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Average U.S. Credit Card Debt in 2019

Editorial Note: The content of this article is based on the author’s opinions and recommendations alone. It has not been previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any of our network partners.

Updated – March 26, 2019

Credit card balances are at all-time highs. Rate increases by the Federal Reserve  will mean consumers pay billions more in interest charges.

We’ve updated our statistics on credit card debt in America to illustrate how much consumers are now taking on.

  • Americans paid banks $113 billion in credit card interest in 2018, up 12% from the $101 billion in interest paid in 2017, and up 49% over the last five years, as Fed rate increases have been passed on to consumers. MagnifyMoney analyzed FDIC data through December 2018 for each bank whose deposits are insured by the FDIC.
  • The four Federal Reserve rate increases in 2018 meant most credit card Annual Percentage Rates (APRs) increased a full percentage point more last year. Even without any interest rate increases in 2019, we estimate the increase in interest paid in the coming will continue to grow, putting Americans on track to pay over $122 billion in interest in 2019, an additional $9 billion more than the $113 billion currently being paid annually. Our analysis of the impact of Fed rate hikes found credit card rates are the most sensitive to Fed rate hikes, rising more than twice as fast as mortgage rates.
  • Average APRs on credit card accounts assessed interest are now 16.86%, up nearly 4 percentage points in five years, according to the Federal Reserve.

  • Total revolving credit balances are $1.03 trillion as of January 2019. The figure, reported monthly by the Federal Reserve, is the total amount of revolving credit balances reported by financial institutions, the overwhelming majority of which are credit and retail card balances, according to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB). As of March 2018, non-card-related revolving balances such as overdraft lines of credit were approximately $74 billion, according to our analysis of the FDIC data used by the Federal Reserve to calculate total revolving balances.

  • Americans carry $682 billion in credit card debt that is not paid in full each month. This estimate includes people paying interest, as well as those carrying a balance on a card with a 0% intro rate. We based the estimate on a CFPB study of credit card account data that found 29% of total credit card balances are paid off each month, implying 71% of credit card balances revolve each month. We applied the percentage to the Federal Reserve’s revolving credit balance data less $74 billion in non-credit card revolving debt to reach $682 billion in credit card balances carried over month to month.
  • 43.8% of credit card accounts aren’t paid in full each month, according to the American Bankers Association. Those who don’t pay in full tend to have higher balances, which is why the percentage of balances not paid in full (71%) is higher than the percentage of accounts not paid in full (43.8%).
  • The average credit card balance is $6,348 for individuals with a credit card, according to Experian. This excludes store credit cards, which have an average balance of $1,841. Both figures include the statement balances of individuals who pay their balance in full each month.

Credit card use

  • Number of Americans who actively use credit cards: 176 million as of 2018, according to Transunion.
  • Average number of credit cards per consumer: 3.1, according to Experian. That doesn’t include an average of 2.5 retail credit cards.
  • Number of Americans who carry credit card debt month to month: 70 million.

Credit card debt

The following estimates only include the credit card balances of those who carry credit card debt from month to month — they exclude balances of those who pay in full each month.

  • Total credit card debt in the U.S. (not paid in full each month): $686 billion
  • Average APR: 16.86% (also excludes those with a 0% promotional rate for a balance transfer or purchases)
    • This estimate comes from the Federal Reserve’s monthly reporting of APRs on accounts assessed interest by banks.

Credit card balances

The following figures include the credit card statement balances of all credit card users, including those who pay their bill in full each month.

  • Total credit card balances: $1.03 trillion as of January 2019, an increase of 3.2% from January 2018. This includes credit and retail cards, and a small amount of overdraft line of credit balances.
  • Average credit card balance: $6,358, according to Experian (excludes retail credit cards, which have lower balances. The average consumer has $1,841 in balances on retail cards and we estimate combining all consumers with retail or credit card debt the average is approximately $5,000 per individual). All averages include those who pay their bill in full each month.

Who pays off their credit card bills?

According to the American Bankers Association, in 2018, accounts that are paid in full versus carrying debt month to month comprise the following mix of open credit card accounts:

  • Revolvers (carry debt month to month): 43.8% of credit card accounts
  • Transactors (use card, but pay in full): 30.4% of credit card accounts
  • Dormant (have a card, but don’t use it actively): 25.8% of credit card accounts

Delinquency rates

Credit card debt becomes delinquent when a bank reports a missed payment to the major credit reporting bureaus. Banks typically don’t report a missed payment until a person is at least 30 days late in paying. When a consumer doesn’t pay for at least 90 days, the credit card balance becomes seriously delinquent. Banks are very likely to take a total loss on seriously delinquent balances.

Delinquency rates peaked in 2009 at nearly 7%, but in 2018 they have remained below 2.5%.

Debt burden by income

Those with the highest credit card debts aren’t necessarily the most financially insecure. According to the 2016 Survey of Consumer Finances, the top 10% of income earners who carried credit card debt had nearly twice as much debt as the average.

However, people with lower incomes have more burdensome credit card debt loads. Consumers in the lowest earning quintile had an average credit card debt of $2,100. However, their debt-to-income ratio was 13.9%. On the high end, earners in the top decile had an average of $12,500 in credit card debt. But debt-to-income ratio was just 4.8%.

Income Percentile

Median Income

Average CC Debt

CC Debt: Income Ratio

0%-20%

$15,100

$2,100

13.9%

20%-40%

$31,400

$3,800

12.1%

40%-60%

$52,700

$4,400

8.3%

60%-80%

$86,100

$6,800

7.9%

80%-90%

$136,000

$8,700

6.4%

90%-100%

$260,200

$12,500

4.8%

 

Although high-income earners have more manageable credit card debt loads on average, they aren’t taking steps to pay off the debt faster than lower income debt carriers. In fact, high-income earners are as likely to pay the minimum as those with below average incomes. If an economic recession leads to job losses at all wage levels, we could see high levels of credit card debt in default.

Generational differences in credit card use

In 2017, Generation X surpassed the baby boomer generation to have the highest credit card balances. Experian estimates that on average, Generation X has a balance of $7,750 per person, 21.94% more than the national average ($6,354). Boomers carry nearly as much as Generation X with an average balance of $7,550.

At the other end of the spectrum, millennials, who are often characterized as frivolous spenders and are too quick to take on debt, have nearly the lowest credit card balances. Their median balance clocks in at $4,315. The youngest generation, Gen Z, has the smallest average balance of $2,047 per person.

How does your state compare?

Using data from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York Consumer Credit Panel and Equifax, you can compare median credit card balances and credit card delinquency.

State

Credit Card Debt Per Debtor

Credit Card Debt Per House

Alabama

$3,710.56

$7,198.48

Alaska

$5,879.85

$11,406.91

Arizona

$4,299.70

$8,341.42

Arkansas

$3,289.01

$6,380.69

California

$4,569.51

$8,864.85

Colorado

$4,898.56

$9,503.20

Connecticut

$5,171.89

$10,033.47

Delaware

$4,338.88

$8,417.42

Florida

$4,318.35

$8,377.59

Georgia

$4,727.46

$9,171.27

Hawaii

$5,330.46

$10,341.09

Idaho

$3,791.84

$7,356.18

Illinois

$4,412.71

$8,560.65

Indiana

$3,624.05

$7,030.65

Iowa

$3,169.16

$6,148.17

Kansas

$3,854.05

$7,476.85

Kentucky

$3,457.67

$6,707.88

Louisiana

$3,767.91

$7,309.75

Maine

$3,905.56

$7,576.78

Maryland

$5,287.61

$10,257.96

Massachusetts

$4,720.53

$9,157.83

Michigan

$3,458.51

$6,709.51

Minnesota

$4,257.26

$8,259.08

Mississippi

$3,204.95

$6,217.60

Missouri

$3,763.46

$7,301.11

Montana

$3,732.83

$7,241.69

Nebraska

$3,594.46

$6,973.25

Nevada

$4,263.19

$8,270.59

New Hampshire

$4,943.44

$9,590.27

New Jersey

$5,361.06

$10,400.47

New Mexico

$4,185.93

$8,120.71

New York

$4,969.84

$9,641.50

North Carolina

$4,124.04

$8,000.63

North Dakota

$3,756.19

$7,287.00

Ohio

$3,738.95

$7,253.56

Oklahoma

$4,038.90

$7,835.47

Oregon

$3,881.17

$7,529.48

Pennsylvania

$4,209.21

$8,165.86

Rhode Island

$4,376.34

$8,490.10

South Carolina

$4,187.65

$8,124.04

South Dakota

$3,608.28

$7,000.07

Tennessee

$3,903.24

$7,572.28

Texas

$4,937.00

$9,577.78

Utah

$3,775.21

$7,323.92

Vermont

$4,199.77

$8,147.56

Virginia

$5,404.32

$10,484.38

Washington

$4,568.09

$8,862.09

West Virginia

$3,381.36

$6,559.84

Wisconsin

$3,410.29

$6,615.96

Wyoming

$3,944.72

$7,652.76

 

State

Silent

Boomers

Gen X

Millennials

Gen Z

Alaska

$5,456

$9,495

$8,995

$4,464


$1,518


Alabama

$3,511

$6,461

$6,485


$3,324


$1,455




Arkansas

$3,194

$5,995

$6,197


$3,240


$1,803


Arizona

$4,149

$6,967

$6,778


$3,575


$1,555


California

$4,232

$7,050

$6,578


$3,654


$1,596


Colorado

$4,004

$7,499

$7,439


$3,833



$1,514


Connecticut

$4,091

$8,179

$8,046


$3,716



$2,567


Dist. of Columbia

$5,486

$7,976

$7,393


$4,596



$2,814


Delaware

$4,147

$7,128

$7,144


$3,285



$1,608


Florida

$4,311

$7,047

$6,615


$3,639



$1,837


Georgia

$4,356

$7,517

$6,972


$3,540


$1,835


Hawaii

$4,386

$7,073

$7,355


$4,203


$1,657


Iowa

$2,367

$5,297

$6,163


$2,857


$935


Idaho

$3,477

$6,147

$6,332


$3,193


$928


Illinois

$3,641

$7,054

$7,040


$3,537


$1,556


Indiana

$3,137

$5,998

$6,174


$3,003


$1,402


Kansas

$3,187

$6,514

$6,930


$3,292


$1,421


Kentucky

$3,044

$5,727

$6,080


$3,082


$1,372


Louisiana

$3,679

$6,598

$6,561


$3,425


$1,971


Massachusetts

$3,481

$7,017

$7,022


$3,479

$1,882


Maryland

$4,341

$7,994

$7,458


$3,671


$1,749


Maine

$3,107

$6,054

$6,531


$3,375


$1,286


Michigan

$3,436

$6,049

$6,113


$2,971


$1,523


Minnesota

$3,025

$6,299

$6,898


$3,244


$1,338


Missouri

$3,265

$6,333

$6,757


$3,279


$1,346


Mississippi

$3,218

$5,634

$5,718


$3,043


$2,011


Montana

$3,285

$5,977

$6,868


$3,385


$1,506


North Carolina

$3,481

$6,566

$6,710


$3,397


$1,486


North Dakota

$2,141

$5,362

$6,646


$3,326


$1,467


Nebraska

$2,717

$5,909

$6,498


$3,136


$1,388


New Hampshire

$3,582

$7,140

$7,443


$3,519


$1,666


New Jersey

$4,126

$8,011

$7,882


$3,928


$2,241


New Mexico

$4,373

$6,906

$6,534


$3,532


$1,207


Nevada

$4,733

$6,993

$6,357


$3,700


$1,185


New York

$3,906

$7,127

$7,234


$3,986


$2,495


Ohio

$3,313

$6,383

$6,530


$3,135


$1,465


Oklahoma

$3,484

$6,789

$6,900


$3,493


$1,641


Oregon

$3,618

$6,502

$6,481


$3,245


$856


Pennsylvania

$3,282

$6,550

$7,059

$3,457


$1,545


Rhode Island

$3,524

$7,162

$7,313


$3,371


$1,786


South Carolina

$4,019

$6,537

$6,559


$3,281

$1,375


South Dakota

$2,584

$5,710

$6,900

$3,250


$1,531


Tennessee

$3,388

$6,309

$6,505


$3,308


$1,737


Texas

$4,350

$7,591

$7,119


$3,779


$1,945


Utah

$3,364

$6,411

$6,713


$3,070


$932


Virginia

$4,132

$7,956

$7,968


$3,985

$1,692


Vermont

$3,681

$6,197

$6,547


$3,297


$2,511


Washington

$3,947

$7,365

$7,190


$3,500


$1,355


Wisconsin

$2,740

$5,673

$6,289


$2,914


$992


West Virginia

$2,914

$5,573

$6,158


$3,238


$1,166


Wyoming

$3,523

$6,356

$6,889

$3,663

$1,442

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

MagnifyMoney
MagnifyMoney |

Have a question to ask or a story to share? Contact the MagnifyMoney team at [email protected]

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News

Survey: Consumers Hate ATM Fees Above All Others

Editorial Note: The content of this article is based on the author’s opinions and recommendations alone. It has not been previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any of our network partners.

Paying an ATM fee can feel like a punch to the stomach. There’s nothing worse than having to spend money in order to access your money. With ATM fees typically running between $2.50 to $3, they can add up fast if you’re not paying attention to where you withdraw money.

A new survey of over 1,000 Americans by MagnifyMoney, a LendingTree company, found that Americans hate ATM fees even more than such widely despised charges as airline fees and shipping surcharges.

Despite ATM fees being America’s most hated fee, they are completely avoidable—it just takes a little legwork. We’ll even show you how easy it can be to skip out on your least favorite fee.

Key findings

  • Nearly 27% of respondents said they hate ATM fees more than any other fee—earning them the title as the most hated fee in the land.
  • The second most hated fee is the dreaded bank overdraft fee (22%), followed by credit card annual fees (7%).
  • Unsurprisingly, ATM fees are also the most commonly paid fees, with 37% of respondents having paid one or more in the last year.
  • Millennials and Midwesterners are most likely to fork over money to pay an ATM fee.
  • The second most commonly paid fee was a bank overdraft fee (18%), followed by shipping fees (15%).
  • Most people(76%) are willing to drive further out of their way to skip ATM fees. Nearly one in 10 would drive more than 10 miles out of their way to find an in-network ATM. However, most would only go one to five miles (48%) or six to 10 miles (19%) out of the way.

The top three most hated fees: ATM, overdraft and credit card fees

Out of all the annoying fees Americans get slapped with—from shipping fees to baggage fees to convenience fees for event tickets—people have the most aversion to ATMs fees.

One reason could be the staggering number of Americans who were forced to pay a surcharge to access their own cash. Our survey found that 37% of Americans have paid an ATM fee — either charged by the bank for out-of-network ATM use or by the ATM owner — in the past year, and 35% have paid one in the past month. Millennials and Midwesterners were the groups that incurred ATM fees the most often.

We found that the second most hated fee was bank overdraft charges, with 22% of Americans saying they hate those fees the most, followed by 7% who despise credit card annual fees the most. Interestingly, a whopping 18% of Americans were charged with an overdraft fee in the past year, while 13% paid a credit card annual fee.

While airline fees tend to get a bad rep, the number of Americans who hate those surcharges the most pales in comparison to those who hate financial fees: Only 7% of Americans hate airline baggage fees the most, 3% airline seat selection fees, and just 1% airline flight change fees.

What people do to avoid fees

Our survey reveals that most people would make a serious effort to avoid paying an ATM fees: Nearly half say they would drive between one to five miles to avoid an ATM fee, while one in 10 would really go the distance and over 10 miles to free themselves of an ATM fee. Not everyone is willing to put in the extra effort, though: A surprising 24% of Americans would not drive any distance to avoid an ATM fee.

Many Americans enroll in overdraft protection to avoid extra bank fees. In many cases, overdraft protection programs are effective shields against overdraft fees. It’s not surprising that since overdraft fees are the second most hated types of fees, nearly half of Americans are enrolled in some sort of protection plan. Other courses of action Americans took to avoid paying a fee included not signing up for a credit card with an annual fee (24%), making a purchase in-store instead of online (19%) and bringing only carry-on luggage (15%).

How to avoid paying ATM fees

While ATM fees are widely disliked, they are also completely avoidable. It might take a little bit of effort and inconvenience, but if you really don’t want to pay to access your own cash, there are simple steps you can take. For example:

  • Utilize your bank’s mobile app. Many of them have tools to help you find nearby in-network ATMs.
  • Next time you are paying with your debit card at a store, ask for cash back instead of using an ATM.
  • Consider a credit union that’s part of the CO-OP network. You’ll get fee-free access to nearly 30,000 ATMs.
  • Explore banks that reimburse you for ATM fees.

The best banks for people that hate ATM fees

A number of banks, particularly online banks, offer incentives that reduce or eliminate out-of-network ATM fees. If ATM fees are the bane of your existence (or if you just want to avoid paying cash to access your own cash), these banks could be a good fit for you.

Bank / account ATM fee policy
E* TRADE Max-Rate Checking AccountUnlimited ATM fee refunds. Must maintain an average monthly balance of $5,000 to waive $15 monthly fee.
Axos Bank Essential Checking accountUnlimited domestic ATM fee reimbursements.
TIAA Bank Yield Pledge Checking accountMonthly reimbursement up to $15 for U.S. ATM fees. Unlimited reimbursement for accounts with an average daily balance of $5,000.
State Farm Bank Checking and Interest Checking accountsUnlimited ATM fee reimbursement if direct deposit has been made to account during statement cycle. Or, if no deposit has been made, up to $10 ATM fee reimbursement per statement cycle.
Radius Bank Rewards Checking, Champion Checking, Superhero Checking and Hybrid Checking accountsUnlimited ATM fee reimbursements.
Schwab Bank High Yield Investor Checking AccountUnlimited ATM fee rebates.
Ally BankUp to $10 ATM fee reimbursement per statement cycle.
First Republic Bank ATM Rebate Checking accountUnlimited ATM fee rebates. Must maintain a minimum average balance of $3,500 to waive $25 monthly service fee.

Fee information is accurate as of November 5, 2019.

Methodology

For this survey, MagnifyMoney commissioned Qualtrics to conduct an online survey of 1,028 Americans. The survey was fielded September 11-13, 2019, with the sample base proportioned to represent the general population.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Sarah Berger
Sarah Berger |

Sarah Berger is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Sarah here

Advertiser Disclosure

News

Cities with the Largest CO2 Output Per Household

Editorial Note: The content of this article is based on the author’s opinions and recommendations alone. It has not been previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any of our network partners.

A warming planet can really burn consumers…financially, at least. Climate change has cost U.S. taxpayers $350 billion over the past decade, according to one report from the Government Accountability Office, and that number is expected to swell to $35 billion per year by 2050.

So which households are to blame? We have found that the carbon footprints of households in different cities varies widely, with households in the West spewing more carbon emissions than ones in urban, denser areas.

For this study, we’ve defined carbon footprint as the combined total annual amount of carbon dioxide produced to support the lives of each member of a household. In other words, every time you drive your car, buy groceries or heat your home, you’re adding to your household’s carbon footprint.

The study analyzes the largest 200 metros in the U.S. by population, and measures the annual average annual metric tons of CO2 emitted, per household.

Take New York City, with a population of nearly 14 million. It’s consistently ranked as one of the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases among U.S. cities, but this study found it has the smallest carbon footprint on an emissions per household basis.

Key Findings

  • Among the top 200 cities that we looked at, Provo, Utah had the largest carbon footprint, spewing a whopping average of 10.55 metric tons of carbon dioxide per household a year.
  • The West dominated the ranking’s top three cities with the biggest carbon footprint, with Ogden, Utah ranking No. 2 — boasting an average annual 10.16 metric tons of CO2 per household. No. 3 was Greeley, Colo., with an annual average of 10.04 metric tons of CO2 per household.
  • In contrast, New York households had the smallest carbon footprint, emitting an annual average of just 5.38 metric tons of carbon dioxide.
  • California is quite climate-friendly. San Francisco had the second smallest carbon footprint, with an annual average of 7.12 metric tons of CO2 per household, followed by Los Angeles, with an annual average of 7.15 metric tons of CO2 per household.
  • In general, wealthier cities with more cars per household had larger carbon footprints, while denser cities had smaller footprints.

Cities with the largest carbon footprints

Our study revealed that cities in the West have the largest carbon footprints. The top five cities with the highest average CO2 emissions per household are:

  • Provo, Utah (10.55 metric tons)
  • Ogden, Utah (10.16 metric tons)
  • Greeley, Colo. (10.04 metric tons)
  • Appleton, Wis. (9.86 metric tons)
  • McAllen, Texas (9.81 metric tons)

Not surprisingly, we found that cities with larger carbon footprints tended to have more cars per household. Transportation is a major factor when calculating a household’s carbon footprint—one study even found that housing and transportation are responsible for more than half of all U.S. household carbon emissions.

Households in Provo which have the biggest average household carbon footprint in our study, own an average of 2.1 cars and travel approximately 25,000 miles annually by car, while only 2% of commuters take public transit. Ogden, with the second-largest carbon footprint, touted similar statistics: Households own an average 2.04 cars and travel approximately 24,000 miles in them annually, while only 2% of commuters use public transit.

Cities with the smallest carbon footprints

In general, dense, urban cities have the smallest average carbon footprints. We found that the top five cities with the lowest average CO2 footprints per household are:

  • New York (5.38 metric tons)
  • San Francisco (7.12 metric tons)
  • Los Angeles, Calif. (7.15 metric tons)
  • Miami (7.65 metric tons)
  • Chicago (7.65 metric tons)

One factor that is likely responsible for cities with relatively small carbon footprints is the widespread use of public transit. Our study found that households in New York City have 1.27 cars and travel 13,000 miles annually (compared to Provo’s household average of 2.1 cars and 25,000 miles of travel). Meanwhile, an impressive 31% of New York City commuters take public transit (compared to Provo’s 2%). The average San Francisco household has 1.66 cars and travels 17,000 miles annually, while only 15% of commuters take public transit.

Another reason for the smaller carbon footprint in big cities can be chalked up to urban density. New York City has the highest residential density score, likely due to the low number of single-family, detached homes in the city. We found that 37% of New York City households were single-family, detached homes, while that number was 67% in Provo and 75% in Ogden. Buildings with multiple apartment units have been known to use significantly less energy than single-family homes.

Why being eco-friendly is financially smart

Going green isn’t just good for Mother Earth. It can actually save you some green, too. Residents in the cities with the largest carbon footprints spent significantly more money on annual transportation costs than those in cities with the smallest carbon footprints. Residents in Provo, for example, spend nearly $16,000 annually on transportation costs, according to our study. In contrast, New Yorkers spend around $10,000 annually on transportation.

Indeed, making the switch from commuting by car to public transit can result in substantial savings. A household can save $10,000 by taking public transit and living with one less car, according to the American Public Transportation Association. It’s also beneficial for the planet; the organization claims that if communities invest in public transit systems, they can cut the country’s carbon emissions by 37 million metric tons annually.

An environmentally cleaner commute isn’t the only way going green can save you money. Cutting down on the energy you use in your home can help, too. Assess how your home is using (and wasting) energy. Sealing uncontrolled air leaks, for example, can save you 10% to 20% annually on your heating and cooling bills, according to the Department of Energy, while replacing your five most-used light fixtures with bulbs that have earned ENERGY STAR status can save you 9% annually on your electric bill.

Other simple steps you can take to reel in your energy bill include regularly examining your HVAC system air filter, reducing the temperature of your water heater to 120 degrees and shutting off lights when you are not using them.

Tips on being more eco-friendly while saving money

There are easy ways you can cut back on the amount of money you spend on energy, while also shrinking your carbon footprint. For transportation, you can:

  • Switch your commute from driving to taking public transit.
  • Bike or walk to work.
  • Carpool with a co-worker.
  • Consider switching to an energy-efficient car.

At home, you can:

  • Adjust your thermostat for when you’re not in the house.
  • Seal uncontrolled air leaks.
  • Switch to LED lightbulbs.
  • Insulate your water heater tank.
  • Fix leaky faucets.

Another way you can have a positive impact on the earth — while also doing yourself a favor financially — is taking a close look at socially-responsible investing.

Methodology

MagnifyMoney analyzed 2017 data from the Center for Neighborhood Technology Housing and Transportation Index.

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Sarah Berger
Sarah Berger |

Sarah Berger is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Sarah here