated

    $866 billionc – ($3,412d (full payer balance) * 33% full payerd * 183 million credit card usersa/b) = $659 billion

    Estimate H:
    76.6% of people with credit reports had balances on credit cards in September 2008a x 240 million adults with credit reports in Q3 2008b= 183 million credit card users.

    $866 billion in outstanding credit card debt in Q3 2008c
    Average balance of $3,412 for “full payers.”d
    44.5% full payerse

    $866 billionc – ($3,412d (full payer balance) * 44.5% full payere * 183 million credit card usersa/b) = $518 billion

    Estimate I:
    Average estimated credit card debt is $589 billion.

  16. Calculated metric using the following sources:
    1. Federal Reserve Bank of New York/Equifax Consumer Credit Panel, tabulated by the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia and Minneapolis and accessed via the Consumer Credit Explorer, % with Credit Card Debt September 2008, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    2. November 2017 Report on Household Debt and Credit, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Page 20 and Page 3, Calculated metric, number of people with credit reports Q3 2008 Accessed on January 28, 2018
    3. Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2008 Panel, Wave 4, US Census Bureau, Debt by Year, Table 2. Percent Holding Debt for Households, by Type of Debt and Selected Characteristics: 2009, Credit card debt, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    4. Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards, Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, Page 59, Table A-1 Summary Statistics by Payer Type, Accessed on January 28, 2018

    Notes:

    76.6 percent of the adult population uses credit cardsa X 240 million adults with credit reportsb = 183 million credit card users X 44.5% with debtc = 82 million with credit card debt

    76.6% of the adult population uses credit cardsa X 240 million adults with credit reportsb = 183 million credit card users X 67% with debtd = 123 million with credit card debt

    Average estimate is 102 million with credit card debt

  17. Calculated metrics using the following sources:
    1. 2016 Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Page 35, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    2. Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards, Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, Page 59, Table A-1 Summary Statistics by Payer Type, Accessed on January 28, 2018

    Notes:
    56% carrying debta x 199 million credit card users1 = 110 million in debt
    67% carrying debtb x 199 million credit card users1 = 134 million in debt

  18. Calculated metric using the following sources:
    1. Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, Table HH6 Average Population Per Household and Family: 1940 to Present, Average number of adults per family, 2008, Accessed January 28, 2018
    2. 2016 Survey of Consumer Finances, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Table 13 16, Credit Card Debt, Accessed on January 28, 2018

    43.9% of U.S. households carry credit card debtb x 126.24 million U.S. householdsa = 55.4 million households

  19. Calculated metric using the following sources:
    1. Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, Table HH6 Average Population Per Household and Family: 1940 to Present, Average number of adults per family, 2008, Accessed January 28, 2018
    2. 2016 Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Page 35, Accessed on January 28, 2018

    55% of U.S. households carry credit card debtb x 126.24 million U.S. householdsa = 69.4 million households

  20. 2016 Survey of Consumer Finances, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Table 13 16, Credit Card Debt, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  21. Do we know what we owe? Consumer debt as reported by borrowers and lenders, Meta Brown, Andrew Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, and Wilbert van der Klaauw, Federal Bank of New York Economic Policy Review, Page 27, Table 2 SCF and CCP Househohold debt by account type, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  22. 2016 Survey of Consumer Finances, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Table 13 16 Means, Credit Card Debt, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  23. Do we know what we owe? Consumer debt as reported by borrowers and lenders, Meta Brown, Andrew Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, and Wilbert van der Klaauw, Federal Bank of New York Economic Policy Review, Page 27, Table 2 SCF and CCP Househohold debt by account type, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  24. The Complex Story of American Debt, Pew Charitable Trusts, Page 9, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  25. Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards, Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, Page 59, Table 1 Summary Statistics by Payer Type, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  26. Recent Developments in Consumer Credit Card Borrowing, Graham Campbell, Andrew Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, Joelle Scally, and Wilbert van der Klaauw, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  27. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (US), Commercial Bank Interest Rate on Credit Card Plans, Accounts Assessed Interest [TERMCBCCINTNS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/TERMCBCCINTNS, January 24, 2017.November 2017 interest rate on accounts assessed interest 14.99%: $10,000 * 14.99% = $1,499.
  28. Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards, Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, Page 59, Table 1 Summary Statistics by Payer Type, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  29. $4,3505D * 14.99%28 = $652
  30. $4,5555E * 14.99%28 = $683
  31. Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards, Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, Page 59, Table 1 Summary Statistics by Payer Type, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  32. 2017 State of Credit Report”, Experian, Accessed January 28, 2018
  33. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (US), Commercial Bank Interest Rate on Credit Card Plans, Accounts Assessed Interest [TERMCBCCINTNS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/TERMCBCCINTNS, Accessed January 28, 2018
  34. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Sources of Revenue: Credit Card Income from Consumers for Credit Intermediation and Related Activities, All Establishments, Employer Firms [REVCICEF522ALLEST], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/REVCICEF522ALLEST, September 7, 2017.
  35. Calculated Metric using the following sources:
    1. State Level Household Debt Statistics 1999-2016, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, population, Accessed January 28, 2018
    2. State Level Household Debt Statistics 1999-2016, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Credit card balance per capita, Accessed January 28, 2018
    3. Federal Reserve Bank of New York/Equifax Consumer Credit Panel, tabulated by the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia and Minneapolis and accessed via the Consumer Credit Explorer, % with credit card debt, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    4. Minimum Payments and Debt Paydown in Consumer Credit Cards, Benjamin J. Keys and Jialan Wang, Page 59, Table 1 Summary Statistics by Payer Type, Accessed on January 28, 2018
    5. 2016 Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Page 35, Accessed on January 28, 2018

    Notes:
    Total credit card balance of state= Per capita credit card balancesb x State populationa
    Number of credit credit card users= Populationa x % carrying credit card balancesc
    Balance of transactors= $3,412d X 45%e X Populationa x % carrying credit card balancesc
    Population carrying credit card debt= 55%e X Populationa

    Average credit card balance = (Total Credit Card Balance of state – Balance of Population Not Carrying Debt) / Population Carrying Credit Card Debt

  36. Federal Reserve Bank of New York/Equifax Consumer Credit Panel, tabulated by the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia and Minneapolis and accessed via the Consumer Credit Explorer, % With Severely Delinquent Credit Card Debt, Accessed on January 28, 2018
  37. Federal Reserve Bank of New York/Equifax Consumer Credit Panel, tabulated by the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia and Minneapolis and accessed via the Consumer Credit Explorer, Credit Card balance by age, Accessed on January 28, 2018

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Hannah Rounds is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Hannah here

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Featured

This Place Sure Has Changed: Which Cities Have Changed the Most?

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

A MagnifyMoney analysis looks at a decade of data to determine which communities are undergoing dynamic transformations, and which are standing still.

The cities that have changed the most in 10 years

“This place has changed” is a refrain you often hear from a city’s longtime residents. But change is a curious, inconstant thing; as some communities undergo great transformations, others seem frozen in time.

MagnifyMoney looked at nine elements of local change from 2006-2016 among the 50 largest metros in the United States, creating a Change Score (0-100) for each. The score factors in such measures as the changes in commute times, income, house prices, crime rates, building permits and more.

Change isn’t necessarily a good or bad thing. Big growth in commute times and rents can be negative, but they can also be a function of positive developments like job and income growth. Similarly, places without as much change could be more attractive to people working their way up the salary ladder or those retirees on fixed incomes, offering more affordable housing and less congestion.

But change often brings underlying challenges to the forefront, prompting communities to make tough calls on things that could hamper positive transformations going forward, like diversification of industries, infrastructure investment and tax policy.

MagnifyMoney is highlighting these places to encourage discussion in communities dealing with rapid change.

  1. Austin, Texas (90.4). Austin is a magnet for change, with the fastest job growth in the nation (+40% since 2006), 60% of residents moving since 2010, and a 54% rise in house prices since 2006, the most of the 50 metros ranked. Relatively lower living costs than tech centers like the San Francisco Bay Area and Seattle, along with a combination of satellite offices of larger tech companies, a burgeoning startup scene and no state income tax all contribute to Austin’s change leadership. The lowest-ranked element of Austin growth, building permits (No. 25 of 50), explains some of the outsize housing price appreciation.
  2. Dallas-Fort Worth (89.7). Dallas isn’t tops for change in any of the nine categories we looked at, but it ranks high because it’s in the top 10 for five categories, and ranks no lower than No. 19 (growth in rent, at 31% since 2006) for any single category. Dallas-Fort Worth’s top rank is for the decline in its crime rate, No. 4 (and down 43% from 2006).
  3. Houston (86.2). Houston rounds out the trio of big Texas cities at the top of the change list, led by housing factors. It ranks No. 2 for house price appreciation, at 38% from 2006, and No. 3 for building permit expansion. It lags on crime rate change (-27% from 2006), on which it ranked  No. 23 of 50 metros.
  4. Nashville, Tenn. (84.8). Ranking fifth in the nation for employment growth (24%) and building permit expansion, Nashville is the most changed city outside Texas in our ranking. In all, 53% of Nashville residents report moving since 2010, and median nominal income is up 26% from 2006. More challenging, median rent growth has far outpaced income growth, up 38% since 2006.
  5. Tie: Portland, Ore., and Denver (83.9).  Income, rent and commute times are where Portland ranks highest for change. Portland’s median rent of $1,158 a month is up 52% from 2006, while median income is up 31%, an impressive figure, but one that leaves many stretched in the face of rapidly rising rents. Commute times are up 12% on average from 10 years ago. As for Denver, its story is one of rising housing costs outpacing big job growth.  It ranks No. 2 for rent increases of 60% and No. 3 for house price increases of 35% in 10 years. Employment growth of 23% ranked No. 6, while income growth of 31% also ranked No. 6 of the 50 metros examined.

Places that changed the least

  1. Birmingham, Ala. (61.1) Birmingham ranks in the bottom half of change for all nine metrics we analyzed, and notably lags in employment growth, at 3% in the 10 years between 2006 and 2016. House prices, a double-edged sword, are down 2% from their 2006 level as of 2016, while commute times are identical to levels seen at the start of the 10-year period.
  1. Milwaukee (61.7) Milwaukee also lags in employment growth, at 4% in 10 years, but it’s one of the few areas where rent growth hasn’t significantly outpaced income growth, with median rent up 19% in 10 years (while incomes rose 15% over the same period).
  1. New Orleans (63.4) While New Orleans is third from the bottom in terms of change, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, it has made big progress in one key metric; employment is up 30% since 2006, giving this city a No. 3 ranking among the 50 largest metros for growth. Where it lags is in metrics where too much change is a negative: rent growth and commute-time growth. Median rent in the New Orleans area is up 17% in 10 years, ranking No. 48 out of 50, while commute times are up just 1%, ranking No. 47.

What about the tech-heavy Bay Area?

With the rapid growth of tech companies in the last decade or so, there is some expectation that San Francisco and San Jose, the two metros that comprise the greater Bay Area, would rank higher on change than Nos. 24 and 10, respectively.

They are ranked Nos. 1 and 2, respectively, on income, Nos. 2 and 1 on commute-time growth, and Nos. 5 and 1 on rent growth, indicating significant shifts. The median income in San Francisco, the Peninsula, Marin and East Bay is up 37% in 10 years, while in the South Bay (San Jose) it’s up 36%, both leading the metros in our ranking.

Meanwhile, commute times increased 18% across both the San Francisco and San Jose metros, also ranked No. 1 of 50 metros, on top of already high levels of congestion from the peak of the last business cycle.

But house prices, while setting records and sitting among the most expensive in the country, have not grown as much over 10 years as other metros like Dallas, Houston, and Austin, which had less of a run-up during the housing boom of the mid-2000s.

San Jose ranked No. 20 for house price growth since 2006, while San Francisco ranked No. 47, using an index that accounts for all communities in the metro, not just desirable suburbs and neighborhoods that have seen outsize appreciation.  And crime rates have not declined as rapidly in the Bay Area as in other parts of the country, further limiting change rankings, with San Francisco ranking No. 44 for change in its crime rate.

Ranking Highlights

Commute times

% change in commute times, 2006 – 2016

  1. San Francisco +18%
  2. San Jose + 18%
  3. Los Angeles +12%
  4. Boston +12%
  5. Portland +12%

Employment

Employment change, 2006 – 2016

  1. Austin +40%
  2. Raleigh +32%
  3. New Orleans +30%
  4. San Antonio +29%
  5. Nashville +24%

Income

Median income change, 2006 – 2016

  1. San Francisco +37%
  2. San Jose +36%
  3. Austin +34%
  4. Oklahoma City +31%
  5. Portland +31%

House prices

House price index change, 2006 – 2016

  1. Austin +54%
  2. Houston +38%
  3. Denver +35%
  4. Las Vegas -34%
  5. Dallas +32%

Rent

% change in median rent, 2006-2016

  1. San Jose +68%
  2. Denver +60%
  3. Seattle +55%
  4. Portland +52%
  5. San Francisco +49%

Recent moves

% of residents who moved into their residence in 2010 or later

  1. Las Vegas 66%
  2. Phoenix 61%
  3. Austin 60%
  4. Orlando 58%
  5. Denver 56%

Median age

Change in median age of residents, 2006 – 2016

  1. Riverside, Calif. +3.4 years
  2. Phoenix +2.8 years
  3. Sacramento, Calif. +2.6 years
  4. Detroit +2.4 years
  5. Los Angeles +2.3 years

Methodology

We looked at nine factors to assess change, including:

  • Commute times — the percentage change in average commute times reported for each metro area in the U.S. Census American Community Survey, released in September 2017 and covering 2006-2016.
  • Building permits — The number of residential building permits issued, 2007-2016, as a percentage of the 2006 base of households, using data from the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
  • Median age — The change in median age of residents, 2006-2016, via the American Community Survey.
  • Employment — The percentage change in people employed from 2006-2016, via the American Community Survey.
  • Income — The percentage change in nominal median household income, 2006-2016, via the American Community Survey.
  • House prices — The percentage change in the nominal house price index, 2006-2016, via the Federal Housing Finance Agency.
  • Rent  — The percentage change in median rent from 2006 – 2016, via the American Community Survey.
  • Crime rate — The percentage change in the crime rate from 2006-2016, via the Federal Bureau of Investigation  Uniform Crime Reporting program.
  • Recent moves — The percentage of residents who moved into their current residence in 2010 or later, via the American Community Survey.

Ranks for each of the nine factors were evenly weighted to create a Change Score for each metro, from 0-100, with 100 representing the top score.

 

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College Students and Recent Grads, Featured, Investing, News, Retirement

Where the Wealthiest Millennials Stash Their Money

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

There’s been much talk about millennials being fearful of the stock market. They did, after all, live through the financial crisis, and many are shouldering record levels of student loan debt, while grappling with rising fixed costs.

The truth is that historically, young people have always shied away from investing. A whopping 89% of 25- to 35 year-old heads of household surveyed by the Federal Reserve in 2016 said their families were not invested in stocks. That’s only two percentage points higher than the average response since the Fed began the survey in 1989.

MagnifyMoney analyzed data from the 2016 Survey of Consumer Finances, conducted by the the Federal Reserve, to determine exactly how older millennials — those aged 25 to 35 — are allocating their assets.

In 2016, wealthy millennial households, on average, owned assets totaling more than $1.5 million. That is nearly nine times the assets of the average family in the same age group — $176,400. Included were financial assets (cash, retirement accounts, stocks, bonds, checking and savings deposits), as well as nonfinancial ones (real estate, businesses and cars).

While the wealth of each group was spread across just about every type of asset, the biggest difference was in the proportions for each category.

To add an extra layer of insight, we compared the savings habits of the average millennial household to millennial households in the top 25% of net worth. We also took a look at how the average young adult manages his or her assets to see how they differ in their approach.

Millennials and the stock market

Despite significant differences in income, we found that both sets of older millennial households today (average earners and the top 25% of earners) are investing roughly the same share of their financial assets in the market – about 60%.

Among the top 25% of millennial households, those with brokerage accounts hold more than 37% of their liquid assets, or about $224,000, in stocks and bonds and an additional 26%, or $154,000, in retirement accounts. Meanwhile, just over 14% of their assets are in liquid savings or checking accounts.

By comparison, the average millennial household with a brokerage account invests a little over $10,000 in stocks and bonds, or 22% of their total assets, and they reserve about 21% of their assets in checking or savings accounts.

Millennial households invest most heavily in their retirement accounts, accounting for around 38% of their financial assets, although they have only saved $18,800 on average.

Wealthy millennials carry much less of their wealth in checking and savings, compared with their peers. Although wealthier families carry eight times more in savings and checking than the average family — $84,000 vs. $10,300 — that’s just roughly 14% of their total assets in cash, while for the ordinary young family that figure is around 20%

The Fed data show that those on the top of the earnings pyramid are able to save far more for the future, even though they’re at a relatively early stage of their careers.

Across the board, older millennial families hold the greatest share of their financial assets in their retirement accounts. Although that share of retirement savings is smaller for wealthier millennial families (26% of their financial assets, versus 38% for the average older millennial family), they have saved far more.

When looking at the median amount of retirement savings versus the average, a more disturbing picture emerges, showing just how little the average older millennial family is saving for eventual retirement.

The median amount of money in higher earners’ retirement account is $90,000 (median being the middle point of a number set, with half the available figures above it and half below). But the median amount is $0 for the typical millennial family, meaning that at least half of millennial-run households don’t have any retirement savings at all.

Millennials and their nonfinancial assets

Most of millennial households’ wealth comes from physical assets, such as houses, cars and businesses.

While nearly 60% of young families don’t own houses today, the lowest homeownership rate since 1989, homes make up the largest share of the family’s nonfinancial assets, Fed data show.

For the average-earning older millennial family, housing represents more than two-thirds of the value of its nonfinancial assets — 66.4%. On average, this group’s homes are valued at $84,000.

The homes of rich millennial households are worth 4.6 times more, averaging $470,000 — though they represents a lower share of total nonfinancial assets — 50%.

Cars are the second-largest hard asset for the average young family to own, accounting for about 14% of nonfinancial assets.

While rich millennials drive fancier cars than their peers — prices are 2.4 times that of average millennials’ cars — their $42,000 car accounts for just 4.5% of their nonfinancial asset. In contrast, they stash as much as 31% of their asset in businesses, 20 percentage points higher than the ordinary millennial.

It’s worth noting that young adults in general are not into businesses. A scant 6.3% of young families have businesses, the lowest percentage since 1989, according to the Fed data. (Among those that do have them, the businesses represent just over 11% of their total nonfinancial assets.)

The student debt gap

Possibly the starkest example of how wealthy older millennials and their ordinary peers manage their finances can be seen in the realm of student loan debt.

A significant chunk of the average worker’s household debt comes in the form of student loans, making up close to 20% of total debt and averaging $16,000. In contrast, the wealthiest cohort carries about $2,000 less in student loan debt, on average, and this constitutes just about 4.6% of total debt.

With less student debt to worry about, it’s no surprise wealthier millennial families carry a larger share of mortgage debt. About 76% of their debt comes from their primary home, to the tune of $233,500, on average. This is 4.5 times the housing debt of a typical young homeowner.

In some cases, the top wealthy have another 11% or so of their total debt committed to a second house, something not many of their less-wealthy peers would have to worry about — affording even a first home is more of a struggle.

When is the right time to start investing?

For many millennials the answer isn’t whether or not it’s wise to save for retirement or invest for wealth but when to start. Generally, paying off high interest debts and building up a sufficient emergency fund should come first. Once those boxes are ticked, how much young workers invest depends on their tolerance for risk and their future financial goals.

“It’s never too much as long as you’ve got money for the emergency fund, and as long as they are funding their other goals not through debt,” says Krista Cavalieri, owner and senior advisor at Evolve Capital in Columbus, Ohio.

The biggest mistake that Cavalieri has seen among her young clients is that very few have been able to establish an emergency fund that will cover at least three to six months’ worth of living expenses.

Kelly Metzler, senior financial advisor at the New York-based Altfest Personal Wealth Management, said older millennials may not be able to save outside of retirement accounts yet, which can be a concern if they want to buy a house or have other large purchases or unexpected expenses ahead.

Cavalieri said that’s because young adults’ money is stretched thin by the varies needs in their lives and the lifestyle they keep.

“Their hands are kind of tied at where they are right now,” she said. “Everyone could clearly save more, but millennials are dealing with large amounts of debt. A lot of them are also dealing with the fact that the lack of financial education put that in that personal debt situation.”

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Featured, Mortgage, News

U.S. Mortgage Market Statistics: 2017

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Homeownership rates in America are at all-time lows. The housing crisis of 2006-2009 made banks skittish to issue new mortgages. Despite programs designed to lower down payment requirements, mortgage originations haven’t recovered to pre-crisis levels, and many Americans cannot afford to buy homes.

Will a new generation of Americans have access to home financing that drove the wealth of previous generations? We’ve gathered the latest data on mortgage debt statistics to explain who gets home financing, how mortgages are structured, and how Americans are managing our debt.

Summary:

  • Total Mortgage Debt: $9.9 trillion1
  • Average Mortgage Balance: $137,0002
  • Average New Mortgage Balance: $244,0003
  • % Homeowners (Owner-Occupied Homes): 63.4%4
  • % Homeowners with a Mortgage: 65%5
  • Median Credit Score for a New Mortgage: 7546
  • Average Down Payment Required: $12,8297
  • Mortgages Originated in 2016: $2.065 trillion8
  • % of Mortgages Originated by Banks: 43.9%9
  • % of Mortgages Originated by Credit Unions: 9%9
  • % of Mortgages Originated by Non-Depository Lenders: 47.1%9

Key Insights:

  • The median borrower in America puts 5% down on their home purchase. This leads to a median loan-to-value ratio of 95%. A decade ago, the median borrower put down 20%.10
  • Credit score requirements are starting to ease somewhat The median mortgage borrower had a credit score of 754 from a high of 781 in the first quarter of 20126
  • 1.24% of all mortgages are in delinquency. In 2009, mortgage delinquency reached as high as 8.35%.11

Home Ownership and Equity Levels

In the second quarter of 2017, real estate values in the United States surpassed their pre- housing crisis levels. The total value of real estate owned by individuals in the United States is $24 trillion, and total mortgages clock in at $9.9 trillion. This means that Americans have $13.9 trillion in homeowners equity.12 This is the highest value of home equity Americans have ever seen.

However, real estate wealth is becoming increasingly concentrated as overall homeownership rates fall. In 2004, 69% of all Americans owned homes. Today, that number is down to 63.4%.4 While home affordability remains a question for many Americans, the downward trend in homeownership corresponds to banks’ tighter credit standards following the Great Recession.

New Mortgage Originations

Mortgage origination levels show signs of recovery from their housing crisis lows. In 2008, financial institutions issued just $1.4 trillion of new mortgages. In 2016, new first lien mortgages topped $2 trillion for the first time since the end of the housing crisis, but mortgage originations were still 25 percent lower than their pre-recession average.8 So far, 2017 has proved to be a lackluster year for mortgage originations. Through the second quarter of 2017, banks originated just $840 billion in new mortgages.

 

As recently as 2010, three banks (Wells Fargo, Bank of America, and Chase) originated 56 percent of all mortgages.13 In 2016, all banks put together originated just 44 percent of all loans.9

In a growing trend toward “non-bank” lending, both credit unions and nondepository lenders cut into banks’ share of the mortgage market. In 2016, credit unions issued 9 percent of all mortgages. Additionally, 47% of all mortgages in 2016 came from non-depository lending institutions like Quicken Loans and PennyMac. Behind Wells Fargo ($249 billion) and Chase ($117 billion), Quicken ($96 billion) was the third largest issuer of mortgages in 2016. In the fourth quarter of 2016, PennyMac issued $22 billion in loans and was the fourth largest lender overall.9

Government vs. Private Securitization

Banks tend to be more willing to issue new mortgages if a third party will buy the mortgage in the secondary market. This is a process called loan securitization. Consumers can’t directly influence who buys their mortgage, but mortgage securitization influences who gets mortgages and their rates. Over the last five years government securitization enterprises, FHA and VA loans, and portfolio loan securitization have risen. However, private loan securitization which constituted over 40% of securitization in 2005 and 2006 is almost extinct today.

Government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) have traditionally played an important role in ensuring that banks will issue new mortgages. Through the second quarter of 2017, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac purchased 46% of all newly issued mortgages. However, in absolute terms, Fannie and Freddie are purchasing less than in past years. In 2016, GSEs purchased 20% fewer loans than they did in the years leading up to 2006.8

Through the second quarter of 2017, a tiny fraction (0.7%) of all loans were purchased by private securitization companies.8 Prior to 2007, private securitization companies held $1.6 trillion in subprime and Alt-A (near prime) mortgages. In 2005 alone, private securitization companies purchased $1.1 trillion worth of mortgages. Today private securitization companies hold just $490 billion in total assets, including $420 billion in subprime and Alt-A loans.14

As private securitization firms exited the mortgage landscape, programs from the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) have filled in some of the gap. The FHA and VA are designed to help borrowers get loans despite having smaller down payments or lower incomes. FHA and VA loans accounted for 23 percent of all loans issued in 2016, and 25 percent in the first half of 2017. These loan programs are the only mortgages that grew in absolute terms from the pre-mortgage crisis. Prior to 2006, FHA and VA loans only accounted for $155 billion in loans per year. In 2016, FHA and VA loans accounted for $470 billion in loans issued.8

Portfolio loans, mortgages held by banks, accounted for $639 billion in new mortgages in 2016. Despite tripling in volume from their 2009 low, portfolio loans remain down 24% from their pre-crisis average.8

Mortgage Credit Characteristics

Since banks are issuing 21% fewer mortgages compared to pre-crisis averages, borrowers need higher incomes and better credit to get a mortgage.

The median FICO score for an originated mortgage rose from 707 in late 2006 to 754 today. The scores on the bottom decile of mortgage borrowers rose even more dramatically from 578 to 648.6

Despite the dramatic credit requirement increases from 2006 to today, banks are starting to relax lending standards somewhat. In the first quarter of 2012, the median borrower had a credit score of 781, a full 27 points higher than the median borrower today.

In 2016, 23% of all first lien mortgages were financed through FHA or VA programs. First-time FHA borrowers had an average credit score of 677. This puts the average first-time FHA borrower in the bottom quartile of all mortgage borrowers.8

Prior to 2009, an average of 20% of all volumes originated went to people with subprime credit scores (<660). In the second quarter of 2017, just 9% of all mortgages were issued to borrowers with subprime credit scores. Who replaced subprime borrowers? The share of mortgages issued to borrowers people with excellent credit (scores above 760) doubled. Between 2003 and 2008 just 27% of all mortgages went to people with excellent credit. In the second quarter of 2017, 54% of all mortgages went to people with excellent credit.6

Banks have also tightened lending standards related to maximum debt-to-income ratios for their mortgages. In 2007, conventional mortgages had an average debt-to-income ratio of 38.6%; today the average ratio is 34.3%.15 The lower debt-to-income ratio is in line with pre-crisis levels.

LTV and Delinquency Trends

Banks continue to screen customers on the basis of credit score and income, but customers who take on mortgages are taking on bigger mortgages than ever before. Today a new mortgage has an average unpaid balance of $244,000, according to data from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.3

The primary drivers behind larger loans are higher home prices, but lower down payments also play a role. Prior to the housing crisis, more than half of all borrowers put down at least 20%. The average loan-to-value ratio at loan origination was 82%.10

Today, half of all borrowers put down 5% or less. More than 10% of borrowers put 0% down. As a result, the average loan-to-value ratio at origination has climbed to 87%.10

Despite a growing trend toward smaller down payments, growing home prices mean that overall loan-to-value ratios in the broader market show healthy trends. Today, the average loan-to-value ratio across all homes in the United States is an estimated 42%. The average LTV on mortgaged homes is 68%.16

This is substantially higher than the pre-recession LTV ratio of approximately 60%. However, homeowners saw very healthy improvements in loan-to-value ratios of 94% in early 2011. Between 2009 and 2011 more than a quarter of all mortgaged homes had negative equity. Today, just 5.4% of homes have negative equity.17

Although the current LTV on mortgaged homes remains above historical averages, Americans continue to manage mortgage debt well. Current homeowners have mortgage payments that make up an average of just 16.5% of their annual household income.18

Mortgage delinquency rates stayed constant at their all-time low (1.24%). This low delinquency rate came following 30 straight quarters of falling delinquency, and are well below the 2009 high of 8.35% delinquency.11

Today, delinquency rates have fully returned to their pre-crisis lows, and can be expected to stay low until the next economic recession.

Sources:

  1. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households and Nonprofit Organizations; Home Mortgages; Liability, Level [HHMSDODNS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HHMSDODNS September 28, 2017.
  2. Survey of Consumer Expectations Housing Survey – 2017,” Credit Quality and Inclusion, from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Accessed June 22, 2017.
  3. Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, “Average Loan Amount, 1-4 family dwelling, 2015.” Accessed June 22, 2017.
  4. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Homeownership Rate for the United States [USHOWN], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/USHOWN, September 28, 2017. (Calculated as percent of all housing units occupied by an owner occupant.)
  5. “U.S. Census Bureau, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates,” Mortgage Status, Owner-Occupied Housing Units. Accessed September 28, 2017.
  6. Quarterly Report on Household Debt and Credit August 2017.” Credit Score at Origination: Mortgages, from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and Equifax Consumer Credit Panel. Accessed September 28, 2017.
  7. Calculated metric:
    1. Down Payment Value = Home Price* Average Down Payment Amount (Average Unpaid Balance on a New Mortgageb / Median LTV on a New Loanc) * (1 – Median LTV on a New Loanc)
    2. Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, “Average Loan Amount, 1-4 family dwelling, 2015.” Accessed September 28, 2017. Gives an average unpaid principal balance on a new loan = $244K.
    3. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, September 2017.” Page 17, Median Combined LTV at Origination from the Urban Institute, Urban Institute, calculated from: Corelogic, eMBS, HMDA, SIFMA, and Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff.
  8. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, September 2017.” First Lien Origination Volume from the Urban Institute. Source: Inside Mortgage Finance and the Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff.
  9. Mortgage Daily. 2017. “Mortgage Daily 2016 Biggest Lender Ranking” [Press Release] Retrieved from https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2017/04/03/953457/0/en/Mortgage-Daily-2016-Biggest-Lender-Ranking.html.
  10. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, September 2017.” Combined LTV at Origination from the Urban Institute, Urban Institute, calculated from: Corelogic, eMBS, HMDA, SIFMA, and Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff. Accessed September 28, 2017
  11. Quarterly Report on Household Debt and Credit August 2017.” Mortgage Delinquency Rates, from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and Equifax Consumer Credit Panel. Accessed September 28, 2017.
  12. Calculated metric: Value of U.S. Real Estatea – Mortgage Debt Held by Individualsb
    1. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households; Owner-Occupied Real Estate including Vacant Land and Mobile Homes at Market Value [HOOREVLMHMV], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HOOREVLMHMV, September 28, 2017.
    2. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households and Nonprofit Organizations; Home Mortgages; Liability, Level [HHMSDODNS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HHMSDODNS, September 28, 2017.
  13. Mortgage Daily, 2017. “3 Biggest Lenders Close over Half of U.S. Mortgages” [Press Release]. Retrieved from http://www.mortgagedaily.com/PressRelease021511.asp?spcode=chronicle.
  14. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, September 2017” Size of the US Residential Mortgage Market, Page 6 and Private Label Securities by Product Type, Page 7, from the Urban Institute Private Label Securities by Product Type, Urban Institute, calculated from: Corelogic and the Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff. Accessed September 28, 2017
  15. Fannie Mae Statistical Summary Tables: April 2017” from Fannie Mae. Accessed June 22, 2017; and “Single Family Loan-Level Dataset Summary Statistics” from Freddie Mac. Accessed June 22, 2017. Combined debt-to-income ratios weighted using original unpaid balance from both datasets.
  16. Calculated metrics:
    1. All Houses LTV = Value of All Mortgagesc / Value of All U.S. Homesd
    2. Mortgages Houses LTV = Value of All Mortgagesc / (Value of All Homesd – Value of Homes with No Mortgagee)
    3. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households; Owner-Occupied Real Estate including Vacant Land and Mobile Homes at Market Value [HOOREVLMHMV], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HOOREVLMHMV, September 28, 2017.
    4. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households and Nonprofit Organizations; Home Mortgages; Liability, Level [HHMSDODNS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HHMSDODNS, September 28, 2017.
    5. U.S. Census Bureau, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Aggregate Value (Dollars) by Mortgage Status, September 28, 2017.
  17. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, September 2017.” Negative Equity Share, Page 22. Source: CoreLogic and the Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff. Accessed September 28, 2017
  18. Survey of Consumer Expectations Housing Survey – 2017,” Credit Quality and Inclusion, from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Accessed September 28, 2017.

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Hannah Rounds
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Featured

How to Raise a Kid You Won’t Have to Cut Off in 20 Years

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Source: iStock

Today’s young people are more likely than previous generations to live with their parents, according to a 2017 analysis from the Pew Research Center. In 2016, 15 percent of 25- to 35-year-olds lived in their parents’ home, compared to 10 percent of Gen Xers in 2000.

Even when kids move out, it’s not uncommon for them to receive financial support from their parents. In fact, 62 percent of Americans age 50 and older gave a relative money in the last five years, with the largest sums often going to adult children, according to a 2017 Merrill Lynch retirement study.

Parents may not find those statistics encouraging, but the good news is there are ways to teach kids how to be financially responsible, and it involves raising the bar by asking kids to do more in the way of financial responsibilities. Studies have shown that when more is expected of a child (or anyone), they actually perform to that level of expectation. The same can be said of how they deal with money.

Don Roork, a Certified Financial Planner at AssetDynamics Wealth Management, has noticed a pattern with kids, adults and money. “Kids learn good money habits from just watching and being around their parents,” says Roork.

Roork also points out that money lessons aren’t always explicit verbal lectures on finance. “Kids watch mom and dad making good financial decisions, and voilà — the kids’ money behavior matches their parents’,” says Roork.

So when it comes to raising financially independent adults, it becomes clear that it’s important to start when they are kids. Here are some ways personal finance experts recommend easing your children — gently and kindly — into financial adulthood by weaning them from the family wallet.

Set expectations

As soon as your child begins asking for things like toys, restaurant meals or trips to the movie theater, they are ready to learn about the money it takes to support these wants. When a child expresses a desire for something beyond the basics, start the conversation then and there about how they’ll soon be responsible for these “luxury items.”

Of course, you don’t have to start charging them rent (not a bad idea, though), but you will want to follow up your expectations with actions.

For example, if your family goes out to eat, your child can pay for their meal or contribute to a portion of the bill. These expenses can be age appropriate and should increase over time as your child earns more money. They can start with things like snacks at the movies and move up to cellphone bills and car insurance.

Financial adviser Jamie Pomeroy of Financial Gusto says this should all start with communication: “Sitting down with your child and having a clear and frank conversation about who’s paying for what, can pay huge dividends.”

Another good exercise would be to show them prices on things they’ll need as adults, like a home or a car. Molding their expectations around what it takes to live will only help them down the road.

To drive this point home, Pomeroy suggests laying out a real plan designed to increase financial responsibility. “Make sure that you and your child are on the same page about what expenses they are responsible for, what you’ll continue to pay for (for now), and then introduce them to a budget to help them manage those expenses,” he says.

Create a reward system

Get-out-of-debt guru Dave Ramsey warns against giving kids an allowance and instead recommends that money given to a child should be tied to actions, like completing chores or other household projects. The idea is to get kids ready for the real world by emulating it with a system of compensation tied to work.

CFP Jeff Rose of Good Financial Cents says, “One of the first steps in teaching your kids financial independence is giving them responsibilities around the home that are both paid and unpaid.”

Ramsey is also a proponent of giving children the opportunity to earn more money in “commissions” when they find extra things to do or take initiative in solving problems around the house.

Teach them personal finance

Many kids are shocked when they get into the real world and finally begin grasping the finite nature of money. Mom and Dad spring for everything, so why would money ever run out?

Clint Haynes, CFP of NextGen Wealth, says there’s a fix for this. “Make it a point to sit down with your kids and show them what your budget looks like, how it works, and why it truly is the foundation to personal finance,” he says.

When your child asks for candy at the store, don’t deflect them with, “We don’t have the money.” Instead, let them know that the money you have available isn’t earmarked for candy, showing them how a budget works in real life.

Other lessons you can teach early on include those around saving, compound interest and even giving.

Brian Hanks, a CFP out of Idaho, has an experiment he urges his clients to conduct with their children once they are high school seniors. He suggests parents hand over their checkbook and have their kid cover all the family’s expenses for the entire school year.

“Paying a family’s bills is eye-opening, and your teen starts to develop new money habits,” Hanks says.

Let them earn real money

You can start by giving your kids an allowance that is tied to performance: completing chores, excelling in school, and having a good attitude can factor into their “compensation.” Be sure to enforce the association between what they do and how they are compensated. Once they can work legally, you can taper off their allowance.

Ed Snyder, CFP at Oaktree Financial Advisors, says children who have jobs will be more thoughtful about their spending and better with money in general. “Working will help them think through their spending and hopefully be more responsible,” he says.

Keep in mind kids don’t always have to wait until they are 16 to get a job. They can start a business or participate in gigs that allow kids under 16 to work with a permit, like modeling or acting.

Challenge them

Not only should your kids be responsible for expenses and make their own money, Eric Jansen of AspenCross Wealth Management says kids should be challenged in their money habits.

“Set up 90-day savings and spending challenges as a fun way to help them better understand and manage the trade-offs between spending money on what they want and what they need,” Jansen says.

No-spend or savings challenges are great ways to teach lessons about money while showing your child what they are capable of if they focus on their goals.

You can even create competitions among siblings, like seeing who can save the most money.

Trust the process

Sound like a lot of work? It is! Financial independence doesn’t happen overnight.

“Some of these [money] lessons may click sooner in some kids than in others — even within the same family,” says Snyder. “Don’t give up hope. … Just keep showing them good examples and teaching them good old-fashioned financial lessons.”

Be patient, be kind, and be confident that the lessons you are teaching them will serve them well into adulthood.

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Featured

6 Bad Money Habits That Could Wreck Your Finances — and How to Break Them

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Bad spending habits — everyone has at least one of them. Maybe for you it’s adding “just one more thing” to your shopping cart, or repeatedly getting slapped with overdraft or late payment fees.

These bad habits may seem innocuous at first but could easily turn into financial self-sabotage.

“Breaking a habit like these can be really difficult because these habits have developed over the years, and they provide us with psychological comfort and safety,” says Thomas Oberlechner, founder and Chief Science Officer at FinPsy, a San Francisco-based consulting firm that integrates behavioral expertise into financial services and products.

Oberlechner says the key to overcoming a bad money habit lies in knowing when you’re using the impulsive, right side of your brain — as opposed to the focused, concentrated left side — in financial decision-making.

“It’s really about psychological experience. It’s about behavior. If we understand the role of emotion, then we have a chance to fix it,” Oberlechner says.

Once you understand yourself and can identify your bad habit, Oberlechner adds, then you can create a plan “that turns your impulsive or unconscious behavior into the healthy financial behavior that [you] actually want.”

Of course, breaking any bad habit is easier said than done.

MagnifyMoney spoke to financial professionals to hear how they and their clients broke their bad habit. See if any of their hacks could help you break yours.

Bad money habit #1: Spending money as soon as you get it

The solution: Automation

If you’re constantly feeling broke just a few days after you receive a paycheck, you may be guilty of this bad money habit. One way to make sure you hold onto some of your cash is to use what the behavioral finance community calls a “commitment device” to lock you into a course of action you wouldn’t choose on your own, like saving your money.

In this case, the device is automation. Automating your savings won’t help you stop siphoning money from your checking account the same day your direct deposit clears, but it can make sure you save what you need to first. Check with your bank or the human resources department at work to have a portion of your paycheck automatically sent to a savings account instead of putting the entire sum in your checking account.

You should automate your bills and credit card payments for the pay period, too. Once your obligations are automated, “you can be impulsive with your play money,” says Oberlechner.

Bad money habit #2: Reaching for your credit card all the time

The solution: A cash diet

Paying for everything you buy with a credit card can be good practice if you pay off your card every month. If you’re chronically swiping your credit card for things you can’t afford to pay off by the next billing cycle, leave your card at home and use cash instead.

When you don’t pay off your card each billing cycle, you rack up interest charges on everyday purchases, and that may cost you a lot more money in the long run. If you’re using more than 30 percent of your total credit limit each month, you may also be harming your credit score.

To break your habit, leave your credit card at home and use cash or a debit card for your purchases.

“Take a certain amount of cash and say ‘I can spend no more than that,’” says Vicki Bogan, an associate professor at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., who researches behavioral finance. “If you have a huge [spending] problem, try to limit yourself so that you only have access to a certain amount of money.”

If you really want to challenge yourself, you can try going on what’s called a spending freeze, where you stop spending any money on non-essentials for a period of time. On top of helping you save money, the freeze can help you notice how much money you may be wasting simply because you’re always pulling out your credit card. After your freeze ends, you may be less inclined to swipe your credit card.

Another rule that could help you break your swiping habit is the $20 rule. The financial rule of thumb is simple: Anytime your purchase is less than $20, pay in cash, not credit. The $20 rule forces you to think about whether or not a purchase is worth swiping your card for. Chances are, if what you’re buying costs less than $20, it’s not something you’d be OK paying interest on.

Bad money habit #3: Spending beyond your means

Solution: Budgeting

If you chronically spend beyond your means each pay period, you are likely digging yourself into debt. Get a handle on this habit by understanding how much money you have coming in and how much you can afford to spend on a monthly basis. You can use budgeting apps like Mint or YNAB to make that part easier. These tools can also help you identify the spending categories that are costing you more than you might realize.

Oak Brook, Ill.-based certified financial planner Elizabeth Buffardi tells MagnifyMoney that after examining one of her client’s expenses she found the client was spending a lot of money at drugstores picking up snacks and little things after work. So the client gave herself a budget of $10 per drugstore visit to save money.

“We’ve been seeing her spending at drugstores go down steadily over the last few months,” says Buffardi.

Buffardi had two other clients who struggled with overspending because they loved to shop online. They both created boundaries for themselves when it came time to pay for the items in their online shopping carts. One client decided to buy a certain amount of gift cards that she could use on a given site.

“If she spent all the gift cards in the first day, then she was done until the next paycheck. If she wanted something that was more expensive than the amount she had on the gift cards, she had to hold off on other purchases in order to purchase the more expensive item,” says Buffardi.

The other client simply removed her credit card number from her payment profiles so it would be more difficult to make thoughtless purchases. Her theory, Buffardi tells MagnifyMoney, was that if she was forced to stop and pull out her credit card before she could make the purchase, it might slow her down and give her time to think about the purchase she is about to make and — maybe — stop some purchases from happening.

Bad money habit #4: Always buying lunch from a restaurant

The solution: Plan your lunches a week in advance

If you’re losing $10-$15 a day to the local deli during the workweek, remember this: You don’t have to buy lunch if you bring it to work with you. However, organizing your day so that you actually have time to prepare and pack your lunch may be where you struggle.

Leave room in your busy schedule to pack your lunch in the mornings, or during the evening when you may have more time to yourself.

Melville, N.Y.- based certified financial planner David Frisch says he packs his lunches in the evening because he knows he runs late in the morning. He puts together everything but the dressings and sauces he plans to eat while making dinner, so lunch is already 90% done, then he adds the last 10 percent in the morning.

Frisch suggests setting a budget for how much you’d like to spend on food per pay period, then tracking how much money you typically spend on the convenience of frequently going out to lunch. Again, a budgeting app can be handy here to easily identify places where you spend the most.

Compare that amount to how much you spend on food for entertainment purposes, like going out to dinner with friends over the weekend and for your necessities, like eating lunch to fuel your workday.

“If you are spending so much money on convenience, you have that much less money to spend on everything else,” says Frisch. If you’re spending money from your food budget for convenience purposes, you may be more reluctant to go out on Saturday night for dinner.

If you’re already packing your lunch, but purchase a second lunch because you’re still hungry or you no longer want to eat what you packed, try packing a larger meal or having leftovers for a second lunch.

Bad money habit #5: Ordering out for dinner because you’re too tired to cook

The solution(s): Prep when you have time/energy; try meal delivery services

It’s easy to spend more than $50 getting dinner delivered three to four days out of the week, or buying groceries that go to waste because you’re too tired to cook. Oberlechner suggests doing some of the “work” of making dinner when you know you have more energy.

“If you’re too tired to cook in the evening, replace the spontaneous behavior by preparing dinner in the morning. So in the evening you don’t have the work of preparing anything,” he tells MagnifyMoney.

Another hack Oberlechner suggests is making a little extra dinner for the days you know will be especially long, when you won’t want to cook dinner. For example, if you know Tuesday is a really long day but Monday is not, cook a little extra on Monday and have those leftovers for dinner on Tuesday.

If cooking dinner simply isn’t a habit for you, you can try a meal kit service like Blue Apron, Plated, or HelloFresh to get interested in cooking, suggests Brooklyn, N.Y.- based certified financial planner Pamela Capalad. She tells MagnifyMoney she’s advised many of her clients to sign up for a meal kit service, then transition into grocery shopping and cooking at home regularly.

Generally, the services cost about $10 to $15 per serving and can serve up to four people.

Bad money habit #6: Letting your kids throw extra things in your shopping cart

The solution(s): Shop solo or lay ground rules early

Frisch says he and his wife solved this problem with their now 15-year-old triplets when they were four years old.

“Up until they were four we couldn’t bring them to a supermarket because it was impossible for my wife and I to watch three kids at the same time,” says Frisch. The easiest recommendation, he says, is to have somebody watch them at home while you go do the shopping. You may spend some money on a sitter, but you are also saving money without an eager child sneaking candy and toys into your shopping cart as well.

If an extra set of hands at home isn’t available, then try to set ground rules before you go to the store. For Frisch, that meant allowing the triplets to get one — just one — extra item at the store.

When a child wanted to add something “extra” to the cart, Frisch or his wife would say, “If you want this now, then you have to put the other one back.”

“Ultimately what happened was they kind of had to make a decision as to which one they would really get,” says Frisch.

The triplets quickly realized they could all benefit from working together.

“They actually started to communicate and say ‘if you get this and I get this, we can share,’” Frisch told MagnifyMoney. “They just figured out that if they all got one thing and shared, they ultimately all got more than they would have.

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Featured, Health

6 Career Strategies for People Who Are Coping With Depression

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Source: iStock

Jana Lynch was 27 years old when she was formally diagnosed with depression. The illness wasn’t severe enough for her to start seeking regular treatment until eight years later, when a panic attack at work sparked a series of events that changed her career — and her finances — forever.

At the time, Lynch was working full-time for a social service agency. “Not only was my anxiety and depression through the roof, making it hard to get out of bed, concentrate on tasks, meet deadlines, communicate with coworkers, and remember meetings, but the nature of my job made it a dangerous environment for my mental health at the time,” she says.

Rather than resign outright, she decided to take a four-month leave on short-term disability. A break, she thought, might help. But when the time came to return to work, the same issues began to surface again. In the end, she chose her mental health over working full time.

“Looking back, it was a terrible choice because of the impact on my long-term personal finances,” she says. “But in the moment, it was the best decision for me and my family.”

Lynch’s story is not unique. In a 2004 study that followed workers over the course of six months, researchers found workers with depression dropped out of the workforce at a rate of 12 percent compared to only 2 percent of their peers.

While depression may force affected workers out of active employment at higher rates, it is also true that those who become unemployed are more likely to show signs of depression — three times more likely, according to a 2010 NIH study.

Thomas Richardson, a leading researcher at Solent NHS Trust, one of the largest community providers in the UK’s National Health System, notes that there is most definitely a correlation between unemployment and depression, but that causation is not as easy to pin down.

“In research such as this it’s always a case of chicken and egg: Which came first?” he says. “A lot of research is only at one time point, so it’s hard to say which came first.”

Some research shows losing your job impacts depression because it makes it hard to cope financially, but other studies suggest it has little impact.

“I think it probably works both ways and is a vicious cycle,” Richardson continues. “Someone becomes depressed, struggles at work, and loses their job. This then exacerbates their depression further.”

6 Strategies to Manage Depression and Work

Abigail Perry, author of Frugality for Depressives, had already been formally diagnosed with depression as a part of a bipolar disorder when unrelated chronic fatigue forced her out of traditional employment.

“I thought I’d be nothing but a burden for the rest of my life,” says Perry. “I wondered who would ever want someone who couldn’t pull her own weight financially, and I became suicidal. A lot of therapy and medication management doctor visits later, I finally started believing that I might have worth despite not being able to work.”

Those struggling with balancing their career and depression need not lose hope.

Richardson notes that many are able to develop coping strategies, allowing themselves to stay in the workplace. He’s developed six key strategies that his research has revealed to be helpful to workers with depression.

1. Intentionally look for work you enjoy.

“Try and do a job you enjoy or are interested in,” Richardson encourages. “If not possible, then try and focus on those bits of your job you do enjoy.”
Allyn Lewis, lifestyle blogger and storytelling strategist from Pittsburgh, Pa., has learned this technique through the course of building her business.

Diagnosed with a depression that was further fueled by her father’s suicide when she was a teen, Lewis never truly entered the traditional workforce, but has found self-employment to suit her disability.

Her motivating enjoyment comes from the community-based aspect of her business.

“Telling my story and talking openly about my anxiety, depression, and the loss of my dad is what keeps me active in my career,” says Lewis, 26. “That might sound strange, but when I keep my mental health journey to myself, it feels like it’s all about me. And if I’m having a down day, week, or month, what’s it matter if I do the work or get the things done? But, by talking about my mental health and using my own story to raise awareness, it makes it something that’s much bigger than myself.”

2. Don’t push yourself too hard.

“Don’t push yourself too hard at work,” says Richardson. “Acknowledge when you are struggling. It’s best to slow down early on than to keep going until you crash.”

Lewis learned this lesson through experience.

“Back in the day when I owned my own public relations firm, I would take on any client, under any circumstance, for any amount of money, and I’d make any accommodation or request they asked for. I ended up overbooked, underpaid, and at a point that was way beyond burnt out,” Lewis says.

“I kept trying to push my anxiety and depression aside to pretend like it wasn’t getting in the way, but the best thing I ever did was starting to tune into what my mental health was telling me. Only then was I able to shift into a business model that worked for me.”

3. Ask for help — and know your rights.

Richardson recommends going to your manager or supervisor for access to resources when your symptoms become too much to bear. If you work at a larger company, it may be more appropriate to get in touch with your human resources department.

This can seem intimidating, as you don’t want to give your superiors any reason to question your work ethic or your ability to provide value to the company.

But Perry, who now works full time in a remote position, notes that depression is covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). This means your employer cannot fire you because of your disability — in this case, depression — and that they have to provide reasonable accommodations in order to allow you to do your job.

“Even if you don’t ask for accommodations, you need to make it clear that your absences or other work difficulties are based on a real medical condition,” Perry says. “Imagine being a supervisor with an employee who takes a lot of sick days, or may be easily agitated by interpersonal interaction or additional stress. In a vacuum, that’s a problem employee. Understanding the context, that’s someone who is doing their best to be a good employee despite a disability.”

4. Keep a healthy perspective on your career goals.

“It’s easy in a career to focus on goals, but this makes you vulnerable to depression,” says Richardson. “If you don’t get that promotion it might really impact you and lead to self-critical thoughts which fuel depression.”
He recommends instead harkening back to why you enjoy your work and the current position you’re in.

Lynch, who currently works as a freelance writer and editor, relates to the depression that can be felt when career expectations aren’t met.
“I try hard not to get angry at myself if I didn’t do as much as I’d like, or if my inbox isn’t bursting with inquiries,” says Lynch, “which is hard to deal with when you like to work and tie your work to your self-worth. But depression makes it difficult to look for clients. It’s a horrible, vicious cycle that I deal with only by telling myself this is temporary. It will get better at some point.”

5. Nurture hobbies and social contacts.

Lynch and Lewis both note exercise as a way of sustaining a healthy hobby. Lewis teaches yoga, and Lynch regularly attends a gym. While not the primary goal, a side effect of going to the gym or studio happens to be spending time with other people of similar interests.

Nurturing hobbies and maintaining social contacts are important from Richardson’s research — even if doing so initially feels overwhelming.

6. Practice mindfulness.

Finally, Richardson recommends practicing mindfulness, even when you’re not in the throes of depression. Emerging research suggests that mindfulness may not only alleviate depression, but could prevent relapses.

Richardson has produced a free mindfulness resource, which can be accessed here.

Depression and Your Finances

Career and finance often go hand in hand, so it’s no surprise that the ripple effects of depression can often extend into your finances as well.

By understanding and confronting these challenges head-on, there are strategies you can use to protect your finances as you learn to manage depression.

In a recent study published in the British Psychological Society’s Clinical Psychology Forum, Richardson studied people with bipolar disorder as they were going through a depressive episode. During these episodes, he found four key ways that their finances suffered.

Missing bills

Lynch notes that before she set up automatic payments, she would have trouble remembering pay upcoming bills. She’d get her statements, but ignore them. This led to unnecessary costs like late fees.

Richardson’s study finds that this behavior is typical for depressives. It found that missing bills was a financial manifestation of avoidant coping behaviors. In order to avoid being late on charges you may not know or remember exist, it’s important to get in the habit of confronting  through that pile of mail as you establish the habit of paying through automation.

Poor planning

“It can be harder to keep track of your finances when things get tough,” relates Perry. “Monitoring spending, keeping up with due dates — it’s exhausting even in good conditions. If you spend more because of depression, or if you simply don’t keep as close of an eye on things, your budget could take a big hit.”

Perry’s insights are congruent with Richardson’s findings. Those with depression have a harder time completing tasks like budgeting because planning ahead is made more difficult. The study also revealed that rational thinking and the ability to remember past purchases in order to log them into a spreadsheet were impaired.

Comfort spending

Perry says that when you’re depressed, you’re more likely to get caught up in comfort spending.

“This could be anything from convenience or junk food, which adds up, or going out for drinks, dinner, or entertainment. Alternately, you may be more likely to spend money on things that you think will make you happy or comforted — from convenience gadgets to home décor to clothes.”
Richardson adds the example of being overly generous with one’s family as an example of comfort spending.

Compounding anxiety

Richardson’s study finds that financial stress compounds anxiety and depression. This stress leads to more dire mindsets, like extreme anxiety and hopelessness.

“As a business owner, there’s always so much pressure around profit,” says Lewis. “Even when you’re up, you never know how long it will last, so you have to keep hustling. When I’m going through a period of depression, this puts me in a cycle of ‘I’m never making enough,’ which is a thought that likes to pair itself with ‘I’m not good enough.’ Depression has a sneaky way of switching my mindset from one of abundance to one of scarcity.”

Lewis’s reports of low self-worth are also common, according to Richardson’s work. Self-criticism over “economic inactivity” was detected in study participants.

Seeking Mental Health Care

Source: iStock

For help developing more coping strategies or getting resources that can help you manage your depression, consider seeking out mental health care services.

“I think all depressives — especially ones who aren’t on medications — should have therapists,” says Perry. “It may take a few tries to find someone you work well with, but then that person will be a great lifeline. Therapists can help you deal with the things that depression makes harder with strategies, workarounds, or just working through past events that are contributing to or causing your current depression.”

Therapy and medication management specialists can be expensive, though. Many regions in America face a shortage of mental health care providers, and the matter is further complicated when you consider that some providers may be out-of-network, bringing copays up even if you are currently insured.

Related article: 5 ways to find lower the cost of therapy

If you can’t figure out how to fit these services into your budget, seek out therapists who offer sliding-scale payment options based on your income. Another affordable resource is public mental health care clinics, though their availability may be limited.

If you have insurance and don’t immediately need medication, keep in mind that a mental health care professional may not have an M.D. or Ph.D. after their name. Licensed Clinical Social Workers (LCSWs) and other counselors often accept insurance and are able to provide therapy, referring you out to a psychiatrist for prescription needs when necessary.

Lynch did seek therapy and go on medication for a while, though she now leans on other coping mechanisms such as avoiding triggers and exercising regularly.

“I recommend it if you feel you need it,” she says. “There is no shame in getting whatever kind of help you need.”

Today, Lynch operates from a place of acceptance. Depression is a part of her life that she has learned to deal with. While she doesn’t categorize herself as what we would consider classically “happy,” she does consider herself to be as content as possible, and actively seeks out happiness within her circumstances.

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Featured, Life Events, News

How to Get ‘Unstuck’ From Your Starter Home

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Source: iStock

Andrew Cordell bought his first home at the worst possible time — 10 years ago, right before the housing bubble burst.

He’s not going to make that mistake again.

“We had immediate fear put in us as homeowners,” says Cordell, 40. “We know how dangerous this can be.”

So the small “starter home” he purchased in Kalamazoo, Michigan back in 2007 now feels just about the right size.

“When we bought, we figured we’d get another home in a few years,” he says. “But the more we settled, the more we thought, ‘Do we really need more space?’ We don’t actually need a large chest freezer or a large yard. Kalamazoo has a lot of parks.”

Apparently, plenty of homeowners feel the same way.

It’s a phenomenon some have called “stuck in their starter homes.” Bucking a decades-long trend, young homeowners aren’t looking to trade up — they’re looking to stay put. Or they are forced to.

According to the National Association of Realtors, “tenure in home” — the amount of time a homebuyer stays — has almost doubled during the past decade. From the 1980s right up until the recession, buyers stayed an average of about six years after buying a home. That’s jumped to 10 years now.

Expected Median in Tenure in Home
Source: 2017 National Association of Realtors® Home Buyer and Seller Generational Trends

 

Other numbers are just as dramatic. In 2001, there were 1.8 million repeat homebuyers, according to the Urban Institute. Last year, there were about half that number, even as the overall housing market recovered. Before the recession, there were generally far more repeat buyers than first-timers. That’s now reversed, with first-time buyers dwarfing repeaters, 1.4 million to 1 million.

This is no mere statistical curiosity. Trade-up buyers are critical to a smooth-functioning housing market, says Logan Mohtashami, a California-based loan officer and economics expert. When starter homeowners get gun-shy, home sales get stuck.

“Move-up buyers are especially important … because they typically provide homes to the market that are appropriate for first-time buyers,” he says. When first-timers stay put, the share of available lower-cost housing is squeezed, making life harder for those trying to make the jump from renting to buying.

Getting unstuck from your starter home

There are plenty of potential causes for this stuck-in-a-starter-home phenomenon — including the fear Cordell describes, families having fewer children, fast-rising prices, and flat incomes. But Mohtashami says the main cause is a hangover from the housing bubble that has left first-time buyers with very little “selling equity.”

Buyers need at least 28 to 33 percent equity to trade into a larger home, and often closer to 40 percent, he says. Those who bought in the previous cycle might have seen their home values recover, but many purchased with low down payment loans, leaving them still equity poor.

That wasn’t such a problem before the recession, as lenders were happy to give more aggressive loans to trade-up buyers. Not any more.

“In the previous cycle you had exotic loans to help demand. Now you don’t. [That’s why] tenure in home is at an all-time high,” Mohtashami says. “Even families having kids aren’t moving up as much.”

Fast-rising housing prices don’t help the trade-up cause either. While homeowners would seem to benefit from increases in selling price, those are washed away by higher purchase prices, unless the seller plans to move to a cheaper market.

“You’re always trying to catch up to a higher priced home,” Mohtashami says.

Cassandra Evers, a mortgage broker in Michigan, says she’s seen the phenomenon, too.

“It’s not for lack of want. It seems to be the inability to afford the cost of the new home,” she says. “It’s not the interest rate that’s the problem, obviously because those are at historic lows and artificially low. It’s because to buy a ‘bigger and better house,’ that house costs significantly more than their current home. The cost of housing has skyrocketed.”

U.S. Homebuyers and Student Loan Debt (by Age)
Source: 2017 National Association of Realtors® Home Buyer and Seller Generational Trends

There’s also the very practical problem of timing. In a fast-rising market, where every home sale is competitive, it’s easy to lose the game of musical chairs that’s played when a family must sell their home before they can buy a new one.

“Folks are concerned about selling their current house in one day and being unable to find a suitable replacement fast enough,” Evers says.

Cordell, who lives with his wife and eight-year-old son, says the family considered a move a few years ago and briefly looked around. But they quickly concluded that staying put was the right choice.

“We looked at some homes and we thought, ‘I guess we could afford that. But we don’t want to be house broke’,” he says. “We don’t want to take on so much debt that ‘What else are we able to do?’ What if one of us loses our job? I guess you could say we have a Depression-era sensibility. … Who would want to get upside down on one of these things?”

The Urban Institute says this stuck-in-starter-home problem shows a few signs of abating recently. Repeat buyers were stuck around 800,000 from 2013 to 2014. Last year, the number pierced 1 million. But that’s still far below the 1.5 million range that held consistently through the past decade.

There are other signs that relief might be on the way, too. ATTOM Data Solutions recently released a report saying that 1 in 4 mortgage-holders in the U.S. are now equity rich — values have risen enough that owners hold at least 50 percent equity, well above Mohtashami’s guideline. Some 1.6 million homeowners are newly equity rich, compared to this time last year, and 5 million more than in 2013, ATTOM said.

“An increasing number of U.S. homeowners are amassing impressive stockpiles of home equity wealth,” says Daren Blomquist, senior vice president at ATTOM Data Solutions.

So perhaps pent-up repeat homebuying demand might re-emerge. Evers isn’t so sure, however.

“Most folks I talked with are no longer interested in being house poor and maxing out their debt to income ratios. They seem to be staying put and shoving money into their retirement accounts,” Evers says.

The Cordells are content where they are in Kalamazoo and plan to stay long term. If anything would make them move, it’s not growing home equity but a growing family.

“If we ended up with a second (kid), I suppose we’d have to look,” Cordell mused. “But we have no plans for that.”

4 Signs You’re Ready to Trade Up Your Home

  • YOU’VE GOT PLENTY OF EQUITY: Your home’s value has risen enough that you safely have at least 28 percent equity and, preferably, more like 35 to 40 percent.
  • YOU’RE EARNING MORE: Your monthly take-home income has risen since you bought your first home by about as much as your monthly payments (mortgage, interest, insurance, taxes, condo fees, etc.) would rise in a new home.
  • YOU STAND TO MAKE A HEALTHY PROFIT: You are confident that if you sell your home, you’d walk away from closing with at least 30 percent of the price for your new home — or you can top up your seller profits to that level with cash you’ve saved for a new down payment. That would let you make a standard 20 percent down payment and have some left over for surprise repairs and moving costs that will come with the new place. Remember, transaction costs often surprise buyers and sellers, so be sure to build them into your calculations.
  • YOU CAN HANDLE THE RISK: You have the stomach for the game of musical chairs that comes with selling then buying a home in rapid succession. Also, if you are in a hot market, you have extra cash to outbid others or a place for your family to stay in case there’s a time gap between selling and buying.



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Bob Sullivan
Bob Sullivan |

Bob Sullivan is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Bob here

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