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Best Places for Women Entrepreneurs

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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While women have been making strides in the world of business leadership in the past decade, American companies are still far from progressive and equal in this regard. Of incorporated businesses across the top 50 metropolitan areas in the U.S., just 30% are led by women, according to a new study by MagnifyMoney.

But where are women entrepreneurs seeing the most success? We surveyed the 50 largest U.S. cities to find the best places for women who want to be their own boss, launch a business — or both.

To create our rankings, we looked at data about women entrepreneurs across four different categories. The first two related to raw income and were double weighted in our analysis, while the last two related to the number of women entrepreneurs and business owners in the metro area.

What we considered in our analysis:

Business income for self-employed women. We ranked cities on both median and mean business income of self-employed women. By including both metrics, the rankings “capture both the more common experience of self-employed women as well as monetary success overall,” said Kali McFadden, senior research analyst at MagnifyMoney.

Ideally, both numbers would be in the higher end. A wide range between the two, however, could indicate a broader range of potential earnings for self-employed women in that area.

Business earnings for self-employed women compared with wage earners. We also ranked metro areas on the difference in earnings between self-employed women and those working for wages (both median and mean).

In general, self-employed women do earn less median and average incomes than people with earned income. “But a smaller gap between each group’s income implies better a potential upside for those going into business for themselves,” McFadden said.

The rate of self-employed and “incorporated” women. The rankings considered the percentage of employed women who work for themselves. “A higher rate of self-employment suggests that the city’s opportunities and ease of entry into business are better for women,” said McFadden.

Additionally, we looked at how many of those self-employed women have an incorporated business. “A higher number means that more women are seeing enough success and permanence to think about the legal and tax implications” of the businesses they own, McFadden pointed out.

Parity of business ownership between women and men. We looked at the percentage of total self-employed workers and incorporated business owners who are women.

Cities with higher percentages of self-employed women and women business owners could indicate a more even playing field, “where women are seeing the opportunities and conditions to break out on their own,” McFadden said.

Key findings:

  • San Francisco is the best metro for women entrepreneurs by a wide margin. Austin, Texas came in the second spot, and San Jose (Silicon Valley) was third. Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and Philadelphia came in last for women entrepreneurs.
  • Women entrepreneurs are set up for success on the West Coast. Five out of the top 10 metros are in California, with another in Washington. Tennessee is also hospitable to women entrepreneurs, with two metros in the Volunteer State landing on our list at the 4th and 5th spots.
  • There is a long way to go before we reach entrepreneurial parity — meaning an equal number of women and men starting and heading up young businesses. The average percentage of self-employed people on our list of metros who are women is a scant 37%, and the number is even lower among people with incorporated businesses: 30%.
  • Most self-employed women are not getting by on their business income. The highest median income we uncovered for women-led businesses is just over $10,000 and the lowest is zero. And across the 50 metros we reviewed, median business incomes amount to just 10% of the local median wages for women. “This is not surprising,” McFadden noted, “as self-employment could mean anything from having an Etsy store or offering a few hours of labor on TaskRabbit, to owning a bed-and-breakfast or gas station, to being a high-dollar commercial realtor or blockbuster novelist.”

The top 10 places for women entrepreneurs

In the best cities for women entrepreneurs, women who work for themselves are more likely to earn a decent living by doing so.

These cities also tend to have higher rates of women who are self-employed, a sign that the conditions could be favorable to workers ready to go at it alone.

Here’s a deeper look at the best U.S. cities for women entrepreneurs.

1. San Francisco

At No.1, San Francisco ranked at the top largely due to having the highest business incomes earned by women working there. The median business income is $10,378 among women in this city, and women’s average business income is $31,880.

In addition to their higher business incomes, women entrepreneurs are also more common in the San Francisco. Just over 10% of San Francisco’s women earners work for themselves. Looking at business owners, 41.7% of the city’s self-employed workers are women, and 32.1% of incorporated businesses are owned by women.

2. Austin, Texas

Women’s business earnings in Austin were on the higher end in terms of dollars, with the median at $8,262 and the average at $25,345.

But they’re among the highest when comparing women’s business income with the women’s earnings through wages. The average self-employed woman or business owner in Austin, for instance, makes nearly half (48.1%) what the average income for women in the city.

3. San Jose

A neighbor to San Francisco, San Jose is a similarly ideal place for women entrepreneurs. The city has one of the highest average business incomes for women, at $30,344 per year.

San Jose also has higher rates of women who are self-employed (41.1%) as well as incorporated businesses owned by women (32.2%).

4. Memphis, Tenn.

Memphis stands out for the higher median business incomes; most women entrepreneurs make around $9,068 in business income, second only to San Francisco. Plus, Memphis women have the highest business incomes when compared with local women’s earned income, earning about 25% of a typical woman’s wage in this city.

However, the average business income for women in Memphis is just twice as high as the median, “suggesting that the range of income isn’t that great,” McFadden said.

5. Nashville, Tenn.

Next is another Tennessee metro, Nashville, which is a standout when it comes to average business incomes for women. At $23,373, self-employed women in this city make just under half a typical women worker’s earned income. This is a sign that striking out on their own is a viable way for women to earn a decent living in Nashville.

That’s great news, given that Nashville has fewer women working for themselves and incorporating. Seven percent of women workers are self-employed, but just one in five of self-employed women have an incorporated business.

6. Los Angeles

Then there’s Los Angeles, which has the highest portion of self-employed women workers of any city on this list — 10.9%. Women entrepreneurs in LA can also expect a business income on the higher end, with the median at $7,758 and an average of $20,945.

7. San Diego

The next major California city to make the list is San Diego, which offers women a similarly attractive business landscape. Among women earning a business income in San Diego, the median is $8,060 and the average is $20,949 (both slightly higher than what LA’s women entrepreneurs bring in).

San Diego also has high rates of self-employment among women. One in 10 women workers in the city is self-employed, and 39.3% of self-employed workers are women.

8. Sacramento, Calif.

Sacramento lands at No. 8 by faring above average in most ranking factors, showing it’s a solid place for women entrepreneurs to take the leap into starting a business.

Take women’s business incomes as proof; the median at $7,053 and the average at $23,596 show Sacramento’s women entrepreneurs are able to outearn similar cohorts in other major U.S. cities.

9. Seattle

In Seattle, the average income for self-employed women is five times higher than the median — $22,713 to $4,534, respectively. “[This] suggests that while most self-employed women aren’t making much money, those who are are doing well are doing very well,” McFadden said.

Another factor backs up this insight: Among the top 10, Seattle has the highest rate (30.6%) of self-employed women who are incorporated. Plus, the city has high rates of parity in women business ownership: 42.1% of self-employed workers are women, as are nearly one-third of incorporated businesses owners.

10. Cincinnati

Rounding out the list of the best cities for women entrepreneurs is Cincinnati. Self-employed women earn decent business incomes in this Ohio city, with the median at $7,556 and an average of $21,432.

These earnings are high enough to compensate for lackluster rates of women working for themselves. Just 5.4% of Cincinnati’s women workers are self-employed, and these women account for 35.4% of all self-employed workers in the city.

In the 10 cities that ranked last on our list, self-employed women are earning far less than their counterparts in other cities. Take a look at the worst city, Cleveland, where women’s median business income is $0 — meaning at least half of self-employed women there don’t make anything at all.

The worst cities also have fewer women who have incorporated a business or taken the plunge into self-employment. This might make it harder for entrepreneurial women in these metro areas to find women mentors and women-centered entrepreneurial networks that can provide support vital to a new and developing business.

Placement at the bottom of this list could also signal that these cities are inhospitable to self-employed workers or new business owners in general — for both men and women alike.

That’s not to say it’s impossible for women entrepreneurs to start and build successful businesses in these cities.

Women living in these worst cities shouldn’t assume that their business endeavor will be doomed before it even begins. But they would be wise to practice extra caution in their plans to transition to self-employment or business ownership.

How women business owners can beat the odds

Living in one of the best cities won’t guarantee automatic success any more than a woman starting a business in one of the worst cities will fail. Wherever they live, women entrepreneurs must overcome obstacles and chart their own path to self-employment.

For women ready to take their first steps toward entrepreneurship, these steps can help them get further faster.

  • Start small but dream big. Even if you’re not ready to quit your job and hustle full time, don’t put your entrepreneurial goals on the back burner. Build out a timeline to get you closer to self-employment or starting a business, filled with small and actionable steps you can start taking now. A side hustle can be the perfect way to get a feel for being your own boss without giving up your main source of income.
  • Explore the business landscape of your specific city. Research local regulations and bylaws that could be pertinent to your business idea. For example, you can start checking out everything from business licensing laws to local small business tax breaks to help build out your business plan. You can also research local small businesses to see which are doing well and why, to get insights into how to set your own venture up for success.
  • Seek out local resources for women entrepreneurs. Many cities recognize the important role small businesses, startups and self-employed workers play in fueling local economies. And some have responded with support systems designed to foster growing businesses — and women entrepreneurs who lead them. One example is San Francisco-based Girls in Tech, a nonprofit founded by Adriana Gascoigne,which seeks to empower and educate women (including entrepreneurs) in the tech industry. Even the bottom-ranked city, Cleveland, has local organizations focused on supporting women entrepreneurs, such as women -focused business development courses from Aviatra Accelerators and an annual Female Entrepreneur Summit.
  • Network with other self-employed women. Don’t underestimate the power of meeting, working with and learning from like-minded, entrepreneurial women. The local organizations mentioned above can be the perfect way to connect with other women entrepreneurs in your area and find a new friend, mentor or even a future business partner. You can also look for co-working spaces, entrepreneurship-centered meetups or social events for local businesswomen to grow your network.

Methodology:

Each of the 50 largest metropolitan statistical areas (“MSAs”) was scaled against each other, so that the most positive result for each factor was 100 and the most negative was 0, on the following eight factors from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey for 2016, either available through FactFinder or calculated from microdata housed in IPUMS USA. The results for each factor were then weighted according to the notation below, and the sum was divided by eight (rounded to one decimal point), for a highest possible score of 100 and a lowest possible score of 0.

  • Median business income for self-employed women (double weight)
  • Average business income for self-employed women (double weight)
  • Ratio of median business income to median earned income for the metro (double weight)
  • Ratio of average business income to average earned income for the metro (double weight)
  • Percentage of working women who are self-employed (single weight)
  • Percentage of self-employed women who are incorporated (single weight)
  • Percentage of self-employed people who are women (single weight)
  • Percentage of incorporated people who are women (single weight)

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Elyssa Kirkham
Elyssa Kirkham |

Elyssa Kirkham is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Elyssa here

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2019 Fed Meeting Predictions — No More Rate Hikes Until 2020

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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The March Fed meeting put the kibosh on more rate hikes in 2019. With FOMC policy on pause, market interest rates should hold steady (or even decline in some cases) for financial products you use every day. Read on for our predictions for each upcoming Fed meeting and updates on what went down at the most recent conclaves.

What happened at the March Fed meeting

The Federal Reserve signaled no rate hikes this year, and the possibility of only one increase in 2020. The Fed has pivoted pretty rapidly from its hawkish stance in 2018 to a more dovish outlook as it puts policy on ice. This change in tone grows directly from the FOMC’s observation of slowing growth in economic activity, namely household spending and business investment. The Fed also noted that employment gains have plateaued along with the unemployment rate, which nevertheless remains at very low levels.

So the federal funds rate looks to remain at 2.25% to 2.50% for a year or more, and the FOMC highlighted that this is the not-too-hot, not-too-cold level that for now best serves its dual mandate to “foster maximum employment and price stability.”

The Fed also released its Summary of Economic Projections (SEP). The March SEP indicated a median projected federal funds rate of 2.6% for 2020, which is why everybody is discussing the possibility of at least one, small increase next year.

For those who were really hoping for at least one more rate hike, all is not lost — Tendayi Kapfidze, LendingTree chief economist, believes we shouldn’t take March’s decision too gravely. “There are special factors that suggest the economy could reaccelerate,” he says. “The government shutdown threw a wrench into things, slowing some activity and distorting how we measure the economy.” He also remarks that since the financial crisis, data in the first quarter has continued to come in weak, still leaving room for everything to reaccelerate in the second and third quarters. He points to the already strong labor market as a plus.

Fed economic forecasts hint at a possible rate cut by the end of 2019. Just as the Fed projects a slightly higher federal funds rate in 2020, it also posted a projected 2.4% for 2019. Note that this projected rate falls below the upper end of the current rate corridor of 2.5%. This means the doves may want to see a possible rate cut if improvements in the economic outlook don’t materialize by mid-year.

When asked about this potential rate cut, Fed Chair Jerome Powell emphasized the Committee’s current positive outlook, while also emphasizing that it remains mindful of potential risks. Still, he maintained that “the data are not currently sending a signal that we need to move in one direction or another.” He also remarked that since it’s still early in the year, they have limited and mixed data to consult.

Kapfidze offers a more concretely positive outlook, noting that the chances of a rate cut are pretty slim. “To get a rate cut, you’d have to have sustained growth below 2%. There would have to be further weakness in the economy, like if trade deals get messier, to warrant a rate cut.”

The Fed downgraded its economic outlook for 2019 for the second time in recent months. In line with Kapfidze’s predictions, we did see a weaker economic outlook coming out of this month’s Fed meeting. The median GDP forecast for 2019 and 2020 decreased from December projections, while it remained the same for 2021 and beyond. This comes hand in hand with the decreased fed funds rate projections.

The FOMC increased their unemployment projections, which Kapfidze found surprising because the labor market has been so strong. “Maybe they believe that those numbers indicate a deceleration,” he said, “but really, it has to be consistent considering the other changes that they made.”

Why the Fed March meeting is important for you

It’s easy to let all of this monetary policy talk go in one ear and out the other. But what the Fed does or doesn’t change has an impact on your daily life. Without a rate hike since December, we’re already starting to see mortgage rates fall. This is helpful not only for those who want to buy a home, but also for those who bought homes at last year’s highs to refinance.

As for personal loans and credit cards, we may still see these rates continue to increase, just at a slower rate. These rates have little chance of decreasing because lenders may take the current weaker economic data as a sign that the economy is going to be more risky.

Deposit accounts will feel the opposite effects as banks may start to cut savings account rates. At best, banks will keep their rates where they are for now, until more evidence for a rate cut arises.

Our March Fed meeting predictions

There’s little chance of a rate hike this time around. In a policy speech on March 8, Fed Chair Jerome Powell reinforced the FOMC’s patient approach when considering any changes to the current policy, indicating he saw “nothing in the outlook demanding an immediate policy response and particularly given muted inflation pressures.”

This is no different from what we heard back in January, when the Fed took a breather after its December rate hike. There was no change to the federal funds rate at that meeting, and Powell had stressed that the FOMC would be exercising patience throughout 2019, waiting for signs of risk from economic data before making any further policy changes.

Further strengthening the case for rates on hold, the reliably hawkish Boston Fed President Eric Rosengren cited several reasons that “justify a pause in the recent monetary tightening cycle,” in a policy speech on March 5. His big tell was citing the lack of immediate signs of strengthening inflation, which remains around the Fed’s target rate of 2%.

Even though there had been some speculation of a first quarter hike at the March Fed meeting, LendingTree chief economist Tendayi Kapfidze reminds us that the Fed remains, as ever, data-dependent. “The latest data has been on the weaker side, with the exception of wage inflation,” he says.

The economic forecast may be weaker than December’s. The Fed will release their longer-range economic predictions after the March meeting. These projections should include adjustments in the outlook for GDP, unemployment and inflation. The Fed will also provide its forecast for future federal funds rates.

Kapfidze expects we’ll see a weaker forecast this time around than what we saw in December. “I except the GDP forecast to go down, and the federal funds rate expectations to go down.” This follows a December report that posted lower numbers than the September projections.

Despite flagging economic projections, Rosengren offered a steady outlook in his speech. “My view is that the most likely outcome for 2019 is relatively healthy U.S. economic growth,” he said, again attributing this to “inflation very close to Fed policymakers’ 2 percent target and a U.S. labor market that continues to tighten somewhat.”

The Fed’s economic predictions offer clues to its future policy decisions. In September, the Fed projected a 2019 federal funds rate of 3.1%. That number dropped to 2.9% in the December report. With the current rate at 2.25% to 2.5%, there’s still room for more hikes this year. Keep in mind, however, that, the March meeting may narrow projections for the rest of 2019.

As for Kapfidze, he thinks we’ll see a rate hike in the second half of the year. “If wage inflation continues to increase and it trickles more into the economy, the Fed could choose to raise rates due to that risk.”

However, as of March 12, markets see the odds of a rate hike this year at zero, while the odds of a federal funds cut has risen to around 20%, based the Fed Fund futures.

Upcoming Fed meeting dates:

Here is the FOMC’s calendar of scheduled meetings for 2019. Each entry is tentative until confirmed at the meeting proceeding it. For past meetings, click on the dates below to catch up on our pre-game forecast and after-action report.

Our January Fed meeting predictions

Don’t expect a rate hike. The FOMC ended the year with yet another rate hike, raising the federal funds rate from 2.25 to 2.5%. It was the committee’s fourth increase of 2018, which began with a rate of just 1.5%.

But the January Fed meeting will likely be an increase-free one. Tendayi Kapfidze, chief economist at LendingTree, the parent company of MagnifyMoney, said the probability of a rate hike is “basically zero.”

Kapfidze’s assessment is twofold. First, he noted that the Fed typically announces rate increases during the third month of each quarter, not the first. This means a hike announcement would be much more likely during the FOMC’s March 19-20 meeting, rather than in January.

Perhaps more importantly, Kapfidze said there’s been too much market flux for the FOMC to make a new decision on the federal funds rate. He predicts the Fed will likely wait for more evidence before it considers another rate hike.

“I think a lot of it is a reaction to market volatility, and therefore that’s lowered the expectations for federal fund hikes,” Kapfidze said.

But if a rate hike is so unlikely, what should consumers expect from the January Fed meeting? Here are three things to keep an eye on.

#1 The frequency of rate hikes moving forward

It’s unclear when the next increase will occur, but the FOMC’s post-meeting statement could give a clearer picture of how often rate hikes might occur in the future.

The Fed released its latest economic projections last month, which predicted the federal funds rate would likely reach 2.9% by the end of 2019. This figure was a decline from its September 2018 projections, which placed that figure at 3.1%.

As a result, many analysts — Kapfidze included — are forecasting a slower year for rate hikes than in 2018. Kapfdize said some analysts are predicting zero increases, or even a rate decrease, but he believes that may be too conservative.

“I still think the underlying economic data supports at least two rate hikes, maybe even three,” Kapfidze said.

Kapfidze’s outlook falls more in line with the Fed’s current projections, as it would mean two rate hikes of 0.25% at some point this year. There could be more clarity after the January meeting, as the FOMC’s accompanying statement will help indicate whether the Fed’s monetary policy has changed since December.

#2 An economic forecast for 2019

The FOMC’s post-meeting statement always includes a brief assessment of the economy, and this month’s comments will provide a helpful first look at the outlook for 2019.

Consumers will have to wait until March for the Fed’s full projections — those are only updated after every other meeting — but the FOMC will follow its January gathering with its usual press release. This statement normally provides insight into the state of household spending, inflation, the unemployment rate and GDP growth, as well as a prediction of how quickly the economy will grow in the coming months.

At last month’s Fed meeting, the committee found that household spending was continuing to increase, unemployment was remaining low and overall inflation remained near 2%. Kapfidze expects January’s forecast to be fairly similar, as recent market fluctuations might make it difficult for the FOMC to predict any major changes.

Read more: What the Fed Rate Hike Means for Your Investments

“I wouldn’t expect any significant change in the tone compared to December,” Kapfidze said. “I think they’ll want to see a little more data come in, and a little more time pass.”

At the very least, the statement will let consumers know if the Fed is taking a patient approach to its analysis, a decision that may help indicate just how volatile the FOMC considers the economy to be.

#3 A response to the government shutdown

The big mystery entering January’s Fed meeting is the partial government shutdown. While Kapfidze said the FOMC’s outlook should be similar to December, he also warned that things could change quickly if Congress and President Trump can’t agree on a spending bill soon.

“The longer it goes on, and the more contentious it gets, the less confidence consumers have — the less confidence business have. And a lot of that could translate to increased financial market volatility,” Kapfidze said.

Kapfidze added that the longer the government stays closed, the more likely the FOMC is to react with a change in monetary policy. During the October 2013 shutdown, for example, the Fed’s Board of Governors released a statement encouraging banks and credit unions to allow consumers a chance at renegotiating debt payments, such as mortgages, student loans and credit cards.

“The agencies encourage financial institutions to consider prudent workout arrangements that increase the potential for creditworthy borrowers to meet their obligations,” the 2013 statement said.

What happened at the January Fed meeting:

No rate hike for now

In its first meeting of 2019, the Federal Open Market Committee announced it was keeping the federal fund rate at 2.25% to 2.5%, therefore not raising the rates, as widely predicted. This decision follows much speculation surrounding the economy after the Fed rate hike in December 2018, which was the fourth rate hike last year. In its press release, the FOMC cited the near-ideal inflation rate of 2%, strong job growth and low unemployment as reasons for leaving the rate unchanged.

In the post-meeting press conference, Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell confirmed that the committee feels that its current policy is appropriate and will adopt a “wait-and-see approach” in regards to future policy changes.

Read more: How Fed Rate Hikes Change Borrowing and Savings Rates

Impact of government shutdown is yet to be seen

The FOMC’s official statement did not address the government shutdown in detail, although it was discussed briefly in the press conference that followed. Powell said he believes that any GDP lost due to the shutdown will be regained in the second quarter, providing there isn’t another shutdown. Any permanent effect would come from another shutdown, but he did not answer how a shutdown might change future policy.

What the January meeting bodes for the rest of the year

Don’t expect more rate hikes. As for what this decision might signal for the future, Powell maintains that the committee is “data dependent”. This data includes labor market conditions, inflation pressures and expectations and price stability. He stressed that they will remain patient while continuing to look at financial developments both abroad and at home. These factors will help determine when a rate adjustment would be appropriate, if at all. When asked whether a rate change would mean an increase or a decrease, he emphasized again the use of this data for clarification on any changes. Still, the Fed did predict in December that the federal funds rate could reach 2.9% by the end of this year, indicating a positive change rather than a negative one.

CD’s might start looking better. For conservative savers wondering whether or not it’s worth it to tie up funds in CDs and risk missing out on future rate hikes – long-term CDs are looking like a safer and safer bet, according to Ken Tumin, founder of DepositAccounts.com, another LendingTree-owned site. Post-Fed meeting, Tumin wrote in his outlook, “I can’t say for sure, but it’s beginning to look more likely that we have already passed the rate peak of this cycle. It may be time to start moving money into long-term CDs.”

Look out for March. Depending on who you ask, the FOMC’s inaction was to be expected. As Tendayi Kapfidze, LendingTree’s chief economist, noted [below], if there is going to be a rate increase this quarter, it will be announced in the FOMC’s March meeting. We will also have to wait for the March meeting to get the Fed’s full economic projections. For now, its statement confirms that household spending is still on an incline, inflation remains under control and unemployment is low. It also notes that growth of business fixed investment has slowed down from last year. As for inflation, market-based measures have decreased in recent months, but survey-based measures of longer-term inflation expectations haven’t changed much.

 

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Learn more: What is the Federal Open Market Committee?

The FOMC is one of two monetary policy-controlling bodies within the Federal Reserve. While the Fed’s Board of Governors oversees the discount rate and reserve requirements, the FOMC is responsible for open market operations, which are defined as the purchase and sale of securities by a central bank.

Most importantly, the committee controls the federal funds rate, which is the interest rate at which banks and credit unions can lend reserve balances to other banks and credit unions.

The committee has eight scheduled meetings each year, during which its members assess the current economic environment and make decisions about national monetary policy — including whether it will institute new rate hikes.

A look back at 2018

Before the FOMC gathers this January, it’s worth understanding what the Fed did in 2018, and how those decisions might affect future policy.

The year 2018 was the Fed’s most aggressive rate-raising year in a decade. The FOMC’s four rate hikes were the most since the 2008 Financial Crisis, after the funds rate stayed at nearly zero for seven years. This approach was largely based on the the FOMC’s economic projections, which found that from 2017 to 2018 GDP grew, unemployment declined and inflation its Fed-preferred rate of 2%.

In addition to the rate hikes, the FOMC also continued to implement its balance sheet normalization program, through which the Fed is aiming to reduce its securities holdings.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Dillon Thompson
Dillon Thompson |

Dillon Thompson is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Dillon here

Lauren Perez
Lauren Perez |

Lauren Perez is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Lauren here

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