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A Guide to Cash-Out Refinancing

Editorial Note: The content of this article is based on the author’s opinions and recommendations alone. It has not been previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any of our network partners.

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Sometimes you need a little extra money to help with life’s big expenses, such as college tuition, home improvements or medical debt. A cash-out refinance on your mortgage allows you to leverage the equity in your home to get the cash you need. Keep reading to learn more about what cash-out refinancing is, how it works and how to make this process work for you.

How a cash-out refinance works

Normally, when you refinance your mortgage, you take out a new loan on your home with the intent of using it to pay off your existing loan. Doing so allows you to secure a better interest rate, adjust the length of your mortgage or consolidate debt if you have multiple liens on the property.

A cash-out refinance works in much the same way, except you take out a loan for more than the amount you owe on your mortgage. In this case, you use some of the equity you have built up in your home to get a cash advance. You can then use that cash to pay for your expenses and pay back the larger mortgage over time.

For example, let’s say you owe $100,000 on your $200,000 mortgage. With a cash-out refinance, you could potentially take out a new mortgage worth $150,000 — $100,000 would go toward paying off your old loan, and you’d have $50,000 for other expenses.

What are the requirements?

You’ll need to show documents when you apply for a cash-out refinance. The documents are similar to those you provided for your mortgage application, according to Adam Smith, president of the Colorado Real Estate Finance Group in Greenwood Village, Colo. They may include a W2, tax return, pay stubs, bank statements and statements from any assets or debts.

However, some requirements will be different from the first time around. In addition to documentation, a lender will look at the following for a cash-out refinance.

Credit score

The necessary credit score for a cash-out refinance loan is a bit higher than it is for a traditional mortgage. While lenders typically look for a credit score of 620 for a conventional mortgage, a score of 660 or above is required for a cash-out refinance.

Debt-to-income ratio

Your debt-to-income ratio (DTI) is the measure of your total monthly recurring debt divided by your total monthly income. Lenders look at this before approving you for a loan because it’s an indicator of how easily you’ll be able to manage repayment. In this case, you want your ratio to be less than or equal to 36%.

Loan-to-value ratio

Your loan-to-value ratio (LTV) is the comparison of your loan amount to the appraised value of your home.

“After the recession, most lenders started putting caps on the percentage of loan-to-value that you could borrow on a cash-out refinance,” Smith said. “Making sure that you still have some equity in your home protects you from owing too much and makes the investment safer for you and the lender.”

For the most part, your LTV cannot exceed 80% if you want to qualify for a cash-out refinance. However, this guideline may be specific to your loan program. FHA loans, for example, have an LTV limit of 85%, while loans backed by the VA have no LTV requirement.

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What purposes can a cash-out refinance serve?

With a cash-out refinance, Smith said, “you can do essentially whatever you want. “The equity in your home is a savings account — that’s yours.” You can use it to pay off other debts, pay for your child’s college or make home improvements, for example.

However, Smith cautioned that states may have different rules and regulations for how the money from a cash-out refinance can be used. “In Colorado and some other states, you have to justify why this money is so important to you that you need to refinance,” he said. Smith recommended checking with your loan officer to see if any limitations apply to you.

Standard vs. limited cash-out refinance

Typically, the money that you receive from a cash-out refinance can be used for just about any purchase. This is what’s known as a standard cash-out refinance. However, some loan programs (like the VA’s cash-out option) put limits on what the funds can be used toward. As the name suggests, this is what’s known as a limited cash-out refinance.

According to the Fannie Mae guidelines, limited cash-out refinancing can be used for the following:

  • Modifying the terms and interest rate on an existing mortgage
  • Paying off the balance of an existing mortgage (including prepayment penalties)
  • Paying off construction costs to build a home
  • Paying for closing costs
  • Buying out a co-owner
  • Paying off a subordinate mortgage lien
  • Paying off the balance on Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) loans or other debts used for energy-efficient improvements.

You can also get a small amount of cash back from a limited cash-out refinance loan, but it cannot exceed 2% of the new loan value nor $2,000, whichever is more.

Risks of a cash-out refinance

Home improvements are considered a good use of a cash-out refinance because they increase the value of the home. Paying off high-interest debt could be another smart use of a cash-out refinance.

However, doing a cash-out refinance for more frivolous purchases is risky. “If you go back 10 to 15 years ago, people were treating their homes like cash registers and taking money out to go on vacation and buy jet skis,” said Jim Sahnger, a loan officer with C2 Financial Corporation in Florida. The danger is that you borrow for luxury goods or “wants” versus “needs,” and end up with debt you can’t pay off.

Smith advised thinking about how your monthly payment will change after a cash-out refinance.
“There’s a good chance that your payment may be much higher than it was before,” he said. ”Before you take the money out, be sure that you’re able to make sense of what this change will look like in your current budget.”

Smith also warned that there’s a small chance you could end up underwater on your loan.
“There have been a lot of stops put in place since the last recession to make sure that doesn’t happen,” he said. “However, if the value of your home drops dramatically, you could end up having borrowed more than your house is worth.”

Alternatives to a cash-out refinance

If you’ve read the above and don’t think cash-out refinancing is the right fit for you, you may want to consider some of the following loan options:

Home equity loan (HEL)

Often, a home equity loan is referred to as a second mortgage because, like most first mortgages, this type of loan disburses the money to you in a lump sum and comes with a fixed interest rate. It uses the equity in your home as collateral, which is paid back over time, using fixed monthly payments.

Home equity line of credit (HELOC)

A home equity line of credit functions more like a credit card. Initially after taking out the loan, you enter what’s known as the “draw period.” During that time, typically 10 years, you’re given either checks or a credit card to draw upon the equity of your home as you wish. As with a credit card, you can borrow, pay back and borrow again against the line of credit.

You only have to worry about paying back interest during the draw period. After it ends, you then have to start paying back the loan principal at an adjustable interest rate.

Personal loan

Personal loans are different from HELs and HELOCS in that they are unsecured, meaning that they don’t use anything as collateral. This makes them much more of a risk for the lender, which is why they often come with stricter qualifying requirements and higher interest rates.

Cash-out government loan options

If you’re thinking of doing a cash-out refinance, there are government-backed options at your disposal. These loans are insured by federal agencies, which makes them less of a risk for the lender. As a result, they often have more lenient qualifying requirements and better terms than your standard cash-out refinance. Here are your options:

Federal Housing Administration (FHA) cash-out refinance

Requirements: You must have a minimum credit score of 600 and a debt-to-income ratio of less than 43%. You must also be able to show that you’ve made all the payments on your current mortgage for the last 12 months or however long you’ve owned the property if it’s less than 12 months.

Max loan limits: For FHA cash-out refinance loans, there is a limit of 85% LTV, which means that you can borrow up to 85% of the home’s current value.

Approval guidelines: To be eligible to refinance, you must have at least 15% equity in your property, according to a current appraisal.

Veterans Administration (VA) cash-out refinance

Requirements: You must have sufficient income and credit history, as well as be able to obtain a certificate of eligibility from the VA. The property must also be used as the primary residence for an eligible veteran or service member. The funds must be used for cash at closing, to pay off debt, to make home improvements or to pay off liens.

Max loan limits: There are no max loan limits on VA cash-out refinance loans.

Approval guidelines: In order to be approved for a certificate of eligibility, the veteran or service member must have been discharged under conditions other than dishonorable. They must also meet length of service requirements for their division of service.

Conclusion

If you’ve already been thinking about refinancing your mortgage and you need some extra funds, doing a cash-out refinance on your home may be a viable option. This allows you to take out more money than you currently owe on your mortgage and use the surplus to cover your expenses.

However, doing so will likely increase your monthly mortgage payment, so it’s best to only use this option to cover costs that are truly important. Talk to your financial advisor to see if cash-out refinancing is the right move for you.

This article contains links to LendingTree, our parent company.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Tara Mastroeni
Tara Mastroeni |

Tara Mastroeni is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Tara here

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Mortgage

Should You Save for Retirement or Pay Down Your Mortgage?

Editorial Note: The content of this article is based on the author’s opinions and recommendations alone. It has not been previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any of our network partners.

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On the list of financial priorities, which comes first — paying off your mortgage or saving for retirement? The answer isn’t simple. On one hand, owning a home with no mortgage attached to it provides long term security knowing you’ll have a place to live with no monthly payment except property taxes and insurance. However, you’ll also need income to live on if you plan to retire, and how much you save now will have a big impact on your quality of retirement life.

We’ll discuss the pros and cons of whether you should save for retirement or pay down your mortgage, or maybe a combination of both.

Pros of paying down your mortgage vs. saving for retirement

The faster you pay your mortgage off, the sooner you own the home outright. However, there are other benefits you’ll realize if you take extra measures to pay your loan balance off faster.

You could save thousands in long-term interest charges

Most homeowners take out a 30-year mortgage to keep their monthly payments as low as possible. The price for that affordable payment is a big bill for interest charged over the 360 payments you’ll make if you’re in your “forever” home.

For example, a 30-year fixed $200,000 loan at 4.375% comes with a lifetime interest charge of $159,485.39. That’s if you never pay a penny more than your fixed mortgage payment for that 30-year period. Using additional funds to pay down your mortgage faster can significantly reduce this.

Even one extra payment a year results in $27,216.79 in interest savings on the loan we mentioned above. An added bonus is that you’ll be able to throw your mortgage-free party four years and five months sooner.

You’ll build equity much faster

Thanks to a beautiful thing called amortization, lenders make sure the majority of your monthly mortgage payment goes toward interest rather than principal in the beginning of your loan term. Because of that, it’s difficult to make a real dent in your loan principal for many years. You can, however, counteract this by making additional payments on your mortgage and telling the lender to specifically put those payments toward your principal balance instead of interest.

Not only do you pay less interest over the long haul with this strategy, but you build the amount of equity you have in your home much faster. And to homeowners, equity is gold — you’re closer to owning your home outright, and equity can also be a resource if you need funds for a home improvement project or another big expense.

You can access that equity as your financial needs change by doing a cash-out refinance or by taking out a home equity loan or home equity line of credit (HEL or HELOC).

You won’t lose your home if values drop

When you contribute extra money into a retirement account, there is always the risk that you’ll lose some or all of the money you invested. When you contribute money to paying off your mortgage, even if the values drop, you still have the security of a place to live, and are increasing the equity in the home, no matter how much it’s ultimately worth.

Making extra payments ensures you’ll eventually have a debt-free asset that provides shelter to you and your family, regardless of what happens to the housing market in your neighborhood.

Cons of paying down your mortgage vs. saving for retirement

There are some cases where paying down your mortgage faster might actually hurt you financially. Before adding extra principal to your mortgage payments, you’ll want to make sure you aren’t doing damage to your financial outlook with an extra contribution toward your mortgage payoff.

You might end up paying more in taxes

The higher interest payments you make during the early years of your mortgage can act as a tax benefit, so paying the balance down faster could actually result in you owning more in federal taxes. If you are in a higher tax bracket in the early (first 10 years) of your mortgage repayment schedule, it may make sense to focus extra funds on retirement savings, and let your mortgage interest deduction work for you. Of course, everyone’s tax situation is different, so you’ll have to decide (with help from an accountant ideally) if it makes sense to itemize your taxes in order to claim mortgage interest payments as a deduction.

You won’t get to enjoy the return on your paydown dollars until you sell

The only real benchmark for figuring out the value of paying down your mortgage is to look at how much equity you’re gaining over time. However, the equity doesn’t become a tangible profit until you actually sell your home. And the costs of a sale can take a big bite out of your equity because sellers usually pay the real estate agent fees.

Home equity is harder to access

The only way to access the equity you’ve built up is to borrow against it, or sell your home. Borrowing against equity often requires proof of income, assets and credit to confirm you meet the approval requirements for each equity loan option. If you fall on hard financial times due to a job loss, or are unable to pay your bills and your credit scores drop substantially, you may not be able to access your equity.

Pros of saving for retirement vs. paying down your mortgage

Depending on your financial situation and savings habits, it may be better to add extra funds monthly to your retirement account than to pay down your mortgage. Here are a few reasons why.

You may earn a higher return on dollars invested in retirement funds

The growth rate for a stock portfolio has consistently returned more than housing price returns. The average return in the benchmark S&P stock fund is 6.595% for funds invested from the beginning of 1900 to present, while home values have increased just 0.1% per year after accounting for inflation during that same time period.

Assuming your portfolio at least earns 7%, if you consistently invest your money into a balanced investment portfolio, you can expect to double your money every 10 years. There aren’t many housing markets that can promise that kind of growth.

Retirement funds are generally easier to access than home equity

Retirement funds often give you a variety of options for each access, with no income or credit verification requirements, and only sufficient proof of enough funds in your account to pay it back over time. For example, a 401k loan through the company you work for will just require you to have enough vested to support the loan request, and sufficient funds left over to pay it off over a reasonable time.

Just be cautious about making a 401k withdrawal, which is treated totally differently than a loan. You aren’t expected to pay it back like you would a 401k loan, but you could get hit with taxes and penalties.

Cons of saving for retirement vs. paying down your mortgage

You’ll need to weather the ups and downs of the market

Most people who have invested money in the stock market or tracked the performance of their 401k over decades have stories about periods when the value of those investments dropped substantially. While the 7% return on investment is a reliable long term indicator how much your retirement fund might earn, the path to that return is hardly linear.

For example, if you were considering retirement between 1999 and 2002, you may have had to delay those plans when the S & P plummeted over 23% in value in 2002. If you look at each 10-year period since the 1930s, every decade has been characterized by periods of ups and downs.

Calculating the benefit of paying down your mortgage vs. saving for retirement

If you’re torn as to what to do with that extra cash or windfall, let’s look at an example of someone who has an extra $200 to put into either their nest egg or their mortgage each month for the next 30 years.

For this scenario, we’re going to assume their retirement account earns an average 7% rate of return and that their mortgage loan balance is $200,000.

Here’s how much they’d save:

Savings From Paying $200 per Month Down on Your Mortgage
Years PaidMortgage Interest SavingsExtra Equity in HomeTotal Interest Savings and Equity Built Up
10 years$6,040$30,039$36,079
20 years$28,529$76,529$105,058
22 years 6 months$50,745$200,000$250,745

One thing you may notice about the mortgage savings chart — it includes how much extra equity you’re building. Often only the mortgage interest savings is cited when people look at how much you save with extra payments, but that ignores the fact that you’re building equity in your home much faster as well. So not only do you save over $50,000 in interest with your extra contribution, you replenish $150,000 of equity that was used up by your mortgage balance.

As you can see, adding that extra $200 to their mortgage principal each month saved them about $200,000 in the long haul — but the real savings don’t stop there.

By adding an extra $200 to their mortgage payment each month, this borrower turned their 30-year loan into a 22-and-a-half year loan and became mortgage debt-free seven years faster.

That means, in addition to saving $50,000 in interest savings and gaining $200,000 of equity, they also no longer have a mortgage payment. That frees up $998.57 per month that they can now use as discretionary income. That’s an extra $89,871 they could potentially save over that 7.5 year period.

When you add that to the $250,745.41 they saved on mortgage interest and earned in home equity, they’re looking at a total savings of $340,616.

That gives the mortgage paydown a $54,000 net positive edge over saving that extra $200 for retirement, as you can see in the table below.

Savings From Contributing $200 per Month to a Retirement Fund
Years PaidRetirement Balance
10 years$34,404
20 years$102,081
30 years$235,212

The one caveat for this retirement calculation is we assumed the saver was starting at a $0 investment balance. If they already had a healthy balance in their nest egg, they might actually come out in better shape than paying down their mortgage.

There are clearly benefits to each option, and you should consider running your own calculations with your real numbers to get the best answer for yourself.

Paying down your mortgage and saving for retirement at the same time

There’s a fair case to be made for both paying down your mortgage and saving more for retirement, but why choose? If you’re somewhat on track with your retirement savings goals, and like the idea of having your mortgage paid off quicker, you could allocate a certain amount to each.

Pick a number you feel comfortable paying to your principal every month, and then to your 401k, and put it on autopilot for a year. Any time your income increases, or you get bonuses, divide up the amount between principal pay down and retirement additions.

Let’s look at what happens if you evenly divide up your $200 per month between investing your retirement and paying down your mortgage. We’ll use the same $200,000 loan at 4.375% referenced above, and look at the lifetime results.

Savings From Paying $100 Down on Your Mortgage Until Paid Off
Years PaidInterest SavingsExtra Home EquityTotal Interest Savings and Equity Built Up
10 years$3,020$15,020$18,040
20 years$14,265$38,265$52,350
25 years$30,534$200,000$230,534
Savings From Contributing $100 to a Retirement Fund for 30 Years
Years PaidRetirement Balance
10 years$17,202
20 years$51,401
30 years$117,607

Balancing the $100 investment in both strategies still yields a six-figure retirement balance after 30 decades, a debt-free house after 26 years, and shaves off $30,000 in mortgage interest expense. If you don’t like putting all your eggs into one financial basket, this may balance the risks and rewards of each option.

Final thoughts

Looking at the short term and the long term may provide you with the best framework for making a good decision about how to spend dollars on retirement versus extra mortgage payments. Be wary of any financial professional that tells you one path is absolutely better than another.

Having a stable source of affordable shelter is equally as important as having enough income to live when you retire, so a balanced approach to paying down your mortgage and savings for retirement may help you accomplish both goals.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Denny Ceizyk
Denny Ceizyk |

Denny Ceizyk is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Denny here

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Life Events, Mortgage

What Is Mortgage Amortization?

Editorial Note: The content of this article is based on the author’s opinions and recommendations alone. It has not been previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any of our network partners.

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One of the biggest advantages of homeownership versus renting is each mortgage payment gradually pays off your mortgage and builds equity in your home. The difference between your home’s value and the balance of your loan is home equity, and your equity grows with each payment because of mortgage amortization.

Understanding mortgage amortization can help you set financial goals to pay off your home faster or evaluate whether you should refinance.

What is mortgage amortization?

Mortgage amortization is the process of paying off your loan balance in equal installments over a set period. The interest you pay is based on the balance of your loan (your principal). When you begin your payment schedule, you pay much more interest than principal.

As time goes on, you eventually pay more principal than interest — until your loan is paid off.

How mortgage amortization works

Understanding mortgage amortization starts with how monthly mortgage payments are applied each month to the principal and interest owed on your mortgage. There are two calculations that occur every month.

The first involves how much interest you’ll need to pay. This is based on the amount you borrowed when you took out your loan. It is adjusted each month as your balance drops from the payments you make.

The second calculation is how much principal you are paying. It is based on the interest rate you locked in and agreed to repay over a set period (the most popular being 30 years).

If you’re a math whiz, here’s how the formula looks before you start inputting numbers.

Fortunately, mortgage calculators do all the heavy mathematical lifting for you. The graphic below shows the difference between the first year and 15th year of principal and interest payments on a 30-year fixed loan of $200,000 at a rate of 4.375%.

For the first year, the amount of interest that is paid is more than double the principal, slowly dropping as the principal balance drops. However, by the 15th year, principal payments outpace interest, and you start building equity at a much more rapid pace.

How understanding mortgage amortization can help financially

An important aspect of mortgage amortization is that you can change the total amount of interest you pay — or how fast you pay down the balance — by making extra payments over the life of the loan or refinancing to a lower rate or term. You aren’t obligated to follow the 30-year schedule laid out in your amortization schedule.

Here are some financial objectives, using LendingTree mortgage calculators, that you can accomplish with mortgage amortization. (Note that MagnifyMoney is owned by LendingTree.)

Lower rate can save thousands in interest

If mortgage rates have dropped since you purchased your home, you might consider refinancing. Some financial advisors may recommend refinancing only if you can save 1% on your rate. However, this may not be good advice if you plan on staying in your home for a long time. The example below shows the monthly savings from 5% to 4.5% on a $200,000, 30-year fixed loan, assuming you closed on your current loan in January 2019.

Assuming you took out the mortgage in January 2019 at 5%, refinancing to a rate of 4.5% only saves $69 a month. However, over 30 years, the total savings is $68,364 in interest. If you’re living in your forever home, that half-percent savings adds up significantly.

Extra payment can help build equity, pay off loan faster

The amount of interest you pay every month on a loan is a direct result of your loan balance. If you reduce your loan balance with even one extra lump-sum payment in a given month, you’ll reduce the long-term interest. The graphic below shows how much you’d save by paying an extra $50 a month on a $200,000 30-year fixed loan with an interest rate of 4.375%.

Amortization schedule tells when PMI will drop off

If you weren’t able to make a 20% down payment when you purchased your home, you may be paying mortgage insurance. Mortgage insurance protects a lender against losses if you default, and private mortgage insurance (PMI) is the most common type.

PMI automatically drops off once your total loan divided by your property’s value (also known as your loan-to-value ratio, or LTV) reaches 78%. You can multiply the price you paid for your home by 0.78 to determine where your loan balance would need to be for PMI to be canceled.

Find the balance on your amortization schedule and you’ll know when your monthly payment will drop as a result of the PMI cancellation.

Pinpoint when adjustable-rate-mortgage payment will rise

Adjustable-rate mortgages (ARMs) are a great tool to save money for a set period as long as you have a strategy to refinance or sell the home before the initial fixed period ends. However, sometimes life happens and you end up staying in a home longer than expected.

Knowing when and how much your payments could potentially increase, as well as how much extra interest you’ll be paying if the rate does increase, can help you weigh whether you really want to take a risk on an ARM loan.

The bottom line

Mortgage amortization may be a topic that you don’t talk about much before you get a mortgage, but it’s certainly worth exploring more once you become a homeowner.

The benefits of understanding how extra payments or a lower rate can save you money — both in the short term and over the life of your loan — will help you take advantage of opportunities to pay off your loan faster, save on interest charges and build equity in your home.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Denny Ceizyk
Denny Ceizyk |

Denny Ceizyk is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Denny here

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