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College Students and Recent Grads

America’s Biggest Millennial Boomtowns

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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In August, we published our study of America’s biggest boomtowns. It looked at three categories of data — industry growth, population and housing changes and workforce opportunities. As a follow-up to our study, we are providing a look at the top 50 metro areas that are attracting millennials and helping them prosper.

Using four metrics (millennial population change, workforce participation, unemployment rate and median wages), we scored the top 50 cities. A 100 was the highest possible score.

Here is a look at our findings.

Hover over a metro in the map below to see how it performed between 2011 and 2016.

Key findings

  • San Francisco topped our list of millennial boomtowns with a final score of 89, thanks to top growth in the millennial labor force, wages and overall population.
  • Denver and Austin, Texas, come in second and third, with scores of 80.6 and 80. The two cities saw notable millennial population growth and dropping unemployment rates.
  • All but two of the top 10 metros lie west of the Mississippi River. Four are on the West Coast and two are in Texas.
  • Virginia Beach came last on our list, mostly due to its shrinking millennial labor force and lackluster unemployment numbers. It had a final score of 9.7.
  • Providence, R.I., and Philadelphia rounded out the bottom three with scores of 13.3 and 21.7, respectively. Providence actually lost almost 3% of its millennial population, and wages for millennials in Philly only rose by 2.4%.
  • Oklahoma City saw the biggest wage increase: Millennials in 2016 enjoyed 33.6% more in median earnings than they did in 2011, although that still leaves them behind 32 other metro areas in terms of absolute dollars.
  • Unemployment among millennials was nearly cut in half in Nashville, where the rate dropped from 10.3% to 5.3% (a 48.1% change).

The scope of our research

Using the Pew Research Center’s definition of millennials (those born between 1981 and 1996) means that a portion of millennials would have been minors or pursuing an education or job training in 2011. To avoid including the working statistics of high schoolers, we limited this study to people born between 1981 and 1991, meaning people who would be between the approximate ages of 20 and 30 years old in 2011.

Even with that restriction, it’s important to remember that in general, people enjoy better employment opportunities and see higher wages as they gain experience, skills and workplace sophistication. Also, more people enter the workforce as they complete their educations, which often happens in their early 20s. Therefore, at least some of the increases in workforce participation and earnings are due to the natural age progression of this cohort.

Even so, we find that the millennial population is growing – and prospering – more in some places than in others. Millennials who live in the metros at the bottom of our list may be at risk for accruing more debt and less wealth over their lifetimes, thanks to opportunity losses. Those who move to the cities at the top of the list may find that they’re better equipped to pay down debt and gain assets at a faster rate as they gain toeholds in more lucrative job paths.

The elements of a millennial boomtown

More millennials

We tracked the five-year (2011-2016) population changes of those born between 1981 and 1991. Interestingly, millennial populations actually decreased in nine of the 50 metros we analyzed, which demonstrates that many millennials are actively migrating.

Labor force participation

It’s a truism in economics that when local working conditions and opportunities improve, many people who don’t participate in the workforce will decide that it’s a good time to pursue outside employment. Therefore, we wanted to see not just the change in overall population, but the change in the number of people who work or are actively seeking work. The size of the labor force generally increased, even in places where the millennial population shrank, except in Providence and Virginia Beach.

Unemployment

How much has the unemployment rate declined for millennials over that five-year period? Unemployment for the nation as a whole has dropped significantly since 2011, but there’s a big difference between the 19.6% drop for millennials in Las Vegas and the 48.1% drop in Nashville.

Median wages

We calculated the change in median wages for those born between 1981 and 1996. As discussed above, we would expect wages to go up for this group, generally, simply because they aged and gained worked experience during the intervening years. However, we found that median wages actually dropped a smidge in Richmond, Va., and Washington, D.C.

The biggest millennial boomtowns

1. San Francisco

Final score: 89.0
Housing is a struggle in San Francisco, but that isn’t deterring millennials. While the overall population of millennials increased by 16.2%, the millennial workforce jumped by 31.1%. To put that into context, the workforce increase represents about 5,000 more people than the population increase. That could be because so many people in the Bay Area have secondary and advanced degrees, meaning they may not have entered the workforce until they were well into their 20s, or may have dipped out of the workforce to further their education.

The unemployment rate for millennials dropped 40.3%, which is fairly impressive. That still only put San Francisco at No. 15 for highest unemployment rate drop among millennials. Fourteen other metros had bigger drops, including Detroit (42.9%), Minneapolis (44.4%), and Columbus, Ohio (45.7%).

But for millennials who are working, median wages have skyrocketed 32.4%, to $40,304. That’s the second highest wage on our list after neighboring city San Jose, and the second largest wage increase after Oklahoma City.

2. Denver

Final score: 80.6
Denver boasts the biggest increase of the millennial population between 2011 and 2016, at 18.7%.

Its 27.9% increase in labor force is second to San Francisco. But about 13,000 of the new arrivals aren’t working or are looking for work. That may be because despite the second sharpest drop in millennial unemployment (46.3%), median millennial wages have only increased 13.1%, to $32,243. That increase is the 15th smallest jump on our list.

3. Austin, Texas

Final score: 80.0
Austin has changed immensely in recent years. It has seen a population explosion over the last few years, and millennials were certainly part of that burst. Their numbers increased by 17.5%, the second biggest gain on our list behind Denver.

Despite an impressive workforce gain of 22.6% (5th highest), more millennials simply moved to Austin over joining the workforce. However, that’s not surprising for a major university town with extensive graduate and undergraduate programs.

Further, unemployment dropped 45.1% for millennials — the fourth biggest decline on our list — and median wages increased 21.7%, to $30,228.

4. Nashville, Tenn.

Final score: 76.4
Nashville seems eager for new millennial employees, as demonstrated by the biggest drop in unemployment of any metro on our list (48.1%). The city also has the 6th lowest millennial unemployment rate (5.3%). Overall, the millennial population increased by 11.4% (9th highest), and the labor force rose by 16.7% (15th highest).

Although Nashville also saw the third highest median wage increase (30.4%), that still only increased median wages up to $29,220. That median wage puts Nashville in the middle of the pack in terms of absolute dollars.

5. San Jose, Calif.

Final score: 74.7
The seat of Silicon Valley is the first place on our list where more millennials entered the labor force than actually moving into the metro. The millennial population increased by 13.3%, and 27.5% more are working or looking for work. That comes out to a difference about 4,000 people.

That’s somewhat surprising considering the relatively mediocre millennial unemployment rate of 6.7% (18th lowest) and comparatively modest median earnings increase of 25.9% (10th highest on the list). Of course, millennials in this city see the highest earnings of any metro on our list, with a median wage of $42,319.

The most sluggish cities for millennials

50. Virginia Beach, Va.

Final score: 9.7
Virginia Beach came in last on our list by performing dismally across all four metrics. The metro did enjoy a small bump (3.2%) of millennials between 2011 and 2016, but 2% fewer millennials were engaged in the labor force, the worst showing on our list. That could be because while the 7% unemployment rate isn’t the highest on our list (Riverside, Calif., takes home that honor), the 20.3% reduction was actually the smallest across the 50 metros.

Median wages for millennials have only increased 6.6%, which is 7th lowest among metros we reviewed, to $28,212. That median is distinctly middle of the pack, but the growth rate suggests there may be wage stagnation, as we would expect this age group to see wage gains just by moving from entry-level to more experienced levels over that five-year period.

49. Providence, R.I.

Final score: 13.3
Providence saw its millennial population drop by 2.8%. Part of this may be attributed to the fact that Providence is a college town. Thus, this drop may represent millennial students who have moved on after completing their undergraduate and graduate degrees. However, we did find that this metro area had one of the smallest population increases in our previous study.

Similarly, the millennial labor force shrank by 0.3%. The high millennial unemployment rate of 8.5% (8th worst) may have something to do with that, along with the 11th lowest income increase (9.9%).

48. Philadelphia

Final score: 21.7
Perhaps it’s no surprise that the millennial population of Philly only increased by 0.7%. Unemployment for that age group is 8.8% and median earnings only increased by 2.4%. That earnings increase represents a paltry five-year cost of living raise for most people.

The millennial workforce did rise by 10.6% during that period, however. It seems that local residents are picking up whatever new jobs are becoming available.

47. Richmond, Va.

Final score: 26.3
Richmond has the ignominy of the worst wage change for millennials. Median earnings went down by 2.1%. Washington, D.C., was the only other metro to see a negative earnings change, at 1%, but still managed to rank 18th overall, thanks to strong showings in other categories.

Although Richmond has a respectable millennial unemployment rate of 7.6%, an unemployment decrease of 32.3% was 12th lowest on our list and thus didn’t earn many points. A workforce increase of 12.4% was dead center of the pack, and the millennial population growth of 3.9% ranked 32 out of 50.

46. St. Louis

Final score: 26.8
St. Louis saw its millennial population shrink by 1.1%. Workforce participation was up by 6% (40th out of 50), but some or all that can probably be attributed to young adults entering the workforce after school or training, rather than attractive economic conditions.

Even though median earnings in 2016 were the 16th highest at $30,228, the earnings increase of 14.2% ranked 33rd highest on the list of 50. Despite these findings, a March 2018 study we conducted found that St. Louis was one of the best places for working women.

Top 5 and bottom 5 cities in each metric

Top 50 metro areas in the U.S.

Methodology

Using data from the U.S. Census American Community Survey, hosted on American FactFinder and by IPUMS USA, we tracked the five-year change between 2011 and 2016 (the last year for which all data was available) for those born between 1981 and 1991. This represents a subset of millennials, who are generally defined as those born between 1981 and 1996 (the reason for limiting the population to this subset is described above). These millennials would have been between the approximate ages of 20 and 30 in 2011 and 25 and 35 in 2016.

We limited the review to the 50 largest metropolitan statistical areas (“MSAs”) due to limited data availability.

The analyzed metrics were:

  • Population data included the age groupings of 20-24 and 25-29 for 2011;and 25-29 and 30-34 for 2016.
  • Labor force data included the age groupings of 20-21, 22-24 and 25-29 for 2011;and 25-29 and 30-34 for 2016.
  • Employment data included the age groupings of 20-21, 22-24 and 25-29 for 2011;and 25-29 and 30-34 for 2016.
  • Median wage data is for those born between 1981 and 1991.

Because the U.S. Census has changed the boundaries of some MSAs in the intervening years, we collected the data from FactFinder at the county level and then mapped it to the current MSA borders.

Each data series was scored relative to the other metros so that the biggest positive change received a score of 100 and any 0 or negative changes received a score of 0 (except for unemployment rate, where this was reversed). The highest possible score for each metric was 100 and the lowest was 0. The four metric scores were then summed and divided by four for a final score. The highest possible final score was 100 and the lowest was 0.

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Kali McFadden is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Kali at kali.mcfadden@magnifymoney.com

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6 Best Reasons to Refinance Student Loan Debt in 2019

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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Like the beginning of a new year, student loan refinancing can offer you a fresh start.

And this time, you could enjoy a lower interest rate or reduced monthly payment, as well as choosing which lender or servicer helps you reach the finish line.

These are among the six reasons to refinance your student loan debt in 2019.

1. Reduce your rate

After staggering four rate hikes across 2018, upping its benchmark by a full percentage point, the Federal Reserve is expected to impose increases of roughly half a percentage point during 2019.

Although it’s difficult to pinpoint the perfect time to refinance your student loans, this year could be the right time for you, as banks, credit unions and online lenders are still offering relatively low rates.

Don’t simply rely on lenders’ advertising, however. To qualify for the bottom of their best rate ranges, you’ll need a strong credit score and a healthy debt-to-income ratio. A steady, well-paying job helps, too.

You might treat 2019 as the year to strengthen your refinancing application, even if you decide it’s not the year you’ll be able to snag that super low rate.

A lower rate equals greater savings. Say you refinance $30,000 on a 10-year term and manage to cut your original average rate of 8% down to 5%. You’d save $5,494 over the next decade — no small chunk of change.

Check out our student loan refinance calculator to see what your own numbers look like.

2. Stretch your paycheck

Some borrowers see refinancing as a way of lowering their interest rate, but others see it as a pathway to reduce monthly payments.

A smaller monthly due could stretch your paycheck, which could be helpful if debt repayment isn’t your only financial goal for the year ahead.

By refinancing your federal loans and their 10-year standard repayment plan, you could switch to a longer term with a private lender. Most lenders offer you the ability to choose a term anywhere between five and 20 years.

If temporarily lowering your payments via refinancing is your top priority, shop around. You might be surprised by what you find. LendKey, for example, offers interest-only payments for up to four years.

As you seek a lower monthly payment in 2019, keep a couple of caveats in mind. By choosing a longer repayment term, for example, your loan repayment becomes progressively more expensive. That’s because interest will accrue and capitalize onto the principal loan amount.

Say you refinanced that $30,000 loan to a longer, 20-year term. Despite lowering your rate from 8% to 5%, you’d pay an additional $3,839 in interest over the life of your loan.

Also, don’t forget about the federal government’s income-driven repayment plans. With a plan like income-based repayment, you could tie your dues to a percentage of your discretionary income — and hold on to government-exclusive protections, such as access to loan forgiveness programs. It’s a preferable alternative to refinancing for many borrowers.

3. Snag some perks

If you’re considering refinancing federal loans, you might be worried about what you’d be giving up. The list includes access to loan forgiveness, plus the ability to switch repayment plans or receive mandatory forbearance.

Although private lenders won’t offer the same protections, their benefits are getting better and better all the time.

Consider some of the recent innovations being offered by top-rated lenders:

  • SoFi’s Unemployment Protection program lets you pause your loan for up to 12 months, and it includes career coaching support to find your next gig.
  • Earnest allows you to choose your payment due date, select from a much wider assortment of repayment terms than at most lenders, and skip one payment annually.
  • CommonBond has pioneered hybrid loans for student refinancing, offering a loan that blends fixed and variable rates.
  • Laurel Road is among the group of lenders that give a parent the chance to refinance federal PLUS Loans in their child’s name.

If an atypical loan feature makes refinancing right for you, survey the landscape in 2019 to see if any reputable lender offers the benefits you seek.

4. Simplify your repayment

If you’re holding federal loans, you might be cautiously optimistic about NextGen, the Department of Education’s plan to reorganize how student loan servicing works. If it fulfills expectations when it arrives sometime in 2019, NextGen will allow you to make your monthly payments in one place at one time.

“Cautiously optimistic” are the operative words here. NextGen is a massive undertaking, and government projects can sometimes move more slowly then we’d like, so you might not want to count on the new platform simplifying your repayment.

On the other hand, refinancing offers you that simplicity now. By replacing your federal loans (and private loans, if you have them), you’re not just receiving a new interest rate and repayment term. You’re also simultaneously consolidating (or grouping) them by replacing them with a single refinanced loan.

5. Choose your lender

When you first borrowed federal loans, you weren’t given the option to select your loan servicer.

Refinancing, however, allows you to choose your lender based on whatever criteria matter most to you. For example, you might be seeking a lender that services its own loans or offers a unique perk (see point No. 3 above).

Regardless of what you want in a new lender, remember that this year, you’re in charge. Shop around and hold potential banks, credit unions and online companies accountable for what you want out of refinancing. If they’re unable to meet your needs, move on to a competitor.

6. Gain financial independence

Student loan refinancing is more accessible in 2019 than it has been at any point previously.

In mid-2018, for instance, CommonBond announced it would accept refinancing candidates who are visa holders who have graduated from a U.S. university. Citizens Bank has been refinancing debt for college dropouts. Plus, more and more lenders are removing employment and minimum income from their eligibility requirements.

If you’ve found refinancing to be out of your reach, you might now be in luck. As a creditworthy applicant, you could thank the cosigner on your original loans by removing their name from your refinance application.

If not — maybe your credit score still needs work — take the first months of 2019 to strengthen your application. A cosigner could help you do just that. Plus, through refinancing, you could release that cosigner within a relatively short period. Splash Financial and LendKey are among lenders that offer cosigner release after just one year of prompt payments.

That would give you greater financial independence by 2020 — and put you on a path to becoming debt-free on your own.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

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Student Loan Forgiveness Programs for Doctors

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews, statements or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

As a medical professional, you might have taken on a mountain of debt on your journey to becoming a doctor. The average indebted doctor left medical school in 2016 owing more than $189,000 in student loans, according to the Association of American Medical Colleges.

Even if you’re on your way to a six-figure income, your residency income will likely be far less — in 2017, residents earned an average of just over $57,000. During that time, the interest alone on all your student loans could be equal to your entire disposable income after room and board.

Fortunately, there are student loan forgiveness programs for doctors and other medical professionals that could pay off part or even all of your loans. If you’re looking to cure yourself of medical school debt, turn to these programs for assistance.

National Health Service Corps (NHSC)

The National Health Service Corps can provide up to $50,000 to repay your health profession student loan in exchange for a two-year commitment to work at an NHSC site in a high-need, underserved area. After completing your initial service commitment, you can apply to extend your service and receive additional loan repayment assistance.

In order to qualify, you’ll need to work at least half-time in a designated Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA). Along with earning loan forgiveness, you could put your medical degree to good use by caring for an underserved community.

Indian Health Services Loan Repayment Program

This federal program offers up to $40,000 in exchange for two years of service in an American Indian or Alaskan Native community. You can also renew your contract and receive additional benefits that could pay off your entire student loan balance.

National Institutes of Health (NIH) Loan Repayment Program

If you work in medical research, you could qualify for $35,000 per year from the NIH Loan Repayment Program. To do so, you’ll need to conduct research at a non-profit organization in an eligible field, such as health disparities, contraception and infertility or pediatric medicine.

Students to Service Program

If you’re still in medical school, you can apply for a major award through the Students to Service Program. This program provides up to $120,000 to medical students who commit to providing primary health care at an approved site for three years after graduating.

Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program (PSLF)

The PSLF program is intended to encourage individuals to enter and continue to work full-time in public service jobs. You could receive forgiveness of the remaining balance of your federal direct loans after making 120 qualifying payments while employed by certain public service employers.

Since you’ll likely have to work for 10 years before you get loan forgiveness, you’ll have to move your student loans off the standard 10-year plan and onto an income-driven repayment or extended repayment plan — otherwise you’ll have already paid off your balance by the time you qualify for forgiveness.

You should also keep up to date with any developments around the PSLF program. While it was signed into law in 2007, the program is not guaranteed to be around forever, and it’s recently drawn controversy over the uncertainty around getting approved.

Military loan repayment programs

If you’re serving as a medical provider in the Army, Navy or Air Force, you could qualify for assistance toward your student loans. Here are some of the programs available for military personnel.

Financial Assistance Program (FAP)

The Army, Air Force and Navy all offer the FAP, a program that grants loan repayment assistance and a living stipend to medical residents.

If you’re a medical resident in the Army or Air Force, you could get at least $45,000 per year of service, plus a monthly stipend of at least $2,000. And although the Navy grant can change from year to year, Navy medical residents could also qualify for significant assistance from the Navy FAP.

Active Duty Health Professions Loan Repayment Program

This program offers up to $40,000 per year in student loan repayment over a set number of years. You must be a physician in the Army, Navy, or Air Force to qualify.

U.S. Navy Health Professions Loan Repayment Program (HPLRP)

The Health Professions Loan Repayment Program (HPLRP) provides medical personnel in the Navy with aid for their education loans. If you meet the program’s criteria, you could receive repayment assistance of up to $40,000 per year, minus about 25% in federal taxes.

State Loan Repayment Assistance Programs (LRAPs)

Many states also run programs that grant student loan repayment assistance in exchange for working in a high-need or underserved area. A good place to check the medical loan repayment and forgiveness programs available in your area is through the AAMC database.

Here are just two examples of the many state-specific programs:

  • The Arizona Loan Repayment Program offers up to $65,000 in exchange for a two-year commitment from physicians.
  • The Kansas State Loan Repayment Program offers up to $25,000 per year of contract toward your outstanding education debt. After completion of the initial two-year service obligation, you may be able to extend your contract in one-year increments.

Check with your state to find out if it has an LRAP for doctors, nurses or other medical professionals. Depending on where you live and work, you could qualify for significant assistance toward your student loans.

Do the math before committing to a loan forgiveness program

As you take a look at each loan forgiveness program, remember to weigh salary considerations against any amount you’d receive in student loan assistance. Opting for a job with a $75,000 salary to earn $25,000 in loan forgiveness wouldn’t be as lucrative as going after a job with a $200,000 salary and no loan forgiveness, for instance.

Unless you’re driven to work in a high-need area or with an underserved population, you might not benefit from sacrificing a high salary for the sake of qualifying for loan forgiveness. Consider your career goals and your wants and needs in a job.

Refinancing student loans can also help

Whether or not you’re working toward student loan forgiveness, you might also consider refinancing as a strategy for managing your debt. Through refinancing, you could reduce your interest rates and save money on your loans beyond whatever forgiveness you can get from these programs.

Because of their steady incomes, doctors tend to be especially strong candidates for student loan refinancing. Along with lowering your rate, you could choose new terms and adjust your monthly payments.

But refinancing with a private lender also means you’ll lose access to federal programs and repayment plans, so make sure you’re comfortable with this sacrifice before making any changes to your debt. If you decide refinancing is right for you — or simply want to learn more about the process — check out the best lenders to refinance student loans here.

Rebecca Safier contributed to this article.

Our Top Picks for Refinancing Student Loans

You can learn more about what these lenders have to offer by checking out the best options to refinance student loans here.

LenderTransparency ScoreMax TermFixed APRVariable APRMax Loan Amount 
SoFiA+

20


Years

3.90% - 7.95%


Fixed Rate*

2.47% - 7.17%


Variable Rate*

No Max


Undergrad/Grad
Max Loan
Learn more Secured

on SoFi’s secure website

EarnestA+

20


Years

3.89% - 7.89%


Fixed Rate

2.57% - 6.97%


Variable Rate

No Max


Undergrad/Grad
Max Loan
Learn more Secured

on Earnest’s secure website

CommonBondA+

20


Years

3.67% - 7.25%


Fixed Rate

2.61% - 7.35%


Variable Rate

No Max


Undergrad/Grad
Max Loan
Learn more Secured

on CommonBond’s secure website

LendKeyA+

20


Years

5.23% - 8.97%


Fixed Rate

2.68% - 8.77%


Variable Rate

$125k / $175k


Undergrad/Grad
Max Loan
Learn more Secured

on LendKey’s secure website

Laurel Road BankA+

20


Years

3.50% - 7.02%


Fixed Rate

3.24% - 6.66%


Variable Rate

No Max


Undergrad/Grad
Max Loan
Learn more Secured

on Laurel Road Bank’s secure website

Citizens BankA+

20


Years

3.90% - 9.99%


Fixed Rate

3.01% - 9.75%


Variable Rate

$90k / $350k


Undergraduate /
Graduate
Learn more Secured

on Citizens Bank (RI)’s secure website

Discover Student LoansA+

20


Years

5.74% - 8.49%


Fixed Rate

4.99% - 7.99%


Variable Rate

$150k


Undergraduate /
Graduate
Learn more Secured

on Discover Bank’s secure website

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

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Steven D. is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Steven at steven@magnifymoney.com

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