Advertiser Disclosure

Mortgage

How Long Does It Take to Refinance a House?

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Refinancing a home is very similar to getting a mortgage, but you might be wondering how long the process might take. If you have time-sensitive goals, knowing average refinance timeline for each stage could help you with planning.

How long does it take to refinance a house?

According to a recent report by Ellie Mae, the time to close on a home refinance has decreased significantly over the last few months.

As of February 2018, the average time to close on a home refinance loan was 37 days, down from 50 days in October 2016. Granted, closing times vary by loan type (i.e. FHA, conventional VA, etc.) but the average is coming down across all home refinance loans, Ellie Mae found.

Jason Lerner, area development manager and mortgage broker at George Mason Mortgage, LLC, said that refinancing could be even faster if there are no delays or complications.

There are many variables that come into play that could affect the timeline for your home refinance.

One variable in the timeline will be how responsive you, as the loan applicant, are with providing and verifying information as requested by the lender. The other variable is how responsive your lender is and whether or not there are issues or complications with your application.

The good news is that you can control your level of responsiveness and communication to help the process go as smoothly as possible while minimizing delays. However, you cannot control how the bank handles their internal processes.

That’s why it’s a good idea to review lenders who have a good track record of proving the best home refinance rates and customer service. Often, the best place to start is with your current lender, especially if you are a fan of their customer service, but always compare their offer with other lenders as well to be sure you’re getting the best deal.

The mortgage refinance process — from start to finish

It’s good to know about all the steps of the refinance process. This way, you can anticipate what’s needed and be prepared for the closing table that much quicker.

Here are the steps involved in most home refinance loans, along with how long you can expect them to take (barring delays, problems or issues). Some of these stages can overlap or occur simultaneously.

Figure out why you want to refinance

Preparing to refinance your home loan comes down to knowing your objective so you can narrow down a loan type, amount and potential repayment schedule. This is an important step.

Without being clear on exactly why you are refinancing your home, you could end up choosing a loan that doesn’t suit your needs, or even end up overextending yourself financially, which could put your home in jeopardy.

Refinancing your home just because you can is not a good idea. Create a list of financial goals, amount of money it will take to reach them along with a budget that includes your refinance scenario.

Common goals for refinancing a home could include:

  • Having a lower monthly payment
  • Consolidation of other debt
  • Get a lower interest rate
  • Pay off the loan quicker (with a shorter term, lower rate or both)

Home refinance costs (more below) should also be considered in this equation. Though the equity in your home is yours, accessing it still costs money. If possible, fare on the conservative side when it comes to determining the loan amount and type for your home refinance.

Choose the right refi loan

Now that you have an idea of what you’ll use your loan for and what you can afford, it’s time to determine the best type of home refinance loan.

There are many options when it comes to refinancing your home. You should become familiar with each so you can choose the best one for your needs.

Here are some loan types you could research:

  • 30-year fixed: A fixed interest rate loan amortized over 360 months
  • 15-year fixed: A fixed interest rate loan amortized over 180 months
  • Adjustable rate mortgage (varying types and terms): Interest rate resets periodically
  • Interest only: Borrowers pay interest on the loan, then principal
  • Payment option: Adjustable rate mortgage with multiple payment options
  • Balloon: Lower payments during loan term with a large payment at the end of the term

Next, you’ll want to explore different options offered under FHA, VA, USDA or conventional home refinance loans. There are ups and downs for each kind of mortgage, but ultimately, you need to choose the product that will help you meet your financial goals.

Compare offers from lenders

Now that you have a sense of the best type of home refinance loan, it’s time to research lenders who can offer you the best home refinance deal possible. Shopping for the best refinance rates can save you thousands of dollars, so don’t skip this step!

The terms offered will be based on a few things like how much your home is appraised for, the maximum loan-to-value a lender will offer, current market interest rates and your personal credit profile.

If you are especially concerned with how long it will take to refinance your home, you can make this a part of your research. Dan Green, former mortgage loan officer and owner of mortgage-literacy website Growella said, “Homeowners — especially homeowners working on a deadline — should ask about time-to-close as part of the lender comparison process.”

Understand the fees and additional costs

As mentioned before, financing your home is no small feat and it does come with a price tag. You should know upfront about the fees and costs related to a home refinance, as it should help you determine whether or not this is a move you actually want to make.

Think about how much you paid to close on your original mortgage loan to anticipate your closing costs this time around.

You can use a home refinance calculator so you can see the impact of refinancing your home when it comes to interest, monthly payments, tax deductions, total mortgage cost, etc.

Here are some home refinance costs you should know about:

  • Mortgage application fee
  • Home appraisal
  • Loan origination fee
  • Document preparation fee
  • Title search fee
  • Recording fee
  • Flood certification fee
  • Inspection fee
  • Attorney fee
  • Survey fee

Costs could vary by state and lender, so compare these fees on your Loan Estimate (see below) as you look at multiples lenders.

Submit your refi application to various lenders

Most lenders will allow you to apply for your home refinance online. To streamline your application process and get the best rates, you can apply to several lenders at once. This way, you can explore the best rates available while having lenders compete for your business.

If all of your refinance applications are made within a 30-day time period, the inquiries will not affect your score while you are shopping for rates.

Be prepared to provide demographic information about yourself and co-borrower, along with information about your property, original loan and more. Your lender will also eventually ask for additional proof to support the information you provide in the application. This would be a good time to start gathering this documentation up.

Get a loan estimate

Once the lender has processed your application and verified your information, they will provide what is called a Loan Estimate (LE.) By law, they must submit this loan estimate to you within three business days of receiving your completed loan application.

The Loan Estimate form is a standardized template that clearly outlines the home refinance terms the bank expects to offer you, should you decide to go forward. The bank has not yet approved (or denied) your refinance loan at this point, and they may ask you to sign the LE as a record of receipt on your end.

Again, you’ll want to use this Loan Estimate to compare multiple offers from various lenders.

Lock in your rate

Prevailing rates for mortgages can change from day to day and even from hour to hour, so it’s a good safety measure to lock in your rate. A rate lock means your lender will “lock” in your interest rate until closing.

Some lenders may lock your rate as part of issuing the Loan Estimate, but this is not always the case. You can check the top of your Loan Estimate document on the first page to find out if your interest rate is locked, along with when this rate will expire.

Submit required documents for loan processing

Among the supporting documentation you’ll be asked to provide may include:

  • Pay stubs
  • Tax returns, W-2s and/or 1099s
  • Credit report
  • Bank statements
  • Proof of any supplemental income

Note: It’s a good idea to check your credit report regularly in case there’s inaccurate information that needs to be addressed. You don’t want anything to prevent (or delay) the bank from processing your application or extending a refinance loan to you.

Once this information is provided, the processor will go on to order your credit report, home appraisal and payoff amount from current lender.

Appraisal

This is where an appraiser will come to your home and determine its value. They will be dispatched by the bank and come view the property, look up comparable properties nearby and furnish a report with their findings. The amount you’ll be able to refinance will be based on this appraisal report.

Underwriting

At this stage, the lender is putting all the pieces together — the appraised value of your home, your personal financial situation along with your predicted ability to repay the loan on time and as agreed. This risk analysis can take time and may require additional information.

You should be ready to provide additional information to your loan processor, if needed. Also, your employer could be contacted to verify your salary and employment status during the underwriting phase.

Commitment letter

This letter states that the bank agrees to lend you money, but there could be additional requirements, such as providing more information or clarifying information you’ve already provided. The bank can rescind this offer if there is an significant change in your personal financial situation as well.
However, once you meet the conditions set forth in the commitment letter, the underwriting department will issue a “clear to close.” Your loan officer will let you know via email or phone call that the bank will soon communicate the next steps for your closing date.

Closing disclosures

At least three days prior to closing, you’ll be issued a Closing Disclosure. It will outline the final terms of your refinance loan.

This three-day timeline is designed to give you enough time to compare rates and ask your lender questions about your loan. For example, if your closing disclosure varies greatly from your Loan Estimate, this is time to get clarification as to why.

You can also ask to review your closing documents before you get to the closing table. Your lender should be able to provide an electronic version so you are aware of what you would be signing at closing. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) offers examples of closing forms along with instructions on how to interpret the information.

If you need help staying organized throughout this process, you can use a closing checklist to help you keep track of each stage of the closing process.

Closing

At this stage, you will sign all the required documentation to complete your home refinance. You should bring your Closing Disclosure with you to make sure your the terms you were quoted are on par with this document.

Sometimes your loan closing will be at an office with a closing agent (from a title company) that facilitates the entire process. According to Rafael Reyes, producing branch manager at loanDepot, “Most often, the lender will send either a representative from the title company or a lawyer to your home for the closing.”

He added, “The borrower doesn’t need a lawyer on their side for the closing, but they could hire legal representation at their discretion.”

At closing, you’ll sign your promissory note, mortgage, initial escrow disclosure and “right to cancel” form. You should bring proper identification because there may be a notary present who requires a valid ID to notarize your signature.

How you can speed things up

If you’re refinancing your home with the idea of saving money, you probably want to start saving sooner than later. You can start capturing those savings as soon as your refinance is complete and funds are disbursed.

To speed up the refinance process, you’ll want to stay on top of all the documentation requested by your lender. Even better — collect everything before you begin the loan application process so everything is ready, even at a moment’s notice.

You will also need to be responsive when it comes to requests for information. Though there are a number of variables that can influence the refinance timeline, your responsiveness and preparedness will help move things along much faster.

LendingTree

LEARN MORE Secured

on LendingTree’s secure website

NMLS #1136 Terms & Conditions Apply

LendingTree is our parent company

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Aja McClanahan
Aja McClanahan |

Aja McClanahan is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Aja here

TAGS:

Compare Mortgage Loan Offers for Free

Home Purchase Quotes

Home Refinance Quotes

(It only takes 3 minutes!)

NMLS #1136 Terms & Conditions Apply

Advertiser Disclosure

Mortgage

Commercial Mortgage Refinancing: How Does It Work?

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

iStock

In business, there are many reasons why you may want — or need — to look into commercial mortgage refinancing. Maybe your credit score has vastly improved over the last few years and you’re hoping to score a better interest rate, or maybe you’re trying to avoid making a large balloon payment at the end of your current loan term. Regardless of your reasons for wanting to consider a new loan, the process can seem daunting. However, it doesn’t have to be. This guide will walk you through the ins and outs of refinancing a commercial mortgage so that you can make the financing decisions that will work best for you and your business.

Why refinance a commercial loan?

Lower interest rates

The first reason why you may want to refinance a commercial mortgage is to take advantage of lower interest rates. Interest rates are still at relative lows, historically, and if your financial situation has improved since the last time you were approved for a loan, you could be a candidate to take advantage of those lower rates.

Increased cash flow

The main benefit of those lower interest rates is that you’ll have a decreased monthly payment. That lower payment means increased savings, which can be a source of greater cash flow.

On the other hand, you also have the option of doing a cash-out refinance, in which you borrow more money than you currently owe. The excess comes to you as tax-free funds to be used however you wish. Usually, people use this method to undertake big projects like making improvements to the property or funding an expansion.

Better loan terms

Another reason why someone might consider refinancing is to create an opportunity to negotiate more favorable loan terms. This could mean moving from an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) to a more stable fixed-rate option or simply tailoring the length of the loan to meet your current needs.

Avoiding balloon payments

Additionally, refinancing your loan could be a way to avoid having to make a sizable balloon payment — a larger-than-usual one-time payment at the end of the loan’s term. Mortgages with balloon payments generally come with lower, sometimes interest-only, payments over the life of the loan. However, when the balance of the loan becomes due, it could amount to thousands of dollars. If you don’t have that amount of cash on hand, refinancing will allow you to extend your repayment window.

What are the borrower requirements to refinance?

In order to get approved for a commercial mortgage, you’ll need to meet certain borrower requirements. Though the exact specifications will vary by lending institution, here’s a general overview of what you can expect:

Repayment ability

First and foremost, lenders want see that you have the ability to actually repay the loan. Typically, this is determined by something called a Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR). It’s found by dividing your business’s net operating income by annual loan payments. In this case, it’s best to shoot for a ratio of 1.2 or more.

Management

Ideally, your business will have a strong management history in order to prove its longevity. For this reason, most lenders limit themselves to businesses that have been operating for two years or more. You may also be asked to show a resume or business plan detailing your experience and future projections.

Equity

In this case, equity refers to the stake that the owner has in the property. In some instances in which the property generates enough income on its own, it can serve as its own collateral. In others, the borrower must put up personal collateral of his or her own.

Credit history

Finally, lenders want to be sure that you have a history of paying off existing debts, so they’ll check your credit score. Be aware that both your business and personal scores may be evaluated.

How does a commercial refinance differ from a home loan refinance?

“Lenders look at this type of loan differently,” said James Hoopes, a senior vice president at NorthMarq Capital in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

“With home loans, your personal credit decides whether or not you get the loan. Here, the amount of income the property produces from its tenants is just as — if not more — important than your credit score.”

In addition to differences in qualifying requirements, Hoopes pointed out that there are huge differences in the way residential and commercial loans get paid off.

“Residential loans tend to amortize over the life of the loan,” he explained, “meaning that the homeowners will have usually paid off the loan in full by the end of the term.”

“Commercial loans, on the other hand, tend to have an amortization period that’s longer than the loan term, which means that borrowers can find themselves facing a large payment when the loan comes due.”

Above all, Hoopes cautions borrowers to think carefully before refinancing their commercial loans. These types of loans come with high penalties that aren’t seen when refinancing traditional home loans.

Types of commercial loans

These days, there are a few distinct types of commercial loans that you can choose from. Be sure to research each one before applying so that you know which type of financing is best for your business.

SBA 7(a) loans

The SBA 7(a) loan is the most common type of small-business loan. The loan is popular because it’s backed by the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) and is geared toward serving businesses that might otherwise be turned down by banks. These loans come with a limit of $5 million, and the SBA agrees to back up to 85% of loans up to $150,000 and 75% of those above that amount.

CDC/SBA 504 loans

Another government-backed loan, the CDC/SBA 504 loan is different from the SBA 7(a) loan in the way it’s structured. For this, the SBA will provide 40% of the total project costs, while a Certified Development Company (CDC) will provide an additional 50%, and your down payment will account for the final 10%. Due to its structure, there is no limit on how much you can borrow for CDC/SBA 504 loans; however, the maximum amount that the SBA will provide is $5 million.

Private loans

Private loans are offered by a bank or mortgage company. Traditionally, these loans offer competitively low interest rates. In exchange, however, they typically come with higher qualifying standards in terms of acceptable credit scores and operating histories.

How can you find a lender?

Ideally, you’ll already have a lender in place from the last time you applied for a mortgage. However, if that’s not the case, don’t hesitate to do your own research. Ask your industry contacts who they use for financing, use the SBA website’s free lender match service and read online reviews.

The commercial loan refinancing process

“The first step to refinancing a commercial loan is figuring out what kind of loan you need,” advised Hoopes of NorthMarq Capital. This means taking a close look at why you want to refinance, whether it’s to secure a lower interest rate or to fund renovations via a cash-out option.

The next step is to shop around. “Talk to different lenders in your area to get a sense of what they can offer you. Ask about interest rates, fees and other terms until you find the best proposal for you,” he continued.

From there, it’s all about gathering the right documentation and filling out an application. Every lending institution will have different application requirements. However, in general, you should expect to need the following: a property description, a rent roll, proof of income (profit/loss or revenue/expense statements showing several years of operating history) and the borrower’s resume and financial statements.

“After that, you can enter what’s known as the underwriting period,” Hoopes said. “During this time, the lender will order an appraisal and other third-party reports to determine if you’re eligible to receive the loan.”

“Once the loan has been approved, the lender will issue a loan commitment and, at that point, it’s just a matter of preparing the legal documents for closing,” he concluded.

Fees and closing costs

Not surprisingly, fees can vary from lender to lender, as well; however, two common fees that you should watch out for are prepayment penalties and and a guaranty fee. Prepayment penalties can be hefty and result from paying off your existing mortgage early with your new loan.

For their part, only SBA loans are subject to the guaranty fee. This fee is charged to the lender but is passed along to you for the security of having a government-backed loan. Only the amount of the loan that’s backed by the SBA is taxed, rather than the loan’s face value.

Luckily, closing costs are a bit more predictable. “As a rule of thumb, for loans under $10 million, I would estimate 2% of the loan amount for both closing costs and lender fees, not including legal fees,” Hoopes said. “But they can move up from there.”

The bottom line

At first glance, commercial mortgage refinancing can seem like an overwhelming process, but it doesn’t have to be. With a little bit of research, planning and forethought, you should be able to find a commercial loan that serves your and your business’s needs.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Tara Mastroeni
Tara Mastroeni |

Tara Mastroeni is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Tara here

TAGS:

Compare Mortgage Loan Offers for Free

Home Purchase Quotes

Home Refinance Quotes

(It only takes 3 minutes!)

NMLS #1136 Terms & Conditions Apply

Advertiser Disclosure

Mortgage

What You Should Know About VA Construction Loans

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

iStock

Ready to build your dream home? If you’re an active-duty service member or veteran of the U.S. Armed Forces, you may not realize that the Veterans Administration (VA) backs construction loans to help offset the costs of turning that house in your head into a reality.

Jesse Gonzalez, broker of record at North Bay Capital in Santa Rosa, California, and member of the Veterans Association of Real Estate Professionals (VAREP), said these loans are relatively new and not well-known, even among active-duty service members. “There are not a lot of mortgage professionals doing these,” Gonzalez said. “My competition is sparse in this area because most mortgage professionals simply don’t understand it.”

But experts like Gonzalez say a VA construction loan is a fantastic resource for folks who want to build a home. Unlike conventional construction loans, VA construction loans offer a host of special benefits — from the possibility of 100% financing without a down payment to locked-in interest rates that won’t change over the years of the loan.

So, what do you need to know to take advantage of this resource? Do you need a special credit score or an approved contractor to build your new home? Let’s take a look at what you might need to do to get some help from the VA to build that house.

Qualifications for a VA construction loan

Much like VA loans designed to purchase an existing home, VA construction loans carry a number of eligibility criteria that lenders will look for before offering you this special type of mortgage.

Before you call a private lender (more on that later), take a look at some of the qualifications you’ll likely need to get one of these loans:

  • Loans are open to veterans, active-duty military or eligible surviving spouses of members of the Armed Forces. You can check your eligibility on the VA’s website.
  • Lenders require a Certificate of Eligibility (COE), a special form issued by the government to prove you’re eligible for a VA-backed loan.
    Homes must be built by a licensed contractor (building it yourself or with relatives is typically not allowed).
  • Homes must be built as a primary residence and occupied within 60 days of completion (exceptions are made for business units built on properties primarily intended for residential use).
  • A minimum credit score of 620 is typically required, although some exceptions can be made.

Minimum property requirements for VA construction loans

Even if you and your home plans fit the bill for a VA construction loan, you should be prepared to jump through a number of hoops once you actually start construction.

Although the VA doesn’t put restrictions on the overall design of the house — whether you build a cute bungalow or a sprawling McMansion is up to you — if you’re going to build with a VA-backed loan footing the bill, your property will have to meet several requirements regarding usage, utilities and the like.

Some of the major things to be aware of include

  • Usage — VA loans are intended to help people with housing, so it’s no surprise the VA construction loan requires the primary use be residential. Up to four units are allowed on certain properties, depending on size. Business units are allowed, provided they don’t “impair the residential character of the property,” according to VA rules, or exceed 25% of the gross floor area.
  • Living space — The size of the living space must accommodate living, sleeping, cooking and dining space.
  • Utilities — Water, sewer, gas and electricity must be available for the unit (or units, if there are multiple). Homes must have a means for safe sewage disposal, and connection to public sewerage is required, if it’s feasible.

Steps to getting a VA construction loan

If you’re interested in applying for a VA construction loan, a private lender may be able to help you, and some of the process will be similar to that of a conventional loan application.

  1. Certificate of Eligibility. This step is required only for VA-backed loans, not conventional loans, but it’s a must! To apply, you can fill out an online application, send in your documents by mail, or ask a lender for help.
  2. Prequalification. This is the first step of any loan process, and it will include a credit check as well as the need to provide the COE, income documents, and possibly proof of other assets. You may also be asked to undergo the following:
    1. Builder registration. This is a review of your chosen contractor to ensure it’s reputable and up to the task.
    2. Deal calculation. This number crunching will be done by the lender as he or she figures out a total loan amount that includes any closing costs, seller or building concessions, interest and more.
  3. Underwriting. This is step two of the process. Your lender will submit the loan for review. As with conventional loans, the underwriter will look at your income, credit, assets and construction plans. Information to verify your debt-to-income (DTI) ratio may also be requested by some lenders. In the case of a VA construction loan, the underwriter also will look to see that your builder is approved by the VA.
  4. Closing. VA construction loans allow for something called a “one-time close.” While traditional building loans usually require the borrower take out and refinance a construction loan as a permanent home loan once construction is complete, VA borrowers get to skip that second step. Instead, there’s a single closing, at which time the borrower and lender sign all necessary paperwork and money is handed over so that construction can begin. The builder will use the money to build, but payback of the loan won’t begin until construction is complete.

Pros of a VA construction loan

Why would you want to get a VA construction loan, if you’re eligible, when you could just buy an existing home?

According to Evan Wade, co-founder and partner of Philadelphia Mortgage Brokers in Philadelphia and member of the Association of Independent Mortgage Experts (AIME), VA construction loans are especially popular in areas with limited housing inventory.

“The VA does not wish to restrict the type of homes a veteran is able to buy,” Wade explained. “If a veteran wishes to construct a brand new house while still being able to utilize their hard-earned benefits, they should definitely be able to do so.”

The benefits don’t stop there. A construction loan could allow the freedom to design a home that truly suits your and your family’s needs, instead of making do with a home that’s simply “almost right.” Here are some other benefits for which you might qualify with a VA construction loan:

  • Lower interest rates
  • Skipping a down payment
  • Avoiding Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI), which typically is not required

Cons of a VA construction loan

There are, of course, some aspects of a VA construction loan that might not make it a perfect fit. Before you approach a lender, you might want to take the following into consideration:

  • VA construction loans require builders be approved by the VA. That means you can’t build your home yourself or use friends and family helpers to cut construction costs.
  • Some building styles are banned under this construction loan, such as a tiny house.
  • Not all lenders, even lenders who offer VA loans, provide VA construction loans.

Where can you find a VA construction loan?

It can be tough to find a lender who is versed in VA construction loans; however, they are out there. Asking friends or family who are also in the military world for word-of-mouth recommendations can be a great way to find the perfect lender who can walk you through the process.

VAREP also offers a “find a member” option on its website to assist in locating military-friendly mortgage professionals located around the U.S.

Before you borrow

When it comes to building a home, the VA construction loan is a valuable option for would-be homeowners who qualify. If you’re not sure one is right for you, you might also want to consider a traditional construction loan.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Jeanne Sager
Jeanne Sager |

Jeanne Sager is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Jeanne here

TAGS:

Compare Mortgage Loan Offers for Free

Home Purchase Quotes

Home Refinance Quotes

(It only takes 3 minutes!)

NMLS #1136 Terms & Conditions Apply