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When Should You Consider Bankruptcy & How to File

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Updated – November 14, 2018

If you’re drowning in debt and having trouble keeping up with your payments while still handling your living expenses, you may have at least begun to consider filing for bankruptcy.

Filing for bankruptcy is meant to give people in serious financial distress some relief and a chance to start over. By the time most people get to that point, they’ve probably tried many other methods for managing their debt.

Bankruptcy certainly has its benefits, potentially allowing you to wipe the slate clean and start anew.

But there are a lot of things to consider before making a decision, from the negative consequences of filing to whether bankruptcy would even provide relief for your specific situation.

“For most folks that come in, this is the last option,” said John Colwell, a San Diego, Calif.-based bankruptcy attorney and President of National Association of Consumer Bankruptcy. “I know I’m like the dentist. People really don’t want to be sitting in front of me.”

This is a big decision that requires a significant amount of due diligence before moving forward. While it’s important not to take bankruptcy lightly, it may be the best way for people to get back on their feet.

So how do you know if bankruptcy is the right way to relieve your debt? In this post, we’ll go over some of the key points to help you get started.

The basics of filing for bankruptcy

Bankruptcy is a legal procedure to discharge debt built up by someone who either will not be able to repay those debts or does not have the means to repay debts owed currently. There are two notable forms of bankruptcy: Chapter 7 and Chapter 13.

In a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, a debtor’s nonexempt assets are sold and the proceeds are used to pay debts. An individual must pass a means test before they can file a Chapter 7 bankruptcy to ensure that the court would not be abusing the bankruptcy law by granting one. We will talk more about the means test below!

A Chapter 13 bankruptcy is a “wage earner plan.” To qualify, an individual must have a steady income. This allows them to pay back all or part of their debts by developing a repayment plan. The plans last between three and five years.

In most cases, bankruptcy does not protect you from any future debts incurred. It also will have an effect on your credit score and remains on your credit report for 10 years with Chapter 7 and seven years with Chapter 13. In a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, you may lose assets such as your house or your car depending on how much equity, if you’re able to exempt your equity and if you’re current on your payments.

Are You Eligible?

As stated above, there are two types of bankruptcy for individuals: Chapter 7 and Chapter 13.

There are some significant differences between the two programs, but here’s a high-level summary:

  • Chapter 7 allows you to completely discharge your debts, with some exceptions (such as student loans, certain tax obligations, and child support). But you may be obligated to sell some of your property to settle some of your debt obligations.
  • Chapter 13 allows you to create a payment plan to repay some or all of your debts over a 3-5 year period. So your debts are not discharged, but you will also not be obligated to sell any property in order to make your payments.

Either one could be more or less beneficial depending on the specifics of your situation. But the very first question is whether you qualify for either one, and each has its own set of criteria.

Chapter 7 bankruptcy has what’s called the “means test”, which is meant to ensure that only people who truly can’t afford their debt payments are allowed to file. There are two different wants to pass it, and therefore qualify for Chapter 7 bankruptcy:

  1. If your monthly income is less than the median monthly income in your state for your family size, you pass. You can find current median income numbers by family size here.
  2. If you don’t pass #1, you’ll have to go through a complex calculation to see whether your disposable income after subtracting out certain expenses is enough to satisfy your debt obligations. At this stage it would probably be best to talk to a professional who could help you navigate the process.

Eligibility for Chapter 13 bankruptcy is a little more straightforward. Here’s how it works:

  1. As opposed to Chapter 7, you need to prove that your disposable income is high enough to afford a reasonable repayment plan.
  2. Your secured debt (mortgage, auto loan) can’t exceed $1,149,525, and your unsecured debt (credit cards, medical bills, etc.) can’t exceed $383,175.
  3. You must have filed both federal and state income taxes each of the last four years.

There are some other requirements for each, but those are the major ones. Assuming you qualify for at least one of them, there are a few other things to consider.

What Kinds of Assets and Liabilities Do You Have?

Depending on the specifics of your financial situation, one type of bankruptcy may be preferable to the other. Or it may be that neither would actually be particularly helpful.

As an example, neither type of bankruptcy would likely help you all that much if your primary debts are student loans. They wouldn’t be discharged in Chapter 7 bankruptcy. And while your required payments might be reduced over the 3-5 year repayment period in Chapter 13 bankruptcy, once that was over you would have to continue paying them back as usual.

The type of assets you own and their value also matters, particularly if you’re going through Chapter 7 bankruptcy. During that process, your bankruptcy trustee is allowed to sell your property in order to settle your debts, but certain property is protected.

For example, your house and car are protected up to certain limits. Employer retirement accounts like 401(k)s and 403(b)s are fully protected, while IRAs are protected up to about $1 million. But other accounts, such as checking, savings, and regular investment accounts may not have the same protections.

The rules here vary by state, and having a strong understanding of which assets you might be able to keep and which you might end up losing will help you make your decision.

When to file bankruptcy

According to Colwell, filing for bankruptcy needs to be “worth your while,” meaning it should give you relief from your debts to ensure you don’t find yourself in a similar situation in the near future. That means that if you have major expenses that you are about to incur, you should wait to file until after you have incurred them so they can be included in the bankruptcy settlement. This is especially important when it comes to filing bankruptcy due to medical bills.

However, with a Chapter 13 bankruptcy, you can seek court approval to include new debt that you’ve incurred post-filing into your payment plan.

In general, though, there are aspects of your financial situation that signal when it’s time to consider bankruptcy. If you can’t pay your bills (and you don’t see that changing anytime soon) and your debt continues to pile up, bankruptcy is probably worth considering.

Here are other red flags to look out for:

  1. Debt collectors are calling. If you’re behind on your bills to the point that you’re hearing from debt collectors, it may be time to consider bankruptcy. This is especially true if you’re being sued by debt collectors.
  2. You’re in danger of losing your home. If you’re at risk for losing your house to foreclosure, filing bankruptcy can help you get caught up on your payments and keep your home. With Chapter 13, you’re given the chance to keep your home by creating a plan to repay your outstanding debt.
  3. You’re using loans to pay your bills. Using short-term high-interest loans such as payday loans can get you in trouble. With these loans, people borrow against their next paycheck. “People get caught in the trap and it starts rolling over from paycheck to paycheck to paycheck,” said Colwell. Title loans are another form of small loan where a vehicle is used as collateral; these loans can be problematic for someone already in financial distress.
  4. You’re liquidating your retirement assets. Retirement money is exempt in a bankruptcy, meaning trustees can’t use it to repay lenders. So in most cases, it doesn’t make sense to burn through your retirement money to pay debts. “I hate that with a passion,” Colwell said. “It’s your retirement money, what are you doing?!”

How to file for bankruptcy

Most initial consultations with lawyers are free of charge. At these meetings, you’ll walk a bankruptcy attorney through your financial situation and your reasons for wanting to pursue bankruptcy.

There are also ways for individuals to file for bankruptcy on their own, known as filing pro se. Court employees and bankruptcy judges can’t give out legal advice to people in their courts, so if you go that route, you will be on your own. To file yourself, you should be familiar with the United States Bankruptcy Code, the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure and the local rules of the court.

Unless you have a strong understanding of legal issues and have the time to handle the paperwork, it’s probably best to use a lawyer — that’s because making a mistake can impact your rights, according to the U.S. Courts. You’ll also need the capacity to fill out a lot of paperwork, Colwell also noted.

If you use an attorney, they should be able to provide services including:

  • Advising you on whether to file a bankruptcy petition and under which chapter to file.
  • Telling you whether your debts can be discharged.
  • Advising you on whether or not you will be able to keep your home, car, or other property after you file.
  • Advising you of the tax consequences of filing.
  • Advising you on whether you should continue to pay creditors.
  • Helping you complete and file forms.

How to file Chapter 7 bankruptcy

A Chapter 7 bankruptcy involves the sale of all of your nonexempt assets to pay back your creditors. This is the most common kind of personal bankruptcy, accounting for more than 60 percent of all non-business bankruptcies in 2017. The process usually takes about four to five months.

Filing for Chapter 7 will wipe out your allowable debt (such as as credit card, medical and personal loan debt), but the bankruptcy will remain on your credit report for up to 10 years.

The first step is to take a mandatory credit counseling course from a government-approved organization, within 180 days of your filing date. Upon completion, you can decide if you still feel it appropriate to move forward with a bankruptcy, and move on to the next step.

At this point, you, or your attorney, would file your petition and other additional forms with the court. Along with your filing petition, the forms include a list of your creditors, a summary of your assets and liabilities, lists of property (both exempt and non-exempt) and any documentation needed for your “means test.” There are also companies that will send you a packet of all relevant documents, for a small fee.

At this point, you will be subject to the “means test.” If the debtor’s current monthly income is more than the state median, the means test is applied. Abuse is determined if the debtor’s monthly income over five years is either more than $12,850, or more than 25% of the debtor’s nonpriority unsecured debt of at least $7,700.

A trustee is then appointed to review the paperwork and take nonexempt property; you will also have to submit your most recent tax return to the trustee.

The next step in the process is a meeting of creditors, known as a “341 meeting.” At the meeting, you will answer questions about your finances and bankruptcy forms under oath. Creditors are allowed to attend the proceedings if they choose.

It is now decided if you are eligible to file for Chapter 7. At this stage, secured debts are determined: they can be repossessed by the creditor, you can redeem it by paying back what it’s worth or you can reaffirm the debt, which removes that debt from the bankruptcy filing and allows you to pay it back when the bankruptcy is over.

You will have another course to attend that will include information on developing a budget, using credit and managing money — afterward, your debt will be discharged.

Cost: A Chapter 7 bankruptcy needs to be paid for upfront by the debtor. It is generally a flat rate and may be contingent on the complexity of your debt structure as well as the market in which the attorney is operating.

How to file Chapter 13 bankruptcy

A Chapter 13 bankruptcy will last between three and five years, from start to finish. These processes are long and complex, so it’s strongly recommended that you use a lawyer. If you have a steady income, Chapter 13 bankruptcy allows you to keep property, like a house or car, that you might otherwise lose in Chapter 7. Chapter 13 develops a three-to-five year repayment plan for your debts.

The first step is to take a credit counseling course. Afterward, you or your attorney will prepare and file a bankruptcy petition and paperwork that includes a list of your creditors, a summary of your assets and liabilities and your Chapter 13 repayment plan; you will also need to provide your most recent tax returns.

The court will later appoint a trustee to administer your case and a stay on collections will take effect — this means that certain creditors won’t be able to proceed with lawsuits against you, call you for repayment or garnish your wages. You’ll begin making payments for a month after you file the paperwork. In addition, like Chapter 7, Chapter 13 also requires a 341 meeting.

You or your lawyer must attend a confirmation hearing where objections to your plan either by the trustee or the creditors will be addressed and eventually your plan for repayment will get confirmed.

Your creditors will also file proof of claim so that they can get repaid; it is at this point that you can object to the claim if you feel it is unfair.

The repayment period begins when you start to comply with your plan’s requirements and payments; this is the longest portion of the bankruptcy. If required by your plan, you may also have to submit documents to the court like income and expense statements.

Exactly as in Chapter 7, you’ll have another course to attend that goes over budgeting, using credit and managing money. Afterward, your debts may be discharged and your case closed.

Cost: There are two ways an attorney can charge you for handling your Chapter 13. It may be a “no look” fee, a flat fee set up by the district in your state, or they can bill you hourly. Your payment to your attorney can be worked into your Chapter 13 repayment plan.

Conclusion

Filing for bankruptcy is a big decision, and in the end you’re the only one who will know what’s right for you.

Bankruptcy can be not only a long process, but also a very emotional one for those seeking to discharge debts.

Do your research, evaluate all of your options, and then make the decision that most helps you reach your personal goals.

Looking into your options sooner rather than later may help you shore up your financial future and lose less in the long term.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

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Matt Becker is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Matt here

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The Fastest Way to Pay Off $10,000 in Credit Card Debt

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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Before you read on, click here to download our FREE guide to become debt free forever!

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Updated – January 10, 2019

Digging out of credit card debt can feel frustrating, intimidating and ultimately impossible. Fortunately, it doesn’t have to be any of those things if you learn how to take control.

Paying down debt is not only about finding the right financial tools, but also the right psychological ones. You need to understand why you racked up credit card debt in the first place. Perhaps it was a medical emergency or a home repair that needed to be taken care of immediately. Maybe you’d already drained your emergency fund on one piece of bad luck when misfortune struck again. Or maybe you’re struggling with a compulsive shopping problem, so paying down debt will likely result in you accumulating more until the addiction is addressed.

You also need to understand what motivates you to succeed. Do you want to pay down your credit card debt in the absolute fastest amount of time possible that will save more money or do you want to take some little wins along the way to keep yourself motivated?

Here’s a couple strategies consider as you learn the best way to handle credit card debt — and pay it off quickly.

2 common credit card debt repayment strategies

These repayment strategies can help you pay off credit card debt quickly. Keep in mind, you can use these strategies even for non-credit-card debt:

  • Debt avalanche: Focus on paying off the credit card with the highest interest rate first. Then, work your way down. This strategy can save you money on interest and get you out of debt sooner.
  • Debt snowball: Pay off your smallest debts first. Doing so can motivate you to continue making payments as you climb out of debt.

You don’t necessarily need to pick the repayment strategy that gets you out of debt the fastest. After all, if your repayment strategy doesn’t keep you motivated, you may not stick to it.

Using a personal loan or balance transfer credit card

As you seek to repay your debt, you could consider a personal loan or balance transfer credit card with a lower interest rate than on your existing debt. Transferring your debt to one of these financial products could help you reduce long-term interest costs.

But you’ll first need to learn whether or not you’re eligible. Your credit score will play a big role in determining your eligibility for a personal loan or balance transfer card. Use our widget below to figure out if a personal loan or a balance transfer is the best option for you!

What’s the best option for me?

Please enter information below and we’ll provide the best option to consolidate your credit card debt!

If you have a credit score above 640, you have a good chance of qualifying for a personal loan at a much lower interest rate than your credit card debt. With new internet-only personal loan companies, you can shop for loans without hurting your score. In just a few minutes, with a simple online form, you can get matched with multiple lenders. People with excellent credit can see APRs below 10%. But even if your credit isn’t perfect, you might be able to find a good loan to fit your needs.

Not sure what your credit score is? Click here to learn how and where to find out. If you know your credit score needs some work but not sure of what can be done, click here.

If you have a score above 700, you could also qualify for 0% balance transfer offers. We will talk more about balance transfers below but this option is the best way to pay off credit card debt if you’re able to qualify for a 0% APR balance transfer credit card.

A credit score of less than 600 will make it difficult for you to qualify for either option. If you have a credit score less than 640, struggling to make monthly debt payments and would like to explore your options to reduce your debt by up to 50%, then please click our option below to customize a personal debt relief plan.

Custom Debt Relief Plan

Now let’s talk about the financial tools to add to your debt repayment strategy in order to dig out of the hole.

Let’s say you have $10,000 in credit card debt, and are stuck paying 18% interest on it.

You already know that putting as much spare cash as you can toward paying down your debt is the most important thing to do. But once you’ve done that, so what’s next?

Use your good credit to make banks compete and cut your rates

You could save $1,800 a year in interest and lower your monthly payments based on several of the rates available today. That means you could pay it off almost 20% faster.

Here’s how it works.

Option One: Use a Balance Transfer (or Multiple Balance Transfers)


If you trust yourself to open a new credit card but not spend on it, consider a balance transfer. You may be able to cut your rate with a long 0% intro APR. You need to have a good credit score, and you might not get approved for the full amount that you want to transfer.

Your own bank might not give you a lower rate (or only drop it by a few percent), but there are lots of competing banks that may want to steal the business and give you a better rate.

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MagnifyMoney regularly surveys the market to find the best balance transfer credit cards. If you would like to see what other options exist, beyond Chase and Discover, you can start there.

promo-balancetransfer-halfIt also has tips to make sure you do a balance transfer safely. If you follow them you’ll save thousands on your debt by remaining disciplined.

You might be scared of a balance transfer, but there is no faster way to cut your interest payments than taking advantage of the best 0% or low interest deals banks are offering.

Thanks to recent laws, balance transfers aren’t as sneaky as they used to be, and friendlier for helping you cut your debt.

Sometimes the first bank you deal with won’t give you a big enough credit line to handle all your credit card debt. Maybe you’ll get a $5,000 credit line for a 0% deal, but have $10,000 in debt. That’s okay. In that case, apply for the next best balance transfer deal you see. MagnifyMoney’s list of deals makes it easy to sort them.

Banks are okay with you shopping around for more than one deal.

Option Two: Personal Loan

If you never want to see another credit card again, you should consider a personal loan. You can get prequalified at multiple lenders without hurting your credit score, and find the best deal to pay off your debt faster.

Personal loan interest rates are often about 10-20%, but can sometimes be as low as 5-6% if you have very good credit.

Moving from 18% interest on a credit card to 10% on a personal loan is a good deal for you. You’ll also get one set monthly payment, and pay off the whole thing in 3 to 5 years.

Sometimes this may mean a higher monthly payment than you’re used to, but you’re better off putting your cash toward a higher payment with a lower rate.

And you’ll get out of debt months or years faster by leaving more money to pay down the debt itself. If you want to shop for a personal loan, we recommend starting at LendingTree. With a single online form, dozens of lenders will compete for your business. Only a soft credit pull is completed, so your credit score will not be harmed. People with excellent scores can see low APRs (sometimes below 6%). And people with less than perfect scores still have a good chance of finding a lender to approve them.

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If you don’t want to shop at LendingTree, you can see our list of the best personal loans here.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Brian Karimzad
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How to Manage Debt as a Single Parent in 2019

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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When student loan deferment ended for Samantha Gregory, a single mom and founder of site Rich Single Momma, she had one reaction to her payments: sticker shock. “The amount they were asking for was so astronomical, it was bananas,” she said.

As a single mom in debt, these high payments were added to the already steep financial demands of covering household expenses and supporting her children, including one with special needs — all on one income.

Adding debt to the significant challenges of single parenting “puts a strain on not just your finances, but your emotions, your mental health,” she said. “It’s like, ‘I have this burden over my head so how am I going to take care of it and take care of my family?’”

It’s a question any single parent in debt may find themselves asking. There’s no one right answer, but the good news is that there are smart steps a single mom or dad can use to tackle debt. Here are some tested and certified strategies for how to manage debt as a single parent.

8 strategies for a single parent in debt

1. Keep debt on your radar

A key to managing money as a single parent in debt is to keep an eye on what you owe. Gregory warned against letting debt slip in your money management juggling act. “I know for me in the past, I’ve tried to ignore it and hope it would go away,” she said. “But it doesn’t go away. It’s still there, lingering.”

Keep your debts on your radar, so you’re not losing track of them, falling behind on payments or damaging your credit. If you don’t know what you owe, pull your free credit report and look up each outstanding debt you have and record the balance, interest rate, monthly payment and due date. Start a habit of reviewing these accounts regularly.

2. Work with your lender

Once you know what you owe, see if your lender offers any help or accommodations that can make this debt easier to manage.

You’ll have the most options for dealing with federal student loans, as servicers must provide you with options to forbear or defer payments, or switch to a different repayment plan.

Even for other types of debt, it can’t hurt to ask your lender if they’re willing to work with you. They might be open to giving you an extension on your payment, and some lenders will let you skip a payment now and tack it onto the end of your repayment period instead.

3. Claim benefits and support

Help isn’t always easy to come by as a single parent, so make sure you’re claiming the benefits and child support to which you’re entitled.

Federal assistance programs such as Women, Infants and Children (WIC), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and school lunch programs can ease pressure on your budget while keeping everyone fed, for example. Other programs can assist with fixed monthly costs such as housing, child care or health insurance. Many state and local programs can offer additional help.

Single parents should also consider filing for child support. If you’re already entitled to such payments but the other parent isn’t paying, or you feel it’s not enough, consider pursuing legal steps to get adequate support for your family.

4. Revisit your budget

As a single parent with debt, living within your means is the foundation of your financial security. Review your budget to see if there are areas you’re wasting money on things you don’t need or use, whether it’s a neglected gym membership or a house you’re realizing is roomier than necessary. Consider lifestyle changes and sacrifices — big or small — that you could make to lower your monthly costs.

Look for ways to free up some of the mental space you’re using for your money, too, Gregory suggested. She likes to automate payments, for example, to ensure they’re going out on time with less effort on her part.

5. Sell your extra time and stuff

To the single mom in debt, Gregory suggested looking for ways to generate some extra cash. “I’m a firm believer in side hustles,” she said. “There are so many options out there available to create a side hustle, start a business or just get another part-time job or work-from-home job.”

Then, “look around your house and if you have something valuable you can sell, sell it,” she said. Doing so can bring a fast cash infusion that can help you stay current on debt payments, or even make an extra payment.

It can be a tough and even emotional to sell some belongings, Gregory acknowledged. But, “It’s just things and they’re replaceable, whereas your peace of mind, your family and kids, and your health are not replaceable,” she said.

6. Make extra debt payments

If you can carve out extra savings, that’s money you can use to pay off your debts faster. One method to do so is the debt snowball:

  • Figure out how much more of your monthly income you can afford to devote to making extra debt payments. Include this as a line item in your budget.
  • Put that extra cash toward your debt with the lowest balance, and make the minimum payment on all of your other debts.
  • Watch the balance on your high-priority debt decrease faster.
  • Once your first debt is gone, “roll over” the funds budgeted for your monthly payment and the extra payment and apply them to the next low-balance debt.

Making extra debt payments will lower your principal faster which will, in turn, lower your interest costs. As a result, this strategy could avoid hundreds of dollars in interest and shave months or even years off your debt repayment.

7. Consider debt consolidation

For a single parent, debt consolidation can be another way to get ahead. Consolidating debt makes the most sense when doing so will lower the interest rates you’re paying.

A credit card balance transfer is one way to accomplish this. You can open a credit card with a 0% introductory rate. Then, transfer existing balances to this new credit card (note that this will often incur a balance transfer fee) and you can repay this debt interest-free.

If you have higher debt balances or prefer a fixed repayment plan, a personal loan could be the way to consolidate debt. To do so, you can take out a new personal loan with the rates, term or payments you would prefer and use the loan funds to pay off and replace existing debts. You can compare various lenders with our debt consolidation comparison page to get an idea of the terms and rates for which you could qualify.

8. Tap your community for support

Managing debt as a single parent can be hard on you because, at the end of the day, paying them comes down to you alone. “In the back of your mind, you’re thinking ‘There’s no one who can help me with this,’” Gregory said.

However, you don’t have to go it alone — there are often people who are ready and willing to help as close as your own backyard. So let them! Family and friends can help you out in a variety of ways, from spotting you cash in a tight month to helping with child care. You can also get assistance from your church, community and local nonprofits or programs.

Even if you don’t always find the help you need right away, asking around can start you on the track to getting the recommendation or referral that leads you there. Gregory also suggested online communities, such as local or single-parent Facebook groups, as a way to crowdsource solutions and get connected with helpful resources.

Pass your debt and money lessons on to your kids

Debt can be a big regret for many single parents. “If I had more information when I was going to college, I wouldn’t have taken out so many loans,” Gregory said.

But these ideas for how to manage debt as a single parent can help you push past regret into action. In doing so, you’ll be creating the financial security that your kids need, all while modeling what good money and debt management look like in action.

Gregory, for example, used her experience with student debt to warn her daughter away from borrowing to pay for college. As a result, “She’s really blessed that she doesn’t have to take out student loans, so she won’t be saddled with that big debt when she graduates from college,” she said.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Elyssa Kirkham
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Elyssa Kirkham is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Elyssa here

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