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The Guide to Getting a Mortgage After Foreclosure

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Home foreclosure rates have reached their lowest points in nearly two decades. Just 4% of mortgages nationally are in some stage of delinquency, including foreclosure, according to the latest analysis from real estate data firm CoreLogic. Still, this adds up to thousands of homeowners facing this type of loss every year.

If you’ve recently gone through a foreclosure, it’s never too early to start preparing your finances and credit profile to re-enter the mortgage market. You’ll have to wait up to seven years before your credit score recovers, but there’s plenty to do in the meantime.

There are several mortgage options available with varying eligibility requirements, and some have shorter waiting periods that you may be able to take advantage of, if you qualify. This article will guide you through getting a mortgage after foreclosure.

How foreclosure affects your credit

Having a mortgage foreclosure on your credit reports is a major credit event that negatively affects your credit history and scores. Your credit scores could suffer a 100-point drop, or more.

The three major credit reporting bureaus — Equifax, Experian and TransUnion — begin reporting your foreclosure once a lender says you’ve missed your first payment. That’s when the seven-year time clock starts ticking.

Research from Fair Isaac Corporation, the company that created FICO scores, found that a hypothetical consumer who had a 780 credit score before a foreclosure could see their score decline by 140 to 160 points, to a range of 620 to 640, once the foreclosure hits their credit profile. A consumer who started out with a 680 credit score could see their score drop to a range of 575 to 595 after foreclosure.

Most mortgage programs have a required minimum credit score that ranges from 580 to 640 to qualify. Most also have set waiting periods for prospective homebuyers who have lost a home to due to foreclosure before they can apply for a new mortgage.

How to get approved for a loan after foreclosure

Each mortgage program has its own set of guidelines and requirements for buyers pursuing homeownership again after suffering a foreclosure. Keep reading for a rundown of how each program handles past foreclosures.

Conventional loans

Conventional loans are mortgages that aren’t guaranteed or insured by any federal agency. However, they are generally purchased by government-sponsored entities Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, and thus conform to their guidelines. They usually have higher credit and income standards than government mortgage programs.

In order to qualify for a conventional mortgage after going through a foreclosure, you must first complete the required waiting period. The standard waiting period for conventional loans is seven years. However, extenuating circumstances may qualify you after three years.

Fannie Mae defines extenuating circumstances as isolated events that are beyond a borrower’s control and lead to an income reduction or increase in financial obligations, such as a job loss. You will need to provide your loan officer with a letter explaining why you had no reasonable alternatives other than defaulting on your mortgage.

Freddie Mac requires loan files with extenuating circumstances to contain the following information:

  • A written statement about the cause of your financial difficulties to explain the outside factors beyond your control.
  • Third-party documentation confirming the events detailed in your statement were an isolated occurrence, significantly reduced your income and/or increased expenses, and rendered you unable to repay your mortgage.
  • Evidence on your credit report and other documentation in the mortgage file of the length of time since completion of your foreclosure to the date of application and of completion of the recovery time period requirements.

Generally speaking, conventional lenders require a minimum credit score of 620 and a maximum debt-to-income ratio of 45%. A traditional down payment is 20%, though it’s possible to qualify for certain conventional loans with a down payment as low as 3%. Borrowers who make down payments of less than 20% are responsible for paying private mortgage insurance as part of their mortgage payments.

FHA loans

Insured by the Federal Housing Administration, FHA loans are often one of the first options foreclosed-upon borrowers turn to. If you’ve gone through a full foreclosure and repaired your credit, you may be eligible for an FHA loan in just three years.

In most cases, borrowers must have at least a 580 credit score and a 3.5% down payment to qualify for an FHA loan. The absolute minimum credit score is 500, though the minimum down payment increases to 10% of the home price for anything less than 580. The maximum debt-to-income ratio is 43%, though borrowers with higher DTI ratios can be approved with compensating factors.

Although FHA loans require significantly lower down payments and look for lower credit scores than conventional mortgages, most loans are insured by annual and upfront mortgage insurance premiums, which will increase your monthly mortgage payment.

Upfront mortgage insurance premiums cost 1.75% of the loan amount for the majority of FHA loans. Annual mortgage insurance premiums cost between 0.45% and 1.05%, depending on the mortgage term, loan amount and down payment percentage. And unless you put down 10% at closing, you’ll pay annual mortgage insurance for the life of your FHA loan. The only other option to get rid of mortgage insurance is to refinance into a conventional mortgage after building at least 20% equity.

VA loans

VA loans are guaranteed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and allow veterans and active military members to purchase a home with as little as zero down payment. It’s a compelling benefit, but an underutilized one: 1 in 3 home-buying veterans doesn’t realize they have a homebuying benefit.

Depending on your service commitment and duty status, you may be eligible for a VA loan after foreclosure. This program also allows veterans who have experienced foreclosure to get a new loan more quickly than other programs — the waiting period is only two years.

An important thing to note is that if you borrowed a VA loan to purchase the home you lost to foreclosure, you lose your entitlement, or the loan guaranty that protects the lender in the event you default on the VA loan. During the foreclosure process, the VA must pay a claim to your lender equal to the amount of your entitlement.

To have your VA entitlement restored after foreclosure, you’ll need to repay the VA in full for the claim amount it previously paid out to your lender, in addition to completing the waiting period. This must be done before you can again qualify for a VA loan.

Although VA loans are more lenient on credit history than conventional loans, lenders generally look for a credit score of at least 620.

USDA loans

The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides guaranteed loans to low and moderate-income homebuyers looking to purchase a house in a designated rural area. Eligible borrowers can use the loan to build, improve and rehabilitate or relocate a home.

It’s possible to qualify for a USDA loan after a foreclosure with a three-year waiting period. You must have at least a 640 credit score, though you may be approved with a lower score. The maximum debt-to-income ratio is 44%.

Use the USDA’s property eligibility tool to determine whether an address falls within a designated rural area.

Non-QM loans

For borrowers who don’t fit the standards for conventional loans or those backed by the federal government, another product has emerged — non-qualified (non-QM) loans. These loans are backed by hedge funds and private equity firms, and the additional risk associated with them usually is reflected in larger down payments or higher interest rates.

With non-QM loans, a lender’s primary concern is your ability to repay, and many don’t require a waiting period for foreclosed-upon borrowers.

Depending on how much time has passed since your foreclosure, most loans require at least 20% down, enough money in the bank as a reserve to cover future payments, and an extensive history of documented income.

For example, Atlanta-based non-QM lender, Angel Oak Home Loans, has a program specifically dedicated to serving foreclosed-upon borrowers with bad credit. Their Home$ense program was created specifically for homebuyers who were caught in the recession and mortgage crisis.

Home$ense allows you to begin the application process immediately after your foreclosure has settled. They offer 5/1 adjustable-rate mortgages and 30-year fixed-rate mortgages, each requiring a minimum 10% down payment. The minimum credit score needed to qualify is 500, and they can approve up to $1 million for your loan.

Comparing mortgage costs after foreclosure

A foreclosure can majorly damage your credit score — and your score is a primary factor that lenders determine the interest rates they’ll offer you. Even a small change in mortgage rates can have a big impact on the amount you’ll pay.

For a score that went from 780 down to 620 after foreclosure, your monthly and lifetime costs increase significantly on both conventional and FHA mortgages.

The example below assumes a 30-year mortgage on a $200,000 home with a 20% down payment, or $40,000.

Conventional loan

 780 credit score620 credit score
Loan amount$160,000 $160,000
Interest rate3.84% 5.43%
Monthly payment$749.18 $901.45
Total interest cost$109,705 $164,521
Total loan cost after 30 years$269,705$324,521

The difference in interest for conventional loans at each credit score is nearly $55,000.

The next example assumes a 30-year FHA mortgage on a $200,000 home with a 3.5% down payment, or $7,000.

FHA loan

 780 credit score620 credit score
Loan amount$193,000$193,000
Interest rate3.84%5.43%
Monthly payment$903.70$1,087.37
Total interest cost$132,331 $198,454
Total loan cost after 30 years$325,331$391,454

The cost difference between the two credit score tiers is just over $66,000.

Based on these examples, you can potentially save money by waiting to buy a home until you’ve improved your credit score above 620.

Remember, your credit score, home price and down payment will all affect your interest rate. It’s also important to ask about points, mortgage insurance and closing costs, which are not included in these examples.

Financial risks after foreclosure

Foreclosures have financial impacts that can stretch beyond the damage done to your credit scores. If you’ve had a foreclosure, you need to be aware of the risks associated with deficiency judgements. This is when your mortgage lender tries to recoup any losses they incurred after selling your home in a foreclosure auction.

In some states, lenders have the ability to hire debt collectors to go after your remaining debt, court fees and attorney’s fees, plus any interest that has accumulated.

How does a deficiency judgement work? Say you originally took out a mortgage loan of $250,000, but the value of the home decreased to only $150,000 after the financial crisis. If you foreclosed at that point and your lender sold your home at its current value, the $100,000 difference between the loan balance and the price it sold for would be the deficiency balance.

Although deficiency judgements are not a common problem right now, they could come back to haunt you once you’ve recovered from a foreclosure, secured a better job and have started rebuilding savings. Deficiency judgements are still allowed in most states, and the statutes of limitation range from 30 days to 20 years.

You won’t know it’s coming until you receive a court notice, and many times your debt will no longer be with the original lender. Interest may become one of the largest expenses, especially if your debt is old. And once there is a judgement, you’re on the hook for the unpaid balance.

Boosting your approval chances after foreclosure

Regardless of which type of mortgage you decide to pursue after foreclosure, cleaning up your finances will help the entire process go more smoothly. Consider the following tips to help boost your chances at mortgage approval.

Pay down credit card debt
Paying off your credit card debt completely is one of the fastest ways to improve your credit scores. But if you can’t quite pay it all off yet, work on paying down each card to a balance that equal less than 30% of your credit limit. Once you’ve paid down your credit card debt, you should see the change reflected in your credit score in a couple months.

Don’t apply for other credit
Resist the temptation of increasing your debt burden by applying for additional credit products. This includes car loans, store-branded credit cards and other types of financing. Your debt-to-income ratio is one of the most important factors lenders look for when trying to determine your eligibility for a mortgage — it’s arguably more important than your credit score.

Avoid new blemishes on your credit report
Prioritize establishing and maintaining on-time payments for all your debt obligations. You wouldn’t want to begin new waiting periods for negative events to be removed from your credit reports again.

The bottom line

Losing a home to foreclosure can be a devastating experience, but don’t let it stop you from trying your hand again at homeownership in the not-too-distant future. It’s important to take time to explore all available options, selecting a program that best fits your current financial situation and securing the best possible terms.

Our guide was designed to offer you a comprehensive overview of the options that are currently available, but it’s always a great idea to conduct a bit of your own research. As more borrowers prepare to enter the market in the coming months and years, additional mortgage options may continue to emerge.

The information in this article is accurate as of the date of publishing.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Crissinda Ponder
Crissinda Ponder |

Crissinda Ponder is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Crissinda here

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The Pros and Cons of a Credit Union Mortgage

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

co-op shared branching for credit unions
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Though banks are better known, their not-for-profit cousins known as credit unions still command a significant chunk of the mortgage market. During the first quarter of 2019, credit unions originated 8% of mortgages in the United States, according to credit union consulting firm Callahan & Associates.

Often overlooked, credit unions can be a good option when shopping for a mortgage. Joining a credit union can make it possible for you to reap benefits such as lower origination fees or a more competitive interest rate.

This article will explore whether homebuyers might get a better deal from a credit union mortgage and the implications a relationship with a credit union might bring.

How is a credit union different from a bank?

Although credit unions fall under the umbrella of financial institutions, they differ from commercial banks in several key ways.

Banks are typically owned by their shareholders, credit unions are not-for-profit organizations owned by their members. This often translates to better rates and terms on their financial products.

While banks can serve the entire nation, credit unions tend to be community-based institutions that play a significant role in serving people in a local area.

“Credit unions are a really important part of the financial services fabric,” said Barry Zigas, director of housing policy at the Consumer Federation of America in Washington, D.C.

On the other hand, credit unions typically don’t offer the same suite of products that a larger bank is often known for. While you can take advantage of a checking, savings or individual retirement account, for example, you may find it challenging to access financial planning or investment services.

Below we highlight how credit unions stack up against banks.

Credit Union Commercial Bank
  • Not-for-profit organization
  • Member-owned
  • Typically have higher yields on deposit accounts
  • Typically have lower interest rates on credit and loan products
  • Membership is based on an affiliation or geographical location
  • Smaller branch and ATM networks
  • Federally insured up to $250,000 through the National Credit Union Administration
  • For-profit organization
  • Shareholder-owned
  • Yields are usually lower on deposit accounts
  • Interest rates on credit and loan products are usually higher
  • Anyone can establish a relationship with a bank
  • Larger branch and ATM networks
  • Federally insured up to $250,000 through the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.

Getting a mortgage from a credit union

One of the main differences when applying for a mortgage through a credit union rather than a traditional bank is that you must be a member of the credit union before you can attempt to borrow money.

Credit union customers own “shares” in the institution, typically via a $5 deposit held in a particular savings account.

In order to become a member, you must meet the membership requirements outlined by the credit union you’re interested in joining. Credit union members have a common bond, which could be any of the following, according to the National Credit Union Administration:

  • An employer.
  • A geographical location where those interested in joining live, work, worship or attend school.
  • A group membership, such as a homeowners association or labor union.

Family members of credit union customers are also often eligible to join.

One of the key reasons for choosing a credit union: You may be able to save money on lender fees, said Bruce McClary, vice president of communications at the National Foundation for Credit Counseling. A credit union may also be more flexible with credit score requirements than a bank and may offer lower mortgage interest rates.

However, since credit unions are small organizations, there’s the risk that your credit union’s name or ownership could change. Your credit union could also sell the rights to service your mortgage to a third party, which may impact your customer service after your loan closes.

“Even though you may be saving money on origination fees and you may not be paying as many other fees with your mortgage — so it might be more affordable at the onset — you may end up having to deal with a servicer that you weren’t dealing with before, rather than dealing with your credit union,” McClary said.

It’s important to note that bank-originated mortgages can also be sold and handed over to other servicers, so this issue isn’t unique to credit unions.

Still, developing a relationship with a credit union over time — as in, the organization’s representatives are very familiar with you and your finances — could work in your favor when you decide to apply for a mortgage, McClary said.

“Being a member of the credit union might actually put you in an advantage in terms of approval or maybe in terms of negotiating terms of the mortgage in the application process,” he said.

Pros and cons of a credit union mortgage

Consider the following benefits and drawbacks of a credit union mortgage before you choose this type of lender for your home purchase.

Pros

  • Potentially lower origination fees and other lending costs.
  • Mortgage rates may be lower.
  • A greater sense of community, since the institution is member-owned.
  • Potential for more negotiating room during the mortgage lending process.
  • Shared branching benefits, which allow you to use the services of an outside credit union.

Cons

  • You must meet eligibility guidelines to join the credit union and become a member before applying for a mortgage.
  • Credit unions typically have smaller branch networks.
  • There’s the risk of your credit union closing, switching owners or going through some other changes, which can affect how your mortgage is serviced.
  • Typically carry fewer product offerings than traditional banks.
  • May have limited online banking capabilities.

The bottom line

A traditional bank isn’t your only option for getting a mortgage. Depending on what your lending needs are and how much you value building a relationship with your financial institution, a credit union might be right for you.

However, if you’re concerned about mortgage servicing, be sure to check with your credit union for more information about how they plan to handle your mortgage once it’s originated.

“I think consumers who are members of credit unions should certainly go to their credit union and find out what their loan terms are, what the application process is like and maybe even ask, ‘Are these loans that you hold or are these loans that you sell off?’” Zigas said.

Zigas also recommended practicing that same due diligence with other types of mortgage lenders and shopping around.

“It’s a very competitive environment, and there’s no assurance that your credit union will actually be offering you the best possible rate,” he said.

It pays to comparison shop before you settle on a particular mortgage lender. For example, if you were looking to buy a house that required a $300,000 mortgage, you could potentially save more than $42,000 in interest over the life of a 30-year term by shopping for the best rate, according to data from LendingTree’s latest Mortgage Rate Competition Index.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Crissinda Ponder
Crissinda Ponder |

Crissinda Ponder is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Crissinda here

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We Downsized Our House So We Could Travel the World

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Purchase agreement for house

You’ve settled into your dream house and have called it home for years. But now you realize your family has more house than it actually needs, plus a large mortgage to match. Is it time to downsize?

The answer depends on what your financial and lifestyle goals are. Below, we share one story about a Florida-based family downsizing their home. Giving up 1,600 square feet allowed them to pay off their mortgage in a fraction of the time and achieve their goals of globe-trotting.

Keith and Nicole’s downsizing story

Keith and Nicole DeBickes loved their house in Delray Beach, Fla., but with more than 3,500 square feet of living space, it was perhaps larger than they actually needed at the time. “One day, I came to the realization that I had a 400-square-foot bathroom that I spent 20 minutes a day in, and we had this big formal dining room and formal living room that we never used,” Nicole said. “And we had a really big mortgage to cover it.”

She also wasn’t thrilled with the schools in the area — or with the idea of paying for private education. She and Keith knew they had to make a change.

The DeBickes (who work as an engineer manager and software engineer, respectively, and make between $100,000 and $200,000 combined annually) put their house on the market and started looking for a smaller home that was zoned for better schools.

They eventually settled on a 1,900-square-foot, four-bedroom house in Boca Raton. “We wanted to buy with the idea that we’d have a much smaller mortgage and we wouldn’t have to pay for private school,” Nicole said. “Then we could do things with our family like travel or retire earlier.”

The couple took out a 30-year mortgage for $110,000 in 2007, much smaller than what they had before. They then refinanced into a 15-year loan for $150,000 in 2009 to remodel their kitchen and upgrade their electrical work.

Pros and cons of downsizing your home

Deciding to downsize your house is a major decision that takes a good amount of effort and planning. Consider the following pros and cons before you choose to move forward.

Pros

  • Reduces your mortgage debt.
  • Potentially reduces other housing-related expenses, such as utilities.
  • Frees up cash to reduce or eliminate non-mortgage debt.
  • Gives you a smaller house to maintain.

Cons

  • Reduces your available square footage, giving you less space than you’re used to.
  • Unless you have enough equity to cover the purchase of your new home, you must qualify for a new mortgage.
  • You’ll have to sell your existing home.
  • You will have to shell out thousands of dollars for both your home sale and new home purchase.

Tips to pay off your mortgage more quickly

The DeBickes didn’t like the idea of having a mortgage on their downsized home. “We didn’t want to be working every month for a mortgage,” Nicole said. “We don’t like debt, and we wanted it to be gone.”

The couple buckled down and started making double and triple payments every month on their home loan. They drove older cars, carpooled to save on gas and maintenance and packed lunches to cut down on their food costs. The family took relatively modest vacations, staying with family or driving to the west coast of Florida.

All their diligence paid off — the DeBickles submitted their last mortgage payment in fall 2013.

If you’re on a mission to be mortgage-free sooner rather than later, here are tips to help you get there:

  • Make extra principal payments each month. Try rounding up your monthly mortgage payment. For example, if your payment is $1,325 every month, pay $1,400 instead or increase the amount by even more, if your budget allows. Be sure to communicate to your lender that you want the extra payments applied to your principal balance and not your interest.
  • Pay biweekly instead of monthly. Split your monthly mortgage payment into biweekly payments. Since there are 52 weeks in a year, you would make 26 half payments, or 13 full payments. Making one extra full payment each year could allow you to shave a few years off your mortgage term.
  • Consider recasting your mortgage. If you have at least $5,000 or $10,000 — depending on your lender’s requirements — you could use that lump sum to recast your mortgage. A mortgage recast allows you to lower your monthly payments by paying your lender a set amount of money to reduce your mortgage principal.
  • Dedicate windfalls to paying down your principal. Every time you get a tax refund, bonus or some other windfall, use it to pay down your outstanding loan balance.

Achieving financial freedom

Although they’re now mortgage-free, the DeBickes were still putting money away like crazy. They eventually quit their jobs (temporarily) and traveled abroad for two years with their boys, who were 10 and 7 in 2015. Without a mortgage payment, they were able to amass the $190,000 they thought they needed to travel for 28 months. “We have been living on one salary and saving or paying off the house with the other for 12 years,” Nicole said.

Despite their hefty savings goals, they’ve been able to take the boys to Europe and Costa Rica, too. “We want to really get them prepared for what travel is going to be like,” Nicole said.

The trip, which is outlined on the family’s website, FamilyWithLatitude.com, took the foursome everywhere from Ireland to France, among other spots. Nicole and Keith “road schooled” their children as they traveled, with the help of Florida’s virtual school program that allows them to take classes online.

They planned to rent their home while they were away, which will help finance part of the trip and cover some house expenses, such as insurance and property taxes. In the meantime, they are maxing out their 401(k)s and taking care of college funds for the boys.

“(In 2014) we were able to purchase the prepaid college plan for my youngest son in a lump sum,” said Nicole, who had already done the same thing for her eldest. “So I know that both boys have good college funds to take care of them.”

The bottom line

If you’re looking to move into a smaller home and save money in the process, it might make sense for you to downsize. Just be sure you’re clear on the benefits and drawbacks, and how the choice to cut down your square footage would align with your personal goals.

In the end, the lack of debt will allow the DeBickes the freedom to not only to travel the globe, but to hang out with the important people in their lives.

“With both of us working, we haven’t been able to spend as much time with the kids as we wanted,” Nicole said. “It’s a real luxury that we can do this. I’m looking forward to spending time together as a family.”

This article contains links to LendingTree, our parent company.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Kate Ashford
Kate Ashford |

Kate Ashford is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Kate at [email protected]

Crissinda Ponder
Crissinda Ponder |

Crissinda Ponder is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Crissinda here

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