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10 Cities Where Women Outearn Their Partners

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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Despite the growing prevalence of women in the workforce, the median earnings of women over the age of 25 was $32,679 in 2017, with men’s median earnings for that same age group at $46,152, per U.S. Census Bureau data, who estimated that women only earn nearly 71% of their male counterparts.

The reasons for this discrepancy are stridently debated, with theories ranging from personal preferences to mismatched family responsibilities, cultural pressure, institutional compensation or advancement bias. Whatever combination of factors are keeping women’s pay low, the fact remains that female workers make less than their male counterparts — both at work and at home.

Our new analysis takes a closer look at pay differences between men and women to see how it affects couples. To find out whether some places are more likely to have a balance between male and female breadwinners, we analyzed microdata from the American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census for the 50 largest metros in the country.

In an ideal world, men and women would be equally likely to be the breadwinner of a couple. But our analysis found that in the 50 largest metros, women were the main breadwinner in less than 31% of couples’ households.

Key takeaways

  • Women are far less likely to be the breadwinners in a couple, our study found. Even in the cities with the highest rates of female breadwinners, women outearned their partners in just one out of three coupled households.
  • Hartford, Conn., takes the No. 1 spot. In 31.1% of this city’s coupled households, a woman was the partner who earned more. Minneapolis and Columbus, Ohio, follow in second and third place, with female breadwinner rates of 31.2% and 30.7%, respectively.
  • Only 22.6% of couples in Salt Lake City have female breadwinners, earning it the last place spot (50th) on our list. Following at 49th and 48th place are Houston and Riverside, Calif., with female breadwinner rates of 23.5% and 23.9%, respectively.

Top 10 cities where more women outearn their partners

In the 10 major U.S. cities with the highest rates of couples with female breadwinners, roughly three in 10 couples have a woman earning more than her partner.

This is a contrast to other surveys that have found higher rates of female breadwinners, such as 49% of women who said they were the primary breadwinner in an NBC News-Wall Street Journal poll. The difference in these findings could be attributed to single women or single mothers who are the household’s sole income earners. Women may be more likely to be breadwinners in these surveys that include those who report they’re not competing with a partner for that title.

When they are paired up, however, our analysis shows that women are less likely to be the higher earner. Here’s a closer look at the 10 major U.S. cities that had the highest rates of female breadwinners.

1. Hartford, Conn.

Women who are partnered up are the most likely to be the breadwinner if they live in Hartford. Here, 31.3% of coupled women outearn their partner. This could be thanks to the higher parity of pay in this city, where the gap between men and women’s earnings shrinks to just 17.8%.

2. Minneapolis

Next is Minneapolis, which has almost the same rate of female breadwinners, with 31.2% of coupled women earning more than their partners.

Minneapolis also took the No. 2 spot in our ranking of the best cities for working women. Its high ranking is due to a number of factors, but it’s a true standout for low unemployment among women and decent workplace protections for pregnant women and mothers.

3. Columbus, Ohio

In Columbus, 30.7% of partnered women are the breadwinners. Overall, women here make about $0.19 less per dollar than their male counterparts, well in line with the average among all 50 cities included in this analysis.

4. Providence, R.I.

Providence, R.I. has a female breadwinning rate of 30.5%. This is no surprise, given that it was the eighth-best city for working women in our 2018 study.

While the gender pay gap is above average here, at 19.9%, Providence has above-average rates of women in management positions along with better policies for maternity and parental leave.

5. Baltimore

Among women in Baltimore who are part of a couple, 30.2% outearn their partners. Here, women earn just 18.8% less than men, giving them a better chance of landing pay that beats their significant other’s salary.

6. Sacramento, Calif.

The third-best city for working women, Sacramento, also has one of the highest rates of female breadwinners: 30.0%.

It offers a lower pay gap between genders, with women earning just 14.6% less than men. Sacramento also gets a boost from California’s robust policies and benefits for pregnancy, maternity and family leave.

7. Boston

Boston is the next city with the highest rate of coupled households for which women are the breadwinners, at 29.6%. The gender pay gap here is 18.9%, which is just below average.

8. San Francisco

Next is another top city for working women, San Francisco. Here, the gap in median pay by gender is 18.7% and women outearn their partners 29.5% percent of the time. As another Californian city, women workers in San Francisco are also likely to benefit from strong parental and family work policies.

9. Memphis, Tenn.

In Memphis, women are the breadwinners in 29.4% of couples’ households — that’s despite its ranking as the second-worst city for women. It has just a few redeeming factors, however, such as the above-average number of female managers and the below-average childcare costs in Memphis.

10. Richmond, Va.

Couples in Richmond are among those most likely to be led by a female breadwinner, with 29.2% of women out-earning their partners. Women here earn $0.19 less for every $1 male workers earn, only slightly above the average. Still, working women in Richmond are more likely to receive employer-provided health care and more affordable child care costs, which can offset this pay gap.

10 cities where women aren’t breadwinners


Along with the 10 cities that had the highest rates of women out-earning their partners, we also found the 10 major U.S. cities where women were the least likely to be breadwinners. In these cities, around a quarter (or fewer) of women with partners bring home higher pay than their significant other.

Most of these cities were also among the worst places for women to work, including Detroit and Oklahoma City. Still, low rates of female breadwinners isn’t always a sign of a city that disadvantages women, as three of these cities were among the 15 best places for working women: Austin, Texas; Phoenix; and Virginia Beach, Va.

How the gender pay gap affects shared finances

Overall, this study is another sign of how women are often behind when it comes to pay. The gender pay gap is a big contributor to the low rate of female breadwinners, but it affects more than just women.

When a woman is paid less, this impacts her partner too. The entire household comes up short, setting back financial goals such as paying down debt, building security and savings, and managing money day-to-day.

Some women will also feel the pain of the wage gap more than others, too. Same-sex couples comprised of two female earners, for example, will be doubly hit by the setbacks of the gender pay gap. Women who are the sole breadwinners might also find that they’re having to support their family on less pay than many men in the same position. And for women who earn less than their partner, a separation or divorce can be particularly problematic for their finances.

Many of these factors are outside of U.S. women’s immediate control — but that makes it all the more important to focus on improving their finances where they can.

Here are some ways women can work to close, offset, or compensate for the gender pay gap.

Work on increasing your income. The top cities are proof that the gender pay gap doesn’t have to be universal, and many women are finding ways to close or even overcome it. Take a look at your current pay and do some research through sites such as PayScale or Glassdoor to figure out if it’s fair. If it’s not, it might be time to ask to be paid what you’re worth, either with your current employer or a new one.

You can also look out for career training and opportunities that could act as stepping stones to higher-paying positions. You can even create your own opportunities to boost your income and grow your skills with a side hustle.

Share costs fairly. There are a lot of ways for couples to manage their money together, so look into different methods and decide together on one that’s equitable. If your partner earns twice as much as you, for example, does it really make sense to split expenses 50-50? Discuss how you can work with differences in pay to ensure that both assets and expenses are equally and fairly shared.

Make savings a priority. Women in a couple must save for their own future, regardless of what they earn. It can be wise to have your own checking or savings accounts that are held in your name alone, where you can build financial security independent of your partner. It’s also wise to set up your own retirement accounts and contribute to those regularly, as well.

Manage debt wisely. Debt can be a huge source of stress for couples. On top of that, debt accrued in marriage can be considered jointly shared, making you equally responsible for its repayment even if your spouse took it out. So it’s smart to practice good budgeting habits, live within your means and avoid getting into debt. Even if you’re not married, your or your partner’s debt will still affect shared money goals and lower the debtor’s ability to contribute as equally. Work on paying debt off faster, and look into ways to lower costs such as credit card consolidation.

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While women with a partner are still less likely to be the breadwinners than partnered men, it doesn’t have to hold back their finances. Choose a significant other who values and equal partnership and practices sound financial management. Aim for higher-paying positions at work to try to close the gender gap. Then improve your own money skills and knowledge so you can make the most of your income.

Methodology

Analysts used the U.S. Census’ American Community Survey 2017 microdata hosted on IPUMS to determine the percentage of coupled households with a female partner, where a female partner had the higher income. The analysis was limited to the 50 largest metropolitan statistical areas in the U.S.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Elyssa Kirkham
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Elyssa Kirkham is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Elyssa here

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How Three Young Married Couples Manage Their Money

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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The age men and women decide to tie the knot has been on the rise for years. In 2018, the median age for first marriages is 30 for men and 28 for women. That gives individuals almost three decades to establish deep-seated opinions related to finances, including how to save and spend their hard-earned cash and how they want their career to play into their future lifestyle.

While one partner may prefer to sock away savings and establish a sound nest egg, the other may see the value in spending money on once-in-a-lifetime experiences. In other words, couples may not always see eye-to-eye when it comes to the big financial picture. To offer some real-life perspective on these real-life struggles, we spoke with three young couples to learn how they handle their finances, divvy up expenses and save for the future.

Splitting expenses — except on old debts

Courtney and Ryan Ples have been married for seven years and live in Baltimore, Maryland. Courtney is 31 and works in sales at an educational technology company; Ryan is 32 and works as a consultant for Verizon.

As the assistant director of the Maryland Fund for Excellence at the University of Maryland, Ryan was used to hearing “no” when he called to ask for donations. And the reason was almost always the same — the person on the phone needed to consult with their spouse because they didn’t personally handle the finances or they needed both parties to agree before committing.

“It was frustrating that members of a marriage didn’t have the ability to definitively say ‘yes’ or ‘no’ without discussing with their spouse,” said Ryan. When he married his then-girlfriend, Courtney, in April 2011, the couple decided not to let themselves be beholden to similar guidelines. “If Courtney wants to donate to a political campaign or fundraiser, I trust she won’t make an irresponsible decision that would challenge our household financially.”

From the very beginning, the couple knew that establishing some kind of financial independence was crucial for their marriage. Since they have similar incomes, the Ples’ each contribute 50% of their take-home pay to a joint checking account that takes care of their monthly expenses, including their mortgage payment, house-related expenses, groceries, and anything that involves their three-year-old daughter (including a 529 plan for her education).

However, the other 50% of their paycheck goes into their personal checking account. From that account, Courtney and Ryan each pay the personal expenses they accrued before getting married, including student loans, car payments, individual credit cards and cell phone bills. Unlike many couples their age, Courtney and Ryan did not live together while they dated, and, as a result, did not have many shared bills before marriage.

While their approach works for them now, Courtney wishes she had had a deeper discussion about finances with Ryan before getting married. The couple started married life on one income — Courtney had just quit her job to move across the country — so Ryan organically took the lead in financial planning. As a result, he initially handled the bills and budgeting. The couple adopted the 50/50 system once Courtney started earning money, but Ryan still handles the majority of the financial decisions.

Courtney admits that, at times, she gets frustrated if she doesn’t understand something specific about their shared finances, but acknowledges that she needs to ask more questions.

“I don’t want him to feel like he has to carry all the weight for our family,” she said.

Saving for the future: Courtney and Ryan have a joint savings account, a joint IRA account, and individual 401k plans through their work.

In order to save money, the couple uses apps like Qapital, which acts like a digital piggy bank by rounding up transactions to the nearest dollar (or however much you allow it to) and storing it in an FDIC insured savings account at one of the company’s partner banks. Users can attach a goal to the account, which makes it simple to save up for a vacation or a down payment for a car.

“A couple of dollars each week adds up quickly,” said Ryan, who once saved $2,500 with Courtney in four months through the app.

The couple also expects each other to save on their own. Both Courtney and Ryan have individual savings accounts they fund with leftover cash from their personal checking accounts.

Establishing common ground: When it comes to additional income, like performance bonuses, the two discuss exactly how the funds are being used.

“I never would be like, ‘This is my bonus, I’m going to get golf clubs or go on a boys trip,’” said Ryan.

To make sure they are on the same page, the couple came up with three top goals for extra income: lowering debt, enjoying life experiences and increasing their savings.

“We’ve lived in debt our whole lives and we want the only debt left to be our mortgage,” Courtney said. “That’s where the majority of extra income goes. However, we also prioritize us a lot, even if that means lessening debt payments, because life is short and we want to experience as much as we can while we physically can.”

Soon, the couple will have additional income: Courtney will start earning a commission on top of her salary. Their plan is to have 85% of the commission check go into their savings account to help finance a future move, and the remaining 15% will go into their joint checking account.

Separate accounts, but an even split on expenses

Nichole and Cole Huber have been married since September 2018 and live in Tucker, Georgia. Nicole is 32 and works as an IT recruiter; Cole is 30 and works as a welder.

Even though Nichole and Cole Huber have separate bank accounts and credit cards, the couple makes a point to split joint expenses evenly. Through cash-transfer apps like Venmo, the two can make sure their contributions are 50/50, and they take turn paying whenever they dine out.

While the couple has discussed having a joint account when they have children or are saving up for a big expense, like home renovations, past experience has taught them to be cautious. Nichole was previously married and said her past marriage ended with a lot of “money attachments.”

“My ex-husband and I pulled our money together and lived a lifestyle that required both our incomes,” Nichole said. “He made substantially more than me so when it came to separating, I had to trust he would follow through on paying for things until we fully separated all our financial obligations.”

“I felt stuck because I didn’t have an account of money on my own and money was used to have power over me,” she said. “[My ex] would reiterate that he was still paying for me — rent on a house we had, the mortgage we had together, cars we bought based on our dual income lifestyle — so part of my mentality now is to live a lifestyle I can afford on my own and to have my own money saved up for the future.”

Although Nichole earns about 30% to 40% more in annual income than Cole, the couple decided together that they would split expenses 50/50 because their joint expenses don’t total up to much.

“It all comes down to being fair,” explained Cole, who said that when expenses are split evenly, “there’s nothing to argue about and there’s nothing to discuss.”

“If she wants to go buy something, that’s great,” he continued. “Same for me. The thought of asking for permission … it creates animosity around finances.”

Saving for the future: Right now, the couple maintains individual savings accounts. However, they each know how much their spouse contributes to their 401k plans and have agreed to start individual IRA plans in 2019.

“We just have an open conversation about what we’re doing,” said Nichole. “I don’t know exactly how much is in Cole’s banking account and he doesn’t know exactly how much is in mine, but we know each other’s credit scores.”

Establishing common ground: Before Nichole and Cole were engaged, the couple sat down to identify common financial goals. One was to purchase a house, and since Cole had enough savings at the time, he agreed to cover the down payment for the home.

“Most importantly, setting joint goals gives us confidence that we are both looking to follow the same path financially,” Cole said. “Gaining an understanding of how you both view and value money allows you to then segway into a conversation about financial goals.”

Cole explains that “discussing” and “compromising” is what led the two to understand their financial goals as a couple and in turn, the big financial decisions become “much easier because we are both shooting for the same thing and we understand what is important to one another.”

Splitting costs in proportion to their income

Tara and Jon Sims have been married nearly three years and live in Matthews, North Carolina. Tara is 34 and works as a probations/parole officer; Jon is 32 and is in a director role in the admissions office at a local university.

Although Tara and Jon Sims have been together for a decade and married nearly three years, the two have yet to open a joint bank account. While they aren’t opposed to it, their banks of choice aren’t the same — Tara banks with Wells Fargo and John is a loyal PNC Bank customer — and they haven’t felt a need to make any transitions.

The couple handles their money in much the same way they did at the start of their relationship. The Sims moved in together after eight months of dating — mostly because Jon moved from Virginia to North Carolina for work and Tara decided to leave her job to start a new life with him.

In those early days, the couple was living paycheck to paycheck. Although Tara had some savings, Jon wanted her to go back to school and finish her degree. The couple was a one-income household and money was tight. But once Tara got a job, they decided to split the bills in proportion to their income.

Tara is responsible for budgeting and managing the couple’s money. Every month, she adds up their expenses — a mortgage payment for the home they purchased together in 2016, utilities, joint credit cards — and comes up with an amount for Jon to contribute, which is usually about 75% to 80% of his paycheck. Jon’s contribution covers the majority of the couple’s joint expenses. He will deposit this amount into Tara’s personal checking account every month since the two never opened an account together.

After paying their bills, Tara budgets for groceries and moves the rest of the money into a savings account that, while technically in her name, is understood to belong to both of them. Jon has access to the account.

Jon earns about 25% more income annually than Tara does, so he feels that it’s fair that he contributes more. The money that he keeps in his personal account is his spending money, and he said whatever is left in her account after paying the bills is her spending money, as long as they’re able to put away $200 to $300 every month into their savings.

Each person’s spending money or “allowance” is used to pay for their personal expenses, which includes their cell phones, car payments, and the personal loans they both took out to pay off the debt they racked up when they first started dating.

Saving for the future: The money that’s in Tara’s savings account belongs to the couple. “I don’t really ask questions,” said Jon. “I just let her transfer it over. Even though it’s in her name, it’s our savings.”

The couple has 401k plans through their work. Jon said he would like to start investing once the couple has a little more money saved up, but won’t make any major moves unless Tara agrees to it.

Establishing common ground: The percentage that Jon contributes each month feels fair to the both of them. “It never felt like a 50/50 or 80/20 thing, but more of ‘We’re trying to get the bills taken care of,’” Jon said.

Key takeaways

Here’s the truth about personal finance: it’s personal. In order to have a successful financial partnership, couples have to communicate to make sure they see eye-to-eye. No matter what your financial situation is, identifying what is important to both people and establishing common ground is critical for a lasting happy and healthy union. The couples above have very different ideas on how to handle their finances, but there some areas that they have in common:

They believe the division is equitable. No matter what your financial situation is, each person needs to believe that the system is fair. In order for this to happen, communication is key, which sounds easy enough but can be quite tough when you’re balancing modern life’s busy schedules.

They have a system for bill paying. Whether each person contributes to an agreed upon percentage and/or dollar amount that goes into an account that pays the bills, like the Ples’ and Sims’, or each pay their share from individual accounts, like the Hubers, it’s important to have a system to make sure bills are taken care of. Additionally, designating one person to handle all joint payments may make life less complicated, but make sure the person taking on the extra responsibility doesn’t feel burdened.

They have financial independence. Each couple said it’s important to have access to spending money that they feel is their own. The amount of this “allowance” should be determined by both parties ahead of time and can be a percentage proportional to income. This can also release tension in a marriage, especially if the people in the marriage have very different ideas on how to spend and save money.

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Vivian Giang
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Vivian Giang is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Vivian here

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What Credit Score Is Needed to Buy a Car?

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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If you want to buy a car, you can probably find someone willing to sell you one and give you a loan, regardless of your credit score. But you might be shocked when you see what it will cost you. Car buyers who need a loan and don’t have a good credit score often end up paying more — a lot more.

Even if you have an average or better credit score, exactly how good it is can dramatically affect how much you pay to finance your car.

Fortunately, by learning about credit scores and how they affect your car loan, you can take steps to make sure you always get your best deal. Read on to learn how.

Buying a car? What’s your credit score?

The better your score, the better the auto loan deal you can get. That’s because if you have a proven track record of borrowing money and paying it as promised, lenders aren’t taking a big chance giving you a loan. They might even compete for your business by offering you low interest rate loans.

If your payment history is sketchier, you’re a riskier bet in the eyes of prospective lenders. You may quit paying, and they’ll have to take steps to collect. Lenders expect compensation for extra risk in the form of higher interest rates.

This chart shows how much your credit score can affect the amount you pay to finance your car.

Average Car Loan Rates by Credit Score, Third Quarter, 2018

Credit Score RangeNew Car LoanUsed Car Loan
781 to 8503.68%4.34%
661 to 7804.56%5.97%
601 to 6607.52%10.34%
501 to 60011.89%16.14%
300 to 50014.41%18.98%
Source: Experian

Do auto lenders use the same credit score as other lenders?

Credit bureaus offer a wide variety of credit scores to help meet lenders’ needs. Because auto lenders place more importance on certain credit information, such as your history of making car payments, the credit score an auto lender sees may be slightly different from the score pulled by other lenders.

What else do auto lenders look at besides my credit score?

Auto lenders look at several factors in addition to your credit history and credit score. According to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), they’ll also consider how much income you have, your existing debt load, the amount of the loan you are applying for, the loan term (how long it will take you to pay it back), your down payment as a percentage of the vehicle value, and the type and age of the vehicle you are purchasing.

The most important things car lenders consider when you apply for a loan, however, are your credit score and credit history. “You can even get a car loan when you are unemployed, provided you have a down payment and money in the bank,” said Nishank Khanna, chief marketing officer at Clarify Capital, a business lending firm in New York City.

How can I increase my odds of getting a low-interest car loan?

If you want to get the best deal on a loan, follow these steps before you go to the dealership:

  1. Check your credit report before you look for a car. According to Experian, you should check your credit report at least three to six months before you make a major purchase. This gives you time to correct any mistakes on your report, if needed.
  2. Try to improve your score, if needed. One quick way to pump up your credit score is to lower your utilization rate, preferably by paying down your consumer debt. Even if you’ve never missed a payment, your credit score suffers if you’re using too much of your available credit when lenders report to the credit bureaus. Alternatively, you can ask for a credit limit increase, and instantly improve your utilization rate. (Just don’t use that available credit, or you’ll be worse off than before.)
  3. Avoid making major purchases or applying for other new credit right before you want a car loan. Applying for credit creates “hard inquiries” on your credit report, which can temporarily ding your score. In addition, new debt can change your debt-to-available-credit ratio, or increase your debt load.
  4. Know what you can afford. “Always get a car that you can realistically afford in terms of the car payments, not necessarily what you would like to have,” Khanna said. Stick to your decision, no matter how persuasive the salesperson can be.
  5. Find a cosigner, if necessary. If you have just entered the workforce, for example, you may not have a significant credit history. “You may need to have someone cosign your loan to get a decent interest rate,” Khanna said. A cosigner can be a parent, sibling or even a friend. The cosigner will be liable for the debt if you don’t pay, so make sure you can comfortably make the payments, and that you won’t put the cosigner’s finances at risk if something goes wrong.
  6. Shop around. Sure, it’s easy to apply for a car loan at the dealership. But you probably don’t buy cars without shopping around. Why would you sign up for a car loan at the first place you go? You can even find a good deal and get preapproved for a car loan. As a car buyer, it is wise to make sure that you are getting the best deal that you can qualify for. Consider starting your search with LendingTree, our parent company.  On LendingTree, you can fill out an online form and receive up to five potential auto loan offers from lenders at once, instead of filling out five different lender applications.

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Avoid dealerships that advertise “no credit check” or “buy here, pay here.” These dealerships specialize in sales to buyers with poor or no credit and make their own in-house loans. According to the CFPB, you may not only pay high interest rates to places that specialize in buyers with poor credit, but you may pay thousands of dollars more for your car than you would elsewhere. If these are the only dealerships where you can get a loan, consider walking away.

“If your credit score is less than 500, you may be better off getting a car you can afford to buy outright with cash,” Khanna said. You can always get a nicer car when your credit improves.

While you’re comparing car loans, remember to pay attention to the total cost of financing your car. Your interest rate is just one factor in determining your total interest expense. You can also reduce your interest cost by making a larger down payment, paying off your car sooner, and by purchasing a less expensive car.

You have plenty to think about when you’re shopping for a car. You shouldn’t have to worry about your loan at the same time you’re checking out features and searching car lots. Get a head start on financing, before you go shopping, and you’ll have one less thing to worry about while you test drive your next car.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Sally Herigstad
Sally Herigstad |

Sally Herigstad is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Sally here

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