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Open Credit Report Disputes Can Sabotage Your Chance For a Mortgage

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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Purchase agreement for house

After months of searching through listings, you’ve finally found your dream home. Your offer has been accepted and you’ve started daydreaming about future dinner parties, contemporary light fixtures, and planting a backyard herb garden. Just one problem — the financing hasn’t been approved.

The mortgage underwriting process can seemingly last a lifetime when it’s standing between you and your dream home. However, the timeline hasn’t always been such a nail-biter for prospective homebuyers.

The housing bubble leading up to The Great Recession created a hunger from investors for mortgage-backed securities. As a result, borrowing costs were lowered, lending standards were loosened, and many homebuyers were approved for loans they couldn’t afford. When the housing market collapsed, many Americans were in trouble. These predatory lending practices contributed to both the financial crisis and The Great Recession.

A direct response to The Great Recession, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act or “Dodd-Frank” was signed into law in 2010. This financial reform legislation included the creation of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau who established the Ability to Repay and Qualified Mortgage Standards Under the Truth in Lending Act.

These new standards include a much more comprehensive financial verification process for mortgages including a closer look at an applicant’s credit history.

Why Do Credit Scores Matter?

Before you begin the home buying process, it’s smart to review your credit report and have a copy of your FICO score handy. Your FICO score is assigned by the credit reporting agencies based on the information within your credit report. A FICO score also factors into your Ability to Repay qualifications.

Tip: You can request a free credit report once a year from AnnualCreditReport.com.

Credit scores aren’t the only thing mortgage loan officers worry about, but a FICO score can heavily influence the interest rate you are able to secure. The highest scores qualify consumers for the best possible mortgage rates.

It’s critical to arm yourself with this information in advance. Plus, it gives you the opportunity to dispute any inaccuracies you’ve discovered and clean up your report.

What is a Credit Report Dispute?

Credit report inaccuracies are relatively common. Inaccurate information can happen for a variety of reasons — a clerical error, a shared name, or even identity theft. And inaccurate information in your credit report can harm your score. That’s why it’s important to regularly keep track of what’s happening.

Under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), consumers have the right to dispute inaccurate information. Fortunately, it’s easier than ever to file a dispute with all three credit reporting agencies online.

The problem is, many disputes can go unresolved for long periods of time. An unresolved dispute can be particularly troublesome for consumers applying for a mortgage. Many applicants don’t realize an open credit report dispute can raise a red flag to lenders, and may even prevent mortgage approval.

[Learn more about Fannie Mae’s Frequently Asked Underwriting Questions here.]

How Open Credit Report Disputes Hurt a Mortgage Application

If open credit report disputes are relatively common, how can they hurt a mortgage application?

When a dispute is filed, credit reporting agencies are required to label the item as “in dispute.” An item being actively disputed can not harm your FICO score. In fact, your score will be temporarily inflated while harmful items are being investigated.

Lenders know credit reports with disputed items are not the most accurate picture of a consumer’s history and many require for this status to be removed before approving a mortgage application. This leaves some consumers with a difficult decision to make — accept costly credit report errors or delay applying for a loan until disputes have been resolved.

Fannie Mae & Freddie Mac

Fannie Mae’s automated underwriting system, Desktop Underwriter (DU), automatically issues the warning message “consumer disputed” when a credit report reveals a 30-day or more delinquency reported within 2 years of the inquiry. The lender must confirm the accuracy and completeness of the borrower’s credit report by obtaining a new report without the dispute or manually underwrite the loan.

Loan Prospector, Freddie Mac’s automated underwriting system, follows a similar process. Gaining access to a new credit report with updated information is not an option for the borrower if the creditor won’t correct the information. And when a consumer files a complaint with the credit reporting agencies (TransUnion, Equifax, and Experian), the agencies will often defer to the creditor.

Last fall, the National Consumer Law Center wrote a letter to the Federal Housing Finance Agency, urging reform for the treatment of consumers with credit report disputes. They believe lenders who reject applicants because they don’t want to manually underwrite the loan are in violation of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA).

FHA Approved Mortgages

FHA approved mortgages will approve an application with a disputed credit report, however, the process may still be time consuming.

A couple of years ago, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development decided to look more closely at open disputes and provided new instructions for lenders in a Mortgagee Letter (ML). This ML addresses both derogatory and non-derogatory disputes and requires lenders to more carefully evaluate the risk associated with a consumer.

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What To Do if You’re Still Struggling

Dealing with an unresolved credit report dispute can turn into a consumer nightmare. Even if you’ve followed best practices, like submitting credit report disputes both in writing and online, you may still be unhappy with the results.

Fortunately, you can still submit a complaint to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. They will forward your complaint directly to the company in dispute and work to get a response from them. Another option is to seek guidance from a consumer advocate or an attorney. The National Foundation for Credit Counseling may be a helpful place to start.

Because a credit report and FICO score have such a strong influence on lifelong financial health, the best defense is to be proactive. Regularly monitoring your credit report and working to fix inaccuracies before applying for a mortgage is the best way to prevent major problems.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Kate Dore
Kate Dore |

Kate Dore is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Kate at [email protected]

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Guide to Getting a Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Mortgage

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Couple Celebrating Moving Into New Home With Champagne

Not all homebuyers have the money to make a traditional 20% down payment. The perception that you need one is one of the main financial obstacles that can discourage people from pursuing homeownership.

In reality, there are several options for buyers who want to get a mortgage but can only pull together a small down payment. One of the best ones, particularly for first-time homebuyers, is an FHA loan.

This article offers you a guide to getting an FHA mortgage, including details on how to qualify and the costs to consider.

Understanding the FHA mortgage program

FHA mortgages are insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), part of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The program is a key way that people of moderate income can become homeowners. Nearly 83% of homeowners who borrowed an FHA loan in 2018 were first-time homebuyers, according to a report from HUD.

FHA mortgages are funded by FHA-approved lenders and then insured by the government. This backing protects lenders from loss if borrowers default. Because of this protection, lenders can be more lenient with their qualifying criteria and can accept a significantly lower down payment.

You can get approved for an FHA mortgage with as little as a 3.5% down payment and a credit score of 580. You may also qualify with a credit score as low as 500, though you’ll need to put down 10% instead.

On a $200,000 home, that comes out to a down payment of $7,000 to $20,000 when taking out an FHA loan, depending on your credit score.

Keep in mind you’ll also be responsible for closing costs, which typically cost 2% to 5% of a home’s purchase price. Closing costs are necessary to complete your transaction, and include services such as appraisals and home inspections. However, you may be able to negotiate to have some of these costs covered by the seller.

Is an FHA loan right for you?

FHA loans are particularly suited for several different types of homebuyers.

First-time homebuyers, who often have lower credit scores and smaller available down payments, tend to gravitate to FHA loans. Additionally, boomerang buyers — people who lost a home in the past due to a bankruptcy, foreclosure or short sale — might also benefit from an FHA loan.

Negative credit events such as foreclosure can drop credit scores by more than 100 points in many cases, and there’s typically a waiting period of three years before you’re eligible to buy a home again. Once that’s up, the lower credit score requirements of the FHA loan program could help you become a homeowner again.

Types of FHA mortgages

The FHA offers both 15- and 30-year mortgages, each with fixed rates or adjustable rates.

With a fixed-rate FHA mortgage, your interest rate is consistent through the loan term. You know what your principal and interest payment will be for the life of the mortgage. However, your overall monthly payment may increase or decrease slightly based on your homeowners insurance, mortgage insurance premium and property taxes.

Adjustable-rate FHA mortgages start out with a low and fixed interest rate during an introductory period of time, usually five years. Once the introductory period ends, the interest rate will adjust annually, which means your monthly mortgage payments may increase based on market conditions.

A unique situation where signing up for a low, adjustable-rate FHA mortgage could make sense is if you plan to sell or refinance the home before the introductory period ends and the interest rate changes. Otherwise, a fixed-rate FHA mortgage has predictable principal and interest payments and may be the better option.

FHA loan limits

The FHA imposes a limit on the amount of money that homebuyers are allowed to borrow each year. For 2019, the FHA loan limits for one-unit properties are $314,827 in most U.S. counties and $726,525 for high-cost areas. You can find your county’s loan limit information for one- to four-unit properties by using the FHA’s lookup tool.

Qualifying for an FHA loan

Besides the low down payment, an undeniable benefit of the FHA mortgage is the low credit score requirement. You may qualify for a 3.5% down payment with a credit score of 580 or higher. You can qualify with a minimum credit score of 500, but you’ll have to make at least a 10% down payment.

Your debt-to-income (DTI) ratio is another key metric lenders use when determining whether you can afford a mortgage. DTI measures the percentage of your gross monthly income that is used to repay debt. Lenders consider two DTI ratios when determining your eligibility — the front-end (housing debt) ratio and the back-end (total debt) ratio.

Your front-end ratio is the percentage of your income it would take to cover your total monthly mortgage payment. Lenders typically like to see a front-end ratio of no more than 31%.

Your back-end ratio illustrates the percentage of your income that covers your total monthly debts. Lenders prefer a back-end ratio of 43% or less, but may approve a higher ratio if you have compensating factors, such as a higher credit score or a larger down payment.

You’ll also need to have a steady income and proof of employment for the last two years. Additionally, the home you’re purchasing via FHA must also be your primary residence, at least for the first year.

FHA mortgage insurance

At first glance, an FHA mortgage probably seems like the ultimate hack to buying a home with minimal savings. The flip side to this is you must pay mortgage insurance premiums (MIP) in exchange for your lower down payment.

Remember, FHA-approved lenders offer mortgages that require less money down and flexible qualifying criteria because the Federal Housing Administration will cover the loss if you default on the loan. The government doesn’t do this for free.

FHA mortgage borrowers must “put money in the pot” to cover the cost of this backing through upfront and annual mortgage insurance premiums. The upfront insurance premium costs 1.75% of the loan amount and can be rolled into your mortgage balance.

The annual mortgage insurance premium is divided into 12 installments and paid monthly as part of your mortgage payment. The annual premium ranges from 0.45% to 1.05%, based on your loan term, loan amount and loan-to-value ratio (LTV).

Your LTV is a metric that compares your loan amount to your home’s value. It also represents the equity you have in the property. For example, putting 3.5% down means your LTV would be 96.5%. In other words, you have 3.5% equity in the home, and your loan is covering the remaining 96.5% of the home value.

Here’s the annual MIP on a 30-year FHA mortgage (for loans less than or equal to $625,500):

  • LTV over 95% (you initially have less than 5% equity in the home) – 0.85%
  • LTV under 95% (you initially have more than 5% equity in the home) – 0.8%

As you can see, starting off with a smaller down payment will cost you more in mortgage insurance premiums. Additionally, in most cases, you’ll pay annual MIP for the life of your loan.

However, if your LTV was less than or equal to 90% at time of origination — meaning you made a down payment of at least 10% — you can cancel MIP after 11 years.

FHA loans vs. conventional loans

Government-backed home mortgages like the FHA loan are special programs serving borrowers who might not qualify for a traditional mortgage.

Conventional mortgages are offered by lenders and banks and typically follow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac’s mortgage standards. Fannie and Freddie are government-sponsored enterprises that buy loans from mortgage lenders and banks that fit their requirements.

The qualifying criteria bar for conforming loans is usually set higher. For instance, you typically need to have at least a 620 credit score to qualify for a fixed-rate conventional loan. However, credit score minimums vary by lender, but in any case, a score above 620 will be necessary for the most competitive interest rates.

A misconception about conventional mortgages is that borrowers must have 20% for a down payment to qualify. Mortgage lenders may accept less than 20% down for a conventional mortgage if you have a high credit score and pay their version of mortgage insurance premiums, which is called private mortgage insurance (PMI).

Similar to FHA mortgage insurance, PMI is a private insurance policy that protects the lender if you default. Be careful not to confuse the two types of insurance policies.

If you have PMI on a conventional mortgage, you’re able to request the removal of those insurance payments when you build up 20% equity in your home. On the other hand, the mortgage insurance premiums for most new FHA mortgages can’t be removed unless you refinance.

When to choose a conventional mortgage instead

Choosing an FHA loan can be a shortcut to homeownership if you don’t have much cash saved or the credit history to get approved for a conventional mortgage. Still, the convenience comes at a price that can follow you for the entire loan term.

Furthermore, putting a small sum down on a home means it will take you quite some time to build up equity. A small down payment can also increase your monthly payments and interest rate.

Homebuyers with a strong credit score should consider saving a bit more money and shopping for a conventional home loan first before thinking an FHA mortgage is the only answer to a limited down payment.

If you plan to put down at least 5% toward your home purchase and have a good or excellent credit score, it might make sense to borrow a conventional mortgage instead. A conventional home loan with PMI may not require the same upfront insurance payment as the FHA home loan, so you can find some savings there. Plus, you’re capable of getting rid of PMI without refinancing.

There are a few conventional mortgage programs that allow a 3% down payment, including Fannie Mae’s HomeReady program and Freddie Mac’s Home Possible program. These products also have cancellable mortgage insurance.

Shopping for an FHA loan

So, you’ve reviewed all the information and determined that an FHA loan is right for you. Once you’re ready to start the homebuying process, one of the most important things on your to-do list is shopping around.

Gather quotes from multiple FHA-approved lenders to find the most competitive rate. If you’re unfamiliar with the approved lenders in your area, you can use the HUD’s lender list search to locate them.

Comparison shopping for the best mortgage rate can save you thousands in interest over the life of your loan, according to research from LendingTree, which owns MagnifyMoney. Be sure you also compare the various other costs associated with borrowing a mortgage, including lender fees and title-related expenses.

Don’t rush to a decision. If you’re still not sure which mortgage type will be the most cost-effective for you, ask each lender you shop with to break down the costs for a comparison.

This article contains links to LendingTree, our parent company.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Crissinda Ponder
Crissinda Ponder |

Crissinda Ponder is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Crissinda here

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2019 FHA Loan Limits in Wyoming

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

If you’re looking to buy a house in Wyoming, you probably already know the state boasts the nation’s smallest population and the lowest population density. Its rural nature makes Wyoming the perfect place for homeowners who want to enjoy the natural wonders of the West without living right on top of their neighbors.Wyoming is also a state where homeownership is a reality for a large portion of the population: The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that more than 69% of the homes in the state are occupied by their owners.

So how do you make your Wyoming homeownership dreams come true? One popular option is a loan backed by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). Last year, 0.23% of the nation’s FHA loans originated in Wyoming, where buyers took advantage of the federal backing to access benefits like lower interest rates and smaller down payments.

But keep in mind that FHA loans are subject to limits on the amount you can borrow. Those limits change every year to keep up with housing prices across the country. This year, FHA loan limits have climbed in Wyoming, allowing potential buyers who qualify for an FHA loan to borrow up to $314,827 for a single-family home.

Wyoming FHA Loan Limits by County

County NameOne-FamilyTwo-FamilyThree-FamilyFour-FamilyMedian Sale Price
ALBANY$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $239,000
BIG HORN$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $139,000
CAMPBELL$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $228,000
CARBON$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $174,000
CONVERSE$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $207,000
CROOK$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $199,000
FREMONT$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $77,000
GOSHEN$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $159,000
HOT SPRINGS$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $157,000
JOHNSON$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $225,000
LARAMIE$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $243,000
LINCOLN$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $253,000
NATRONA$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $215,000
NIOBRARA$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $165,000
PARK$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $241,000
PLATTE$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $175,000
SHERIDAN$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $253,000
SUBLETTE$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $235,000
SWEETWATER$316,250 $404,850 $489,350 $608,150 $259,000
TETON$726,525 $930,300 $1,124,475 $1,397,400 $789,000
UINTA$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $206,000
WASHAKIE$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $173,000
WESTON$314,827 $403,125 $487,250 $605,525 $184,000

How are FHA loan limits calculated?

FHA loans are backed by the federal government, and it sets the loan limits.

The government sets a floor limit, which is the maximum amount that buyers are allowed to borrow in areas deemed “low cost.” It also sets a ceiling limit, the maximum amount an eligible buyer can access in an area that’s considered “high-cost.”

The FHA bases its figures on the conforming loan limit — the biggest loan that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will buy — with the floor set at 65% of the conforming loan limit, and the ceiling at 150%.

All 23 counties in Wyoming are considered low-cost, and therefore have the loan limit of $314,827.

These are the limits that the FHA has set for low-cost areas across the United States this year:

  • One-unit: $314,827
  • Two-unit: $403,125
  • Three-unit: $487,250
  • Four-unit: $605,525

These are the limits set for high-cost areas across the USA in 2019:

  • One-unit: $726,525
  • Two-unit: $930,300
  • Three-unit: $1,124,475
  • Four-unit: $1,397,400

Are you eligible for an FHA loan in Wyoming?

Of course, just buying a house in Wyoming won’t guarantee you a $314,827 mortgage, nor does it grant you access to an FHA loan. There are requirements to meet regarding your credit score, debt-to-income ratio and other factors. You can find out more in MagnifyMoney’s complete guide to FHA loans.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Jeanne Sager
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Jeanne Sager is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Jeanne here

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