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Investing

What Is Preferred Stock?

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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Investing is one of the best ways to grow your nest egg — and one of the only ways to make more money without logging extra hours at work.

But it also can be pretty confusing. Once you figure out what the stock market is and how it works, you still have to learn about the different types of assets out there. You’ll also want to do your research before you make any purchases.

Even if you feel fairly confident about investing in stocks, you may not realize that these basic securities actually come in two different flavors: common and preferred.

So what is preferred stock, and why would you consider investing in it? Read on to learn more about this unique asset category and the benefits that make it attractive to some investors.

Preferred stock vs. common stock

In many ways, preferred stock and common stock are the same. In both cases, you purchase a small “share” of ownership in the company, which has the potential to create profit based on the success of the enterprise.

But as the name suggests, preferred stock owners enjoy preferential treatment in some regards. Although they may not be eligible to vote on shareholder issues like those who own common stock, they’re paid fixed dividends on a regular basis — and they’re paid immediately after bonds but before common stock.

That means buying preferred stock puts you at a lower level of risk since your dividends outrank common shareholders’ if the company should fail or endure major losses. Of course, that pendulum swings in both directions: Since the dividends on preferred stocks don’t fluctuate with the company’s market value, you may miss out on higher earnings if the company should see a sweeping success.

You can think about preferred stock as a kind of hybrid between common stock — which is the stock you’re probably thinking about when you talk about the market — and fixed-interest securities like bonds. Preferred stock offers a way to invest in equity that provides some of the same security as other fixed-interest securities. However, preferred stocks generally offer higher growth potential than bonds do, and in many cases, they can be held indefinitely (as opposed to the predefined, shorter-term lifespans of most bonds).

 Common StockPreferred Stock
Dividend PayoutDecided by boardPaid at regular intervals
Dividend AmountDetermined by profitability of company/market performanceFixed dividend amount that may respond to changes in interest rate
Voting Privileges for ShareholdersLikelyUnlikely or reduced
Callability (Issuer Can Recall)NoYes
Par ValueNoYes
RiskinessModerate to highHigher than bonds but lower than common stock
Growth PotentialHighHigher than bonds but potentially lower than common stock

Pros and cons of preferred stock

Like any other prospective investment, preferred stock comes with both benefits and drawbacks to consider before you add it to your portfolio.

Benefits of preferred stock

  • Predictability. Preferred stock is paid on a regular basis and often at a fixed dividend rate, which means you’ll have a better idea of what to expect as far as returns are concerned than you might with common stock.
  • Less vulnerability to market volatility. Although preferred stocks’ fixed dividend rates can respond to changing interest levels, these securities have a face value, sometimes known as a “par value,” like bonds. Unlike common stocks, their worth is not determined by market fluctuations.
  • More security in the case of insolvency. Because preferred stock dividends are paid before those of common stocks, you’ll be in a better position to recoup your losses should the company you’re investing in fail.

Drawbacks of preferred stock

  • Reduced or nonexistent voting rights. Unlike common stocks, preferred stocks may not come with voting rights for shareholders — or may confer only reduced voting privileges.
  • Less exponential growth potential. Although you generally know what you’re getting in return for your investment in preferred stock, your growth potential usually is capped at the predefined dividend payout. In the case of an outstanding success, you might have earned more if you’d purchased common stock.
  • In many cases, the issuer has the right to recall or redeem preferred stock at a preset price after a certain amount of time. This is known as “callability” and can create unexpected shifts in your long-term investing strategy.

When is preferred stock advantageous?

As you can see, preferred stock inhabits a bit of a gray area. It’s usually not considered as safe as a bond and doesn’t offer quite as much earning potential as common stock.

So when is it a good idea to choose this hybrid option?

  • Investing in preferred stock might be a good option for those who have a low risk tolerance but still would like to see greater returns than those available through bonds.
  • Preferred stock can create a source of steady income, which can be attractive to investors with higher cash-flow needs or a shorter investment horizon.
  • Preferred stock can add another layer of diversification to your portfolio, which can help your investments withstand market fluctuations and dips.

However, it’s important to keep in mind that preferred stock is a more advanced sort of investment than common stock or even bonds — which is why it’s purchased less frequently than common stock, said Malik S. Lee, certified financial planner at Felton & Peel Wealth Management.

Although the differences we’ve outlined above hold true generally, preferred stocks vary considerably in their individual features, which means it’s extra important to do your research before you make an investment. For example, not all preferred stocks are callable, but some are; dividends might be cumulative (i.e. stackable if one is deferred) or noncumulative.

In short, “they’re complicated,” as Lee put it. “Each preferred stock will have different characteristics to it. You’ve really got to dive into the prospectus and look into what you’re buying.”

Should you invest in preferred stock?

Ultimately, the only person who can decide if preferred stocks are right for your investment portfolio is you. (Although talking with a qualified financial advisor probably wouldn’t hurt, either.)

If you do decide to invest in preferred stocks, you’ll purchase them the same way you would common stocks or other securities: through a brokerage firm, which may levy certain trading and commissions costs at the time of purchase. To learn how to get started, check out our step-by-step guide to investing for beginners.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Jamie Cattanach
Jamie Cattanach |

Jamie Cattanach is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Jamie here

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Investing

Should You Pay Off Debt or Save Your Money?

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

You have a regular source of income, you’re paying your bills on time and you have some extra dollars left over each month. What should you do with that extra cash?

If you don’t have debt (lucky you!), then the choice is simple — save or invest as much as possible. If you have debt, however, the choice can be a bit murkier: Should you pay off your debt first or save? Here are some things to consider when asking yourself that question.

Three times that saving your money might be smarter

1. If you don’t have an emergency savings fund

Just when you’re cruising along, life can throw some unexpected and expensive curves your way. A sudden job loss, medical bills or car repairs can pop up out of the blue, and if you don’t have the funds to pay for them, you can end up seriously in the red. To cover unexpected costs, some may resort to high-interest credit cards and loans. Those kinds of moves can dig you into a financial hole that can take years to pay your way out of.

Saving up a healthy emergency fund can protect you in instances like these. How much should you save? Experts generally suggest that you should save an amount equal to between three and six months of living expenses. Depending on your individual circumstances, however, you may need more than that. (Check out this article to figure out how much to save and where to keep it.)

2. Your employer offers matching retirement contributions

If you’re fortunate enough to work for a company that offers a retirement plan with matching contributions, then consider making that method of saving a priority.

For example, if your employer offers to match your contributions dollar-for-dollar up to 6% of your salary in a 401(k) plan, then contribute at least that much, if possible. The money can then grow in a tax-free or tax-deferred 401(k) until you withdraw it in retirement — all that compound interest can really add up over the years. If you don’t contribute up to that amount, you’re leaving free money on the table.

Note, however, that If you need to withdraw these funds early (before the age of 59 and a half and before the account is five years old) there will be penalties to pay. That makes this a better tool for long-term savings rather than for the short-term or as an emergency savings fund.

3. Your debt has a very low interest rate

Debt gets a bad rap — often for good reason — but in some cases, carrying your low-interest debt and investing or saving your funds instead may be more beneficial. For example, the current fixed interest rate for direct subsidized and unsubsidized student loans is 5.05%, and the average 30-year fixed mortgage rate is about 4.3%. The stock market, on the other hand, has gone up an average of 10% a year since 1926.

Beyond comparing interest rates, however, you also need to assess how much risk you’re willing to take and how much access to your savings that you’ll need. Of course, there are no guarantees that your investments will perform well, and paying down debt comes with zero risk. Savings accounts are a less risky saving option, but the average interest rate is often less than 1 or 2%. Other options, such as individual retirement accounts (IRAs), have restrictions on how the funds can be used outside of retirement.

Four times debt repayment may be more beneficial

1. You have high-interest debt

It’s hard to get ahead of high-interest debt, because compound interest is working against you. Credit card interest rates, for example, average between 15 and 20% — an amount which adds up quickly. If you make the minimum payment, you may not even be making a dent in the principal amount owed, and you can spend years just paying interest. Calculators like this one can help you figure out just how much interest you’ll pay and how long it will take to pay off.

If you have high-interest debt, make sure you explore all the options for paying it down, including consolidating your debt and researching balance transfer cards.

2. Your debt doesn’t offer any benefits

Though your debt is costing you in interest, you might find that some loans may offer useful perks. For example, federal student loans may offer tax benefits and even loan forgiveness programs for eligible borrowers. Similarly, there are tax write-offs for mortgages and in many cases, the money you invest in a home will pay off down the line when you sell your property.

On the other hand, the debt on the credit card you maxed out to pay for that trip to Cabo comes with no benefits — just a bunch of interest. High-interest debt with no benefits should be at the top of your pay-off priority list.

3. You want to raise your credit score

While there are many factors that go into determining your credit score, the amount of debt you carry is an important component. If you plan to buy a home or secure a loan in the near future, take a look at your debt-to-income ratio (DTI), which many lenders consider before approving you for a loan. If your DTI is high, you may want to consider paying off some debt before applying for that new loan, which may result in lower interest rates for you later.

4. Your debt stresses you out

Debt can take an emotional and physical toll on people, ranging from depression to insomnia and more. When it feels like a black cloud hanging over your head and it’s affecting your life in negative ways, it may be in your best interest to prioritize paying debt off first.

Should you pay off debt or save?

Of course, saving vs. paying off debt early doesn’t have to be an either/or situation — ideally, you can do both at the same time. If, however, a choice must be made between the two, there are many factors to consider. As with most financial moves, there are no cut-and-dry rules, and the best one for you will depend on your individual circumstances.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Julie Ryan Evans
Julie Ryan Evans |

Julie Ryan Evans is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Julie here

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How to Make Money in Stocks

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Putting money in the market is well-worn financial advice for a reason: Investing in stocks is one of the best steps you can take toward building wealth.But how, exactly, is that wealth built? How is money earned by purchasing stock market holdings, and what can you do to maximize the gains you make from your own portfolio?

How to make money in stocks: 5 best practices

The way the stock market works — and works for you — is as simple as a high school economics class. It’s all about supply and demand, and the way those factors affect value.

Investors purchase market assets like stocks (shares of companies), which increase in value when the company does well. As the company in question makes financial progress, more investors want a piece of the action, and they’re willing to pay more for an individual share.

That means that the share you paid for has now increased in price, thanks to higher demand — which in turn means you can earn something when it comes time to sell it. (Of course, it’s also possible for stocks and other market holdings to decrease in value, which is why there’s no such thing as a risk-free investment.)

Along with the profit you can make by selling stocks, you can also earn shareholder dividends, or portions of the company’s earnings. Cash dividends are usually paid on a quarterly basis, but you might also earn dividends in the form of additional shares of stock.

Micro-mechanics of how stocks earn money aside, you likely won’t see serious growth without heeding some basic market principles and best practices. Here’s how to ensure your portfolio will do as much work for you as possible.

1. Take advantage of time

Although it’s possible to make money on the stock market in the short term, the real earning potential comes from the compound interest you earn on long-term holdings. As your assets increase in value, the total amount of money in your account grows, making room for even more capital gains. That’s how stock market earnings increase over time exponentially.

But in order to best take advantage of that exponential growth, you need to start building your portfolio as early as possible. Ideally, you’ll want to start investing as soon as you’re earning an income — perhaps by taking advantage of a company-sponsored 401(k) plan.

To see exactly how much time can affect your nest egg, let’s look at an example. Say you stashed $1,000 in your retirement account at age 20, with plans to hang up your working hat at age 70. Even if you put nothing else into the account, you’d have over $18,000 to look forward to after 50 years of growth, assuming a relatively modest 6% interest rate. But if you waited until you were 60 to make that initial deposit, you’d earn less than $800 through compound interest — which is why it’s so much harder to save for retirement if you don’t start early. Plus, all that extra cash comes at no additional effort on your part. It just requires time — so go ahead and get started!

2. Continue to invest regularly

Time is an important component of your overall portfolio growth. But even decades of compounding returns can only do so much if you don’t continue to save.

Let’s go back to our retirement example above. Only this time, instead of making a $1,000 deposit and forgetting about it, let’s say you contributed $1,000 a year — which comes out to less than $20 per week.

If you started making those annual contributions at age 20, you’d have saved about $325,000 by the time you celebrated your 70th birthday. Even if you waited until 60 to start saving, you’d wind up with about $15,000 — a far cry from the measly $1,800 you’d take out if you only made the initial deposit.

Making regular contributions doesn’t have to take much effort; you can easily automate the process through your 401(k) or brokerage account, depositing a set amount each week or pay period.

3. Set it and forget it — mostly

If you’re looking to see healthy returns on your stock market investments, just remember — you’re playing the long game.

For one thing, short-term trading lacks the tax benefits you can glean from holding onto your investments for longer. If you sell a stock before owning it for a full year, you’ll pay a higher tax rate than you would on long-term capital gains — that is, stocks you’ve held for more than a year.

While there are certain situations that do call for taking a look at your holdings, for the most part, even serious market dips reverse themselves in time. In fact, these bearish blips are regular, expected events, according to Malik S. Lee, CFP® and founder of Atlanta-based Felton & Peel Wealth Management.

So-called market corrections are healthy, he said. “It shows that the market is alive and well.” And even taking major recessions into account, the market’s performance has had an overall upward trend over the past hundred years.

4. Maintain a diverse portfolio

All investing carries risk; it’s possible for some of the companies you invest in to underperform or even fold entirely. But if you diversify your portfolio, you’ll be safeguarded against losing all of your assets when investments don’t go as planned.

By ensuring you’re invested in many different types of securities, you’ll be better prepared to weather stock market corrections. It’s unlikely that all industries and companies will suffer equally or succeed at the same level, so you can hedge your bets by buying some of everything.

5. Consider hiring professional help

Although the internet makes it relatively easy to create a well-researched DIY stock portfolio, if you’re still hesitant to put your money in the market, hiring an investment advisor can help. Even though the use of a professional can’t mitigate all risk of losses, you might feel more comfortable knowing you have an expert in your corner.

How the stock market can grow your wealth

Given the right combination of time, contribution regularity and a little bit of luck, the stock market has the potential to turn even a modest savings into an appreciable nest egg.

Ready to get started investing for yourself? Check out the following MagnifyMoney articles:

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Jamie Cattanach
Jamie Cattanach |

Jamie Cattanach is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Jamie here

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