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How to Research Stocks in 5 Simple Steps

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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Once you decide that investing in the stock market is a good financial move, you may need to do some research. It usually is not enough to just throw your money into the market — if you invest your money strategically using a method that works for you, you could minimize your risk and maybe even earn higher returns.

How to research stocks

Though beginning investors may find it easier to build a diverse portfolio using exchange-traded funds (ETFs) or mutual funds, investing small amounts in individual stocks can be a good way to learn the intricacies of the market. Here are some important steps to take as you learn how to research stocks before choosing which ones to invest in.

1. Start with the company’s reports

Every publicly traded company is required to publish reports. Using that information, investors are able to find companies that align with their investment interests. If investors did not have access to this information, they would be unable to make educated decisions about their investments.

To find these reports, you can look at each company’s website — many have special pages for investors. You also can search the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s (SEC) filing database, EDGAR, if you have difficulty finding the reports in other places.

Some of the most informative reports include the following.

10-K. This form is filed annually with the SEC and contains financial statements that have been audited by an independent third party. In it, you can find financial data for the past five years, information about how the company earns money, risk factors the company faces, and a discussion about the company by management. It’s a comprehensive form that will show you almost everything you need to know about a company.

10-Q. Through this form, which is filed quarterly, you will gain access to unaudited financial statements. It’s less comprehensive than the 10-K form, but it is a worthwhile tool for investors. In addition to quarterly financial statements, you will gain access to management discussions about the company as well as information about potential market risks, legal proceedings, some internal controls and any unregistered sales of equity securities.

Once you find the above forms, you’ll need to locate the pertinent information. Each form has an overwhelming amount of data, but if you know what you are looking for, it should not seem as daunting. So, what should you be looking for? Let’s take a look at some of the most important information for investors.

Net income. Check to see if the company finished with a gain or a loss at the end of the period. You can find this number at the bottom of the income statement. It equals total revenue minus expenses, depreciation, taxes and more.

Price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio. The P/E ratio is calculated by dividing the market value of a share by the earnings per share. Although the ratio often is calculated based how the stock has performed in the past, it can show you how the market thinks this stock will perform in the future. If a company has a relatively high P/E ratio, it could indicate that the market expects healthy growth in the near future. Compare the company’s ratio to others in the industry to understand where this company stands compared to its competition.

Return on equity. The company’s return on equity helps you better understand how effectively the company uses its investors’ money and returns investments to its shareholders.

This is not a comprehensive list of factors to measure a company’s potential for financial success, but it is a good place to start. Remember, a single number will not be able to determine the worth of a company. You need to consider a variety of factors before deciding whether to invest in a company.

2. Consult with your brokerage firm or other research tools

If you have opened a brokerage account, utilize the resources that come with it. Most brokerage firms offer tools to help you research stocks. Whether the firm offers in-depth reports or a database of information, take advantage of those resources.

Additionally, you may have access to a qualified broker through your account. It may be a good idea to ask their opinion about a potential stock purchase. They are professionals, so their advice is valuable.

If your brokerage firm doesn’t offer any useful options for researching stocks, you still have access to sites like Yahoo Finance, which provides investment news and customizable stock screeners.

3. Make sure you understand the basics of the company

In addition to understanding the financial statements of a company, you should understand how it works. Make sure you know where the revenue comes from. Does it come directly from consumer sales, advertising revenue or elsewhere? Who are the company’s biggest customers?

It’s also important to look at the basics of the industry the company operates in and understand how the company fits into it. Is it an established giant or a young company trying something new? Are there regulatory issues the industry must overcome? Think about how the company will fit into the future of the industry. Will it be able to adapt to change, or will it fall behind its peers?

4. Research the company’s leadership

A company cannot function without upper-level management at the helm. You usually can find the names and roles of the leadership team on the company’s website.

Once you find the leaders, look them up. Don’t just read the company’s short descriptions — search for their names. You may be able to find out more about their backgrounds and management styles. It’s possible that the past actions of these leaders will reflect their future choices. Ensure that you’re comfortable with the management in charge of increasing your investment’s worth.

5. Ensure your values align with the company’s

Even if everything looks great so far, stop and think about the values and ethics of the company. Look up their mission statement and business practices. Then, read news reports to make sure the company’s actions match its claims.

If you disagree with what the company stands for or how it conducts itself, you may want to reconsider your investment. The money you invest might help further a cause you disagree with, so make sure you’re comfortable with that before you invest.

Final thoughts

Remember to take your time as you research stocks. Rushing into an investment without the proper knowledge is rarely a good idea.

Of course, you have other ways to invest in the market if individual stocks feel too risky. You may choose to invest in ETFs, mutual funds or bonds, for example. Choose the strategy that feels right for you.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Sarah Sharkey |

Sarah Sharkey is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Sarah here

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Investing

7 Places to Find Free (or Almost Free) Investing Courses

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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When it comes to investing success, you need a little luck and lot of know-how. While we can’t help with your luck, there are options aplenty when it comes to learning the ins and outs of investing.

7 low-cost investing courses you can take online

Whether you are the DIY type and want to manage your own investments or you want to better understand what a professional advisor is doing with your money, there are many low-cost classes and tools to help you build a brighter financial future. Even better, most of them can be completed online, on your own time and without leaving your house. Here are seven sources for free (or nearly free) investment courses.

1. Your broker

Let your broker help you if you have one. Many brokers offer online courses and educational tools to their customers. Some provide access to those resources even if you aren’t a customer.

For example, Fidelity offers a host of webinars, courses and coaching sessions to customers who want to be more actively involved in their investment decisions. Noncustomers can sign up for a free 30-day guest account, which provides access to some of those offerings as well.

TD Ameritrade also has a robust education page with free options for clients, including an immersive curriculum, videos and webcasts. For clients and nonclients alike, it offers free in-person educational seminars, but you’ll have to leave your house for those.

2. Morningstar

It’s amazing how much information is out there for the taking once you know where to look. For example, Morningstar provides a host of investment information options, including breaking news about the markets and advice on the best picks. It’s the Investing Classroom, however, that lets you really dig in. It offers 172 free online classes that cover stocks, bonds and more as well as tools to help you track your progress as you complete them.

You can register to take quizzes and earn rewards, such as free access to Morningstar’s premium service. Most of the classes consist of reading the course material and then taking a quiz to make sure you’ve absorbed it. How quickly you read will determine how quickly you’re able to complete the courses.

3. Udemy

Udemy offers online video courses that cover topics including everything from photography to marketing, but it has a strong selection of personal finance classes as well. There’s a fee for classes, but most are quite affordable. For example, well-rated courses such as “Easy Market Profits: 3 Step Stock Investing Strategy” and “Investing for Busybees” each cost about $20 (or less if you purchase them on sale).

You can search for courses by topic, by the ratings of others who have taken the courses, or by the number of hours the courses take to complete. Courses range from one to 17 hours and include on-demand video instruction, e-books, quizzes and more.

4. iTunes U

You can find free courses on almost anything you can think of, including investing, through iTunes U. They come from some of the top schools and leaders in the industry, and they’re all free. For access, just download the iTunes U app on your iPhone, iPad or iPod Touch and then scroll through the vast course offerings.

You can search by term, such as “stock market,” and download a course on financial theory from Yale University, which includes video instruction, reading materials and more. It provides access to almost everything you’d get if you were sitting in the classroom (except an invite to that big campus kegger).

5. Online college courses

For a top-notch education on investing, you don’t have to head off to campus or pay a pricey tuition bill, as many colleges and universities offer free online access to courses, including those on finance.

For example, Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s OpenCourseWare program offers online access to an array of courses, including video and audio lectures, assignments, exams, and more. You can take a course on investments, see the lectures, read the materials and take all the tests. Some are translated into other languages as well. You don’t even have to register. Just click, and access to an abundance of education is yours.

Other institutions of higher learning offer free online courses at edX. There, you’ll be able to glean the same information you would have if you’d attended a school like Harvard University, the University of California, Berkeley or the University of Texas. You can search for courses by topic and either choose to pay a fee to receive a certificate of completion or absorb the knowledge for free. For example, a verified certificate for the eight-week course on long-term financial management offered by the University System of Maryland costs $249, but you can complete the course at no cost if you don’t want or need the certificate.

6. eXtension

A comprehensive home study course on investing is available through eXtension. It’s offered as a collaboration between Rutgers Cooperative Extension, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, and Financial Security for All. The free course consists of 11 units, including “Finding Money to Invest,” “Investing Small Dollar Amounts” and “Investment Fraud.”

All the materials are written, so you can read at your own pace. They’re also free, and in some cases, you may be able to get continuing education credit for completing a posttest.

7. Skillshare

If you can think of something you want to learn, Skillshare probably has an online course on it, and investing is no exception. Skillshare offers access to more than 25,000 online classes, and its investing course offerings are vast, including “Investing Basics for Millennials” and “Demystifying Cryptocurrency: Understanding Bitcoin and Beyond.”

The instructional videos range from a few minutes to several hours, and they’re taught by industry professionals. There are a significant number of free offerings, though some require a premium membership, which runs about $99 a year. It currently is offering a three-month premium membership trial for 99 cents, which may be a bargain if you’re good at cramming.

Investing information is there for the taking. It’s up to you just how deep you want to dig and how much time you want to spend. While education is always a valuable undertaking, when it comes to educating yourself about investing, it can pay off quite literally.

Looking for more help? Check out five places to get free financial advice.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Julie Ryan Evans
Julie Ryan Evans |

Julie Ryan Evans is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Julie here

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Early Withdrawals From a Roth IRA: How to Avoid Penalties

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

A Roth IRA is a handy investment tool that lets you contribute pre-taxed funds to the account, allowing your money to grow over time. Taxed contributions mean you won’t pay any taxes when you’re ready to withdraw your money in retirement. In 2019, you can contribute up to $6,000 into a Roth IRA annually if you’re under age 50. It bumps up to $7,000 if you’re over the age of 50 (although income limits apply).

But the other benefit of a Roth IRA is that you don’t have to wait until retirement to take money out. When you use the funds the right way — such as a down payment on a house or to pay for college — you can take an early withdrawal from your Roth IRA without paying any penalties.

“When we’re talking about how to save money and where to put it aside, we’re looking now at the idea that using a Roth is almost a surrogate savings account and college fund and retirement fund,” said Dennis Nolte, a financial planner in Winter Park, Fla.

Understanding earnings vs. contributions

One of the key things to understand about a Roth IRA is that there are two parts to the money within the account: There’s the money you put in (contributions) and the money that grows in the account via investing (earnings). So, if you open a Roth with $5,000 and after two years the money has grown to $6,000, you have $5,000 in contributions and $1,000 in earnings.

It’s important to understand the difference between the two because you can only avoid taxes and penalties by withdrawing your contributions — and not earnings — before the age of 59 and a half. “You can take the principal out tomorrow because it’s already been taxed,” said Nolte.

Withdrawing from contributions

You can essentially take out contributions from your Roth IRA at any point without incurring taxes or a Roth IRA early withdrawal penalty. If you contribute $1,000 to a Roth today, you can withdraw $1,000 from the Roth tomorrow (although that’s not a sound savings strategy) because you’ve already paid taxes on that money.

Withdrawing from earnings

Earnings in a Roth IRA must be left in the account for at least five years or until the account holder reached the age of 59 and a half — whichever is longer. If you withdraw earnings early, you’ll owe taxes on the money and a 10% penalty.

The five-year waiting period begins on January 1 of the year you made your first contribution. As long as your withdrawal is five years from January 1 of the first year you contributed and you’re at least 59 and a half years of age, you’re in the clear. This rule applies to each Roth you may have.

You may be able to withdraw from earnings without paying taxes and penalties if you’ve had the Roth IRA for at least five years and one of the following applies:

  • The money was used for a first-time home purchase, up to a $10,000 lifetime limit.
  • You are permanently disabled.
  • You died, and your heirs received the money after your death.

You may also be eligible for early withdrawals from your earnings without incurring the 10% penalty, but you’ll still owe income taxes. Early distributions from a Roth IRA that qualify for this rule are as follows:

  • You have reached the age of 59 and a half.
  • You are permanently disabled.
  • You are the beneficiary of a deceased IRA owner.
  • You use the money to buy, build or remodel a first-time home.
  • The distributions are part of a series of substantially equal payments.
  • You have unreimbursed medical expenses that are more than 7.5% of your adjusted gross income for the year.
  • You’re paying medical insurance premiums while unemployed.
  • The distributions aren’t more than your qualified higher education expenses.
  • The distribution is due to an IRS levy of the qualified plan.
  • It’s a qualified reservist distribution.

There’s one other exception to this rule: If you withdraw your contributions and earnings from a Roth IRA by the tax deadline for the year in which you made that contribution, the IRS treats your contribution as though it had never happened. However, you must claim any earnings as income for that year on your tax return.

Withdrawing from a Roth conversion

The rules are slightly different if you convert a traditional IRA to a Roth: you must wait at least five years before you withdraw from that IRA. The five-year clock starts on January 1 of the year you made the conversion. You’ll owe income taxes and a 10% penalty for early withdrawals.

Reporting Roth IRA withdrawals

You’ll need to file a Form 8606 when it’s time to file your taxes in the year that you take withdrawals from your Roth IRA. Be sure to inform your tax professional or advisor so they can help you stay on top of your finances.

Bottom line

A Roth IRA is a great way to diversify your retirement savings, particularly if you think you’ll be in a lower tax bracket in retirement. You have limited options if you want to take money out of your Roth before retirement. Be sure to educate yourself on all the rules to prevent getting hit with penalties that will only erode your nest egg.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Kate Ashford
Kate Ashford |

Kate Ashford is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Kate at kateashford@magnifymoney.com

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