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U.S. Mortgage Market Statistics: 2017

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Homeownership rates in America are at all-time lows. The housing crisis of 2006-2009 made banks skittish to issue new mortgages. Despite programs designed to lower down payment requirements, mortgage originations haven’t recovered to pre-crisis levels, and many Americans cannot afford to buy homes.

Will a new generation of Americans have access to home financing that drove the wealth of previous generations? We’ve gathered the latest data on mortgage debt statistics to explain who gets home financing, how mortgages are structured, and how Americans are managing our debt.

Summary:

  • Total Mortgage Debt: $9.9 trillion1
  • Average Mortgage Balance: $137,0002
  • Average New Mortgage Balance: $244,0003
  • % Homeowners (Owner-Occupied Homes): 63.4%4
  • % Homeowners with a Mortgage: 65%5
  • Median Credit Score for a New Mortgage: 7546
  • Average Down Payment Required: $12,8297
  • Mortgages Originated in 2016: $2.065 trillion8
  • % of Mortgages Originated by Banks: 43.9%9
  • % of Mortgages Originated by Credit Unions: 9%9
  • % of Mortgages Originated by Non-Depository Lenders: 47.1%9

Key Insights:

  • The median borrower in America puts 5% down on their home purchase. This leads to a median loan-to-value ratio of 95%. A decade ago, the median borrower put down 20%.10
  • Credit score requirements are starting to ease somewhat The median mortgage borrower had a credit score of 754 from a high of 781 in the first quarter of 20126
  • 1.24% of all mortgages are in delinquency. In 2009, mortgage delinquency reached as high as 8.35%.11
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Home Ownership and Equity Levels

In the second quarter of 2017, real estate values in the United States surpassed their pre- housing crisis levels. The total value of real estate owned by individuals in the United States is $24 trillion, and total mortgages clock in at $9.9 trillion. This means that Americans have $13.9 trillion in homeowners equity.12 This is the highest value of home equity Americans have ever seen.

However, real estate wealth is becoming increasingly concentrated as overall homeownership rates fall. In 2004, 69% of all Americans owned homes. Today, that number is down to 63.4%.4 While home affordability remains a question for many Americans, the downward trend in homeownership corresponds to banks’ tighter credit standards following the Great Recession.

New Mortgage Originations

Mortgage origination levels show signs of recovery from their housing crisis lows. In 2008, financial institutions issued just $1.4 trillion of new mortgages. In 2016, new first lien mortgages topped $2 trillion for the first time since the end of the housing crisis, but mortgage originations were still 25 percent lower than their pre-recession average.8So far, 2017 has proved to be a lackluster year for mortgage originations. Through the second quarter of 2017, banks originated just $840 billion in new mortgages.

 

As recently as 2010, three banks (Wells Fargo, Bank of America, and Chase) originated 56 percent of all mortgages.13 In 2016, all banks put together originated just 44 percent of all loans.9

In a growing trend toward “non-bank” lending, both credit unions and nondepository lenders cut into banks’ share of the mortgage market. In 2016, credit unions issued 9 percent of all mortgages. Additionally, 47% of all mortgages in 2016 came from non-depository lending institutions like Quicken Loans and PennyMac. Behind Wells Fargo ($249 billion) and Chase ($117 billion), Quicken ($96 billion) was the third largest issuer of mortgages in 2016. In the fourth quarter of 2016, PennyMac issued $22 billion in loans and was the fourth largest lender overall.9

Government vs. Private Securitization

Banks tend to be more willing to issue new mortgages if a third party will buy the mortgage in the secondary market. This is a process called loan securitization. Consumers can’t directly influence who buys their mortgage, but mortgage securitization influences who gets mortgages and their rates. Over the last five years government securitization enterprises, FHA and VA loans, and portfolio loan securitization have risen. However, private loan securitization which constituted over 40% of securitization in 2005 and 2006 is almost extinct today.

Government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) have traditionally played an important role in ensuring that banks will issue new mortgages. Through the second quarter of 2017, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac purchased 46% of all newly issued mortgages. However, in absolute terms, Fannie and Freddie are purchasing less than in past years. In 2016, GSEs purchased 20% fewer loans than they did in the years leading up to 2006.8

Through the second quarter of 2017, a tiny fraction (0.7%) of all loans were purchased by private securitization companies.8 Prior to 2007, private securitization companies held $1.6 trillion in subprime and Alt-A (near prime) mortgages. In 2005 alone, private securitization companies purchased $1.1 trillion worth of mortgages. Today private securitization companies hold just $490 billion in total assets, including $420 billion in subprime and Alt-A loans.14

As private securitization firms exited the mortgage landscape, programs from the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) have filled in some of the gap. The FHA and VA are designed to help borrowers get loans despite having smaller down payments or lower incomes. FHA and VA loans accounted for 23 percent of all loans issued in 2016, and 25 percent in the first half of 2017. These loan programs are the only mortgages that grew in absolute terms from the pre-mortgage crisis. Prior to 2006, FHA and VA loans only accounted for $155 billion in loans per year. In 2016, FHA and VA loans accounted for $470 billion in loans issued.8

Portfolio loans, mortgages held by banks, accounted for $639 billion in new mortgages in 2016. Despite tripling in volume from their 2009 low, portfolio loans remain down 24% from their pre-crisis average.8

Mortgage Credit Characteristics

Since banks are issuing 21% fewer mortgages compared to pre-crisis averages, borrowers need higher incomes and better credit to get a mortgage.

The median FICO score for an originated mortgage rose from 707 in late 2006 to 754 today. The scores on the bottom decile of mortgage borrowers rose even more dramatically from 578 to 648.6

Despite the dramatic credit requirement increases from 2006 to today, banks are starting to relax lending standards somewhat. In the first quarter of 2012, the median borrower had a credit score of 781, a full 27 points higher than the median borrower today.

In 2016, 23% of all first lien mortgages were financed through FHA or VA programs. First-time FHA borrowers had an average credit score of 677. This puts the average first-time FHA borrower in the bottom quartile of all mortgage borrowers.8

Prior to 2009, an average of 20% of all volumes originated went to people with subprime credit scores (<660). In the second quarter of 2017, just 9% of all mortgages were issued to borrowers with subprime credit scores. Who replaced subprime borrowers? The share of mortgages issued to borrowers people with excellent credit (scores above 760) doubled. Between 2003 and 2008 just 27% of all mortgages went to people with excellent credit. In the second quarter of 2017, 54% of all mortgages went to people with excellent credit.6

Banks have also tightened lending standards related to maximum debt-to-income ratios for their mortgages. In 2007, conventional mortgages had an average debt-to-income ratio of 38.6%; today the average ratio is 34.3%.15 The lower debt-to-income ratio is in line with pre-crisis levels.

LTV and Delinquency Trends

Banks continue to screen customers on the basis of credit score and income, but customers who take on mortgages are taking on bigger mortgages than ever before. Today a new mortgage has an average unpaid balance of $244,000, according to data from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.3

The primary drivers behind larger loans are higher home prices, but lower down payments also play a role. Prior to the housing crisis, more than half of all borrowers put down at least 20%. The average loan-to-value ratio at loan origination was 82%.10

Today, half of all borrowers put down 5% or less. More than 10% of borrowers put 0% down. As a result, the average loan-to-value ratio at origination has climbed to 87%.10

Despite a growing trend toward smaller down payments, growing home prices mean that overall loan-to-value ratios in the broader market show healthy trends. Today, the average loan-to-value ratio across all homes in the United States is an estimated 42%. The average LTV on mortgaged homes is 68%.16

This is substantially higher than the pre-recession LTV ratio of approximately 60%. However, homeowners saw very healthy improvements in loan-to-value ratios of 94% in early 2011. Between 2009 and 2011 more than a quarter of all mortgaged homes had negative equity. Today, just 5.4% of homes have negative equity.17

Although the current LTV on mortgaged homes remains above historical averages, Americans continue to manage mortgage debt well. Current homeowners have mortgage payments that make up an average of just 16.5% of their annual household income.18

Mortgage delinquency rates stayed constant at their all-time low (1.24%). This low delinquency rate came following 30 straight quarters of falling delinquency, and are well below the 2009 high of 8.35% delinquency.11

Today, delinquency rates have fully returned to their pre-crisis lows, and can be expected to stay low until the next economic recession.

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Sources:

  1. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households and Nonprofit Organizations; Home Mortgages; Liability, Level [HHMSDODNS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HHMSDODNS September 28, 2017.
  2. Survey of Consumer Expectations Housing Survey – 2017,” Credit Quality and Inclusion, from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Accessed June 22, 2017.
  3. Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, “Average Loan Amount, 1-4 family dwelling, 2015.” Accessed June 22, 2017.
  4. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Homeownership Rate for the United States [USHOWN], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/USHOWN, September 28, 2017. (Calculated as percent of all housing units occupied by an owner occupant.)
  5. “U.S. Census Bureau, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates,” Mortgage Status, Owner-Occupied Housing Units. Accessed September 28, 2017.
  6. Quarterly Report on Household Debt and Credit August 2017.” Credit Score at Origination: Mortgages, from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and Equifax Consumer Credit Panel. Accessed September 28, 2017.
  7. Calculated metric:
    1. Down Payment Value = Home Price* Average Down Payment Amount (Average Unpaid Balance on a New Mortgageb / Median LTV on a New Loanc) * (1 – Median LTV on a New Loanc)
    2. Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, “Average Loan Amount, 1-4 family dwelling, 2015.” Accessed September 28, 2017. Gives an average unpaid principal balance on a new loan = $244K.
    3. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, September 2017.” Page 17, Median Combined LTV at Origination from the Urban Institute, Urban Institute, calculated from: Corelogic, eMBS, HMDA, SIFMA, and Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff.
  8. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, September 2017.” First Lien Origination Volume from the Urban Institute. Source: Inside Mortgage Finance and the Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff.
  9. Mortgage Daily. 2017. “Mortgage Daily 2016 Biggest Lender Ranking” [Press Release] Retrieved from https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2017/04/03/953457/0/en/Mortgage-Daily-2016-Biggest-Lender-Ranking.html.
  10. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, September 2017.” Combined LTV at Origination from the Urban Institute, Urban Institute, calculated from: Corelogic, eMBS, HMDA, SIFMA, and Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff. Accessed September 28, 2017
  11. Quarterly Report on Household Debt and Credit August 2017.” Mortgage Delinquency Rates, from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and Equifax Consumer Credit Panel. Accessed September 28, 2017.
  12. Calculated metric: Value of U.S. Real Estatea – Mortgage Debt Held by Individualsb
    1. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households; Owner-Occupied Real Estate including Vacant Land and Mobile Homes at Market Value [HOOREVLMHMV], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HOOREVLMHMV, September 28, 2017.
    2. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households and Nonprofit Organizations; Home Mortgages; Liability, Level [HHMSDODNS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HHMSDODNS, September 28, 2017.
  13. Mortgage Daily, 2017. “3 Biggest Lenders Close over Half of U.S. Mortgages” [Press Release]. Retrieved from http://www.mortgagedaily.com/PressRelease021511.asp?spcode=chronicle.
  14. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, September 2017” Size of the US Residential Mortgage Market, Page 6 and Private Label Securities by Product Type, Page 7, from the Urban Institute Private Label Securities by Product Type, Urban Institute, calculated from: Corelogic and the Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff. Accessed September 28, 2017
  15. Fannie Mae Statistical Summary Tables: April 2017” from Fannie Mae. Accessed June 22, 2017; and “Single Family Loan-Level Dataset Summary Statistics” from Freddie Mac. Accessed June 22, 2017. Combined debt-to-income ratios weighted using original unpaid balance from both datasets.
  16. Calculated metrics:
    1. All Houses LTV = Value of All Mortgagesc / Value of All U.S. Homesd
    2. Mortgages Houses LTV = Value of All Mortgagesc / (Value of All Homesd – Value of Homes with No Mortgagee)
    3. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households; Owner-Occupied Real Estate including Vacant Land and Mobile Homes at Market Value [HOOREVLMHMV], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HOOREVLMHMV, September 28, 2017.
    4. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Households and Nonprofit Organizations; Home Mortgages; Liability, Level [HHMSDODNS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HHMSDODNS, September 28, 2017.
    5. U.S. Census Bureau, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Aggregate Value (Dollars) by Mortgage Status, September 28, 2017.
  17. Housing Finance at a Glance: A Monthly Chartbook, September 2017.” Negative Equity Share, Page 22. Source: CoreLogic and the Urban Institute. Data provided by Urban Institute Housing Finance Policy Center Staff. Accessed September 28, 2017
  18. Survey of Consumer Expectations Housing Survey – 2017,” Credit Quality and Inclusion, from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Accessed September 28, 2017.

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Hannah Rounds
Hannah Rounds |

Hannah Rounds is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Hannah here

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After a Hurricane: A Guide to Homeowners Insurance, Disaster Relief and More

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Hurricane Florence aftermath
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Recovering from a major hurricane can be overwhelming. Many families facing large out-of-pocket storm costs may wonder what the first steps are to begin rebuilding.

To help you get started, we’ve rounded up advice for how to proceed, sort out which insurance will — or won’t —cover and tap financial resources available to the underinsured.

Step 1: Figure out your coverage

The first thing you should do is print out a complete copy of the most recent insurance policies you have on your home, said Amy Bach, co-founder and executive director of United Policyholders, a national insurance consumer advocacy organization.

Many homeowners make the mistake of calling the insurance company and getting things started before they know what kind of coverage they have, Bach said. Many adjusters are overworked, especially right after a natural disaster. “They have lots of clients and sometimes they try to take shortcuts to tell you what coverage you have,” Bach said. “Sometimes they may be right, but they may be wrong.”

She added: “You have the biggest stake in getting the most money out of your insurance so it’s up to you to do your homework.”

You can contact the insurance company directly and ask them to email you a complete copy of your policy. If you worked with an agent, you can try contacting them directly for a copy, too. If you can’t remember who your insurer is or how to get in touch with them, Bach recommends you contact your state’s insurance department for help.

The declaration page

Once you have a copy of the policy in hand, focus on the declaration page, a summary of the policy and how much coverage you have available.

Coverage is usually split into four main buckets:

  • Dwelling: Covers the home itself.
  • Contents (personal property insurance): Covers the items you own inside the home.
  • Other structures: Covers items that are not part of the dwelling but on the property such as detached garages, driveways, fences, sheds and pools.
  • Loss of use: Coverage for any expense you have to incur because you cannot live in your home.

You may or may not have each type of coverage and the extent to which you’re covered will depend on your policy. It may also include personal liability protection and coverage for guest medical payments (when someone else gets hurt at your home).

Flood insurance vs. homeowners insurance

Standard homeowners and renters insurance policies do not cover damage from storm surges and other flooding. That requires separate policies, typically purchased from the U.S. government.

But they should cover damage from, say, a neighbor’s tree that fell on your house and left a hole in the roof where water came through. Questions about claims can generally be answered by your state’s insurance department.

Flood insurance

Homes financed with a federally-insured mortgage in a high-risk flood area, also called a special flood hazard area (SFHA), are required to buy flood insurance from the National Flood Insurance Program, run by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), or as a separate policy through a private insurer. SFHAs are areas that have a minimum 1% chance of flooding in any given year. These are also known as 100-year flood plains.

If you live in a moderate- to low-risk area or don’t have a federally-backed mortgage, purchasing flood insurance is optional. However, a lender can also require you to purchase flood insurance, even if you live in a moderate- to low-risk area.

National Flood Insurance Program provides up to $250,000 of coverage for the structure of a single-family home and up to another $100,000 for personal possessions. Alternatively, or in addition to NFIP flood insurance, you can purchase “first dollar” or primary flood insurance policy from a private insurer.

According to federal data, the average paid loss to NFIP policyholders after the four most-recent major hurricanes in 2016 and 2017 were:

  • $55,978 to 581 policyholders after Hurricane Maria in September 2017
  • $115,430 to 75,865 policyholders for Hurricane Harvey in September 2017
  • $47,202 to 21,824 policyholders for Hurricane Irma in September 2017, and
  • $39,249 to 16,547 policyholders for Hurricane Matthew in October 2016

Issues with flood insurance

“The problem with flood insurance is that it does have some very nit-picking requirements,” Bach told MagnifyMoney. Sometimes, companies will say they’ll only pay for items that physically came into contact with water.

That means flood insurance often won’t pay for a damaged foundation or water that ran up a wall, Bach said. Or, it may only provide coverage that can seem partial to homeowners. For example, the coverage may replace the lower cabinets in your kitchen, but they may not match the cabinets that weren’t affected by the flooding.

Problems meeting code. Flood insurance also may not cover code upgrades. If your home was built in the 1960s, for example, and had an old electrical system, the insurance company usually won’t pay to upgrade it, but the county may not allow you to put back old wiring either.

In those cases, Bach said to “go back to the policy and say ‘I cannot replace unless I comply.’” The insurer may require you to provide documentation from the local government as proof. And sometimes, flood insurance policies only cover code upgrades if the damage done to the system is 50% or more.

Finally, Bach tells MagnifyMoney that flood insurance generally does not cover the costs of living elsewhere while your home is repaired. In those cases, your homeowners insurance policy may cover your displacement costs.

Wind. Wind must be insured separately and sometimes this coverage is available only from a state-run insurer of last resort.

What if I don’t have flood insurance?

Excluded from homeowners insurance coverage is flooding caused by rising water, which Bach said is going to be most people’s problem. But, the United Policyholders executive director added: “A little argument goes a long way.”

Homeowners whose insurance does not cover hurricane-related expenses may qualify for disaster aid or low-interest loans, which we’ll cover below.

Step 2: Document the damage

Do the best you can to document all of the damage using pictures and videos. Do this before you start cleaning up or making repairs.

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Step 3: Prevent further damage

Do what you can, within reason and with consideration of your health and safety, to prevent further damage to your home. At this point, you may want to reach out to the insurer and begin the claim process. If your policy covers the cost, the insurer can send someone to help drain the water, patch up holes and dry out your home.

“You want to try to get that done as quickly as possible so that you don’t have a mold problem,” Bach said.
If the insurer cannot get out to your area quickly or your coverage does not cover temporary repairs and drying out, then you may elect to do what you can on your own or hire a professional in your area.

Either way, take care to keep swatches of carpeting, wallpaper, furniture upholstery and window treatments — things that may impact the amount payable on the claim. Try to avoid tossing out damaged items until you file a claim, and the insurance adjuster pays a visit to your home (described below). You can learn more about proper flood cleanup in this federal Homeowner’s and Renter’s Guide to Mold Cleanup After Disasters.

“If you can afford it, you should hire somebody and get them to do it as soon as you can,” Bach said. “But don’t hire the first person you can, because disasters do bring out scam artists.

If FEMA or state emergency services are in your area, they may be able to assist you with drying out your home. And, if there is a local assistance center set up near you, you can go there for help and information. Find a disaster recovery center near you here.

Step 4: File a claim with your insurance company

If you didn’t notify your insurance company before you started cleaning, you should contact them to file a claim as soon as possible. The insurance company should send you claim forms to fill out and you should try to return them as soon as possible to avoid delay in service.

The insurer should then arrange for an insurance adjuster to come out and assess the damage to the property. The adjuster will inspect the property to estimate how much the insurance company will pay for the loss. They will likely interview you, too.

Be prepared to show the adjuster any structural damage and compile a list of damages so the visit is efficient and you don’t forget anything. If you have receipts for any of the damaged items you should present copies to the adjuster. Be sure to ask any questions you may have about your policy and the coverage it may provide.

Finally, if you had to relocate and your policy covers loss of use, keep those receipts and record all additional expenses you had to take on as part of your temporary relocation since you will need to provide proof of those costs.

Step 5: File for federal disaster assistance

If your home is in a presidentially declared disaster area, you can apply for FEMA individual disaster assistance. If you do not have internet access, you can call 800-621-3362.

Disaster aid may cover:

  • Temporary housing
  • Lodging reimbursement
  • Home repairs
  • Home replacement
  • Permanent or semi-permanent housing construction
  • Child care expenses
  • Medical and dental expenses
  • Funeral and burial expenses
  • Essential household items, clothing, tools required for your job and necessary educational materials
  • Heating fuel
  • Cleanup items
  • Damage to an essential vehicle
  • Moving and storage expenses

However, FEMA disaster grants are generally small — see the following chart for average amounts from recent storms. The organization emphasizes that these figures are from only one program, and housing grant money is intended to help survivors get a roof over their heads and not to rebuild a home to its pre-disaster condition. FEMA encourages homeowners to consider the federal grant program as a last resort after insurance and federal loan programs, and not to factor federal grant assistance into disaster preparedness planning.

Below is a breakdown of the average grant payout for recent disasters from the Individuals and Households Program, one the of several disaster assistance programs FEMA offers.

DisasterAverage IHP award

Hurricane Sandy (2012)

$7,950.17

Hurricane Matthew (2016)

$3,409.11

Hurricane Harvey (2017)

$4,365.75

Hurricane Irma (2017)

$1,354.72

Hurricane Maria (2017)

$2,666.10

Hurricane Florence (2018)

$3,653.18*

Hurricane Michael (2018)

$3,836.98*

*As of Nov. 15, 2018

You can find information about other kinds of individual assistance FEMA provides like disaster unemployment assistance and crisis counseling in this factsheet.

FEMA may require you to provide evidence that your insurance company declined your loss claim and will not cover your disaster-caused loss. When you apply for disaster assistance, you’ll need to provide identifying information like your Social Security number and a current mailing address.

Delays with disaster assistance

It’s important to remember some FEMA funds are funneled through the state government, so depending on how your state allocates its resources, your reimbursement or assistance may take months.

According to a FEMA spokesperson, those still waiting on aid from a previous disaster may qualify for FEMA assistance.

Where else can you turn for help?

Loans are now increasingly needed to help people get back on their feet after a storm. “Insurance does fall short a lot more than you would expect,” said Bach, who has been working in insurance consumer advocacy for 26 years.

Below are a few loan options you can turn to for help.

Government assistance programs

The U.S. government provides the following programs that may assist eligible borrowers who need assistance with home repair, replacement, restoration or improvement financing.

Homeowners with an existing mortgage may also find relief with their loan servicer — many lenders will temporarily reduce or suspend payments in a process called forbearance. The Mortgage Bankers Association says one of your first calls following a hurricane should be to your mortgage servicer. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau provides information on this and other financial problems following a natural disaster here.

SBA disaster loans

The U.S. Small Business Administration provides financial assistance not only to business owners, but also to homeowners and renters in federally declared disaster areas. These low-interest loans may cover up to $200,000 to repair or replace the primary residence to its pre-disaster condition. Collateral is required to secure loans over $25,000. Secondary homes and vacation properties are not eligible for an SBA home disaster loan. Homeowners may also borrow up to an additional $40,000 with a property disaster loan to replace damaged personal property.

For some homeowners, the SBA may be able to refinance all or part of an existing mortgage up to $200,000 if they:

  1. Don’t have credit available anywhere else.
  2. Suffered a substantial amount of disaster damage that isn’t covered by insurance.
  3. Intend to repair the damage.

If you are already paying back an SBA disaster loan from a previous storm, you can still take out another as long as your home was in a declared disaster area and you are current on all of your payments.

FHA 203(h) mortgage

The Federal Housing Administration’s 203(h) loans are government-insured mortgages that may be used to purchase, improve, remodel or rebuild a home. To be eligible, the borrower must reside in a federally designated disaster area and the home must be damaged or destroyed to an extent that requires reconstruction or replacement.

One of the biggest benefits of a 203(h) mortgage is that it does not require a down payment. However, borrowers must pay closing costs and mortgage insurance, which is collected as one upfront charge at the time of purchase and monthly premiums tacked onto the regular mortgage payment. FHA mortgage limits apply and can be found here.

Other types of government loans

SBA disaster loans and the 203(h) mortgage are programs specially designed for disaster victims, but there are other government programs — available to anyone — to help homeowners who want to make repairs.

FHA 203(k) loans

The Federal Housing Administration’s 203(k) program is designed to fund a home renovation. Homeowners can use this loan to refinance their current mortgage to pay for repairs. The minimum credit score to qualify is relatively low, but there are several requirements you will have to meet, including working with an FHA-approved lender and possibly a 203(k) consultant. Read more about the different types of 203(k) loans here.

You can use the Section 203(k) rehabilitation mortgage program along with the HUD Title I Property Improvement Loan program, described here by LendingTree, MagnifyMoney’s parent company.

USDA Home Repair program

The Department of Agriculture offers the Section 504 Home Repair program for low-income homeowners. The program provides loans to repair, improve or modernize homes. It also provides loans or grants to low-income elderly homeowners to remove health and safety hazards.

The USDA offers repair loans up to $20,000 and grants up to $7,500. You can combine a loan and grant to borrow a total of up to $27,500. The property must be in an eligible area. To learn more about the home repair program, you can contact a USDA home loan specialist in your area. You can check income eligibility here.

VA rehab loans

The Department of Veterans Affairs in April 2018 updated its alteration and repair purchase and refinance loan program. The VA allows eligible borrowers to refinance a mortgage based on what the appraised value of the property would be after renovations, up to $227,500. The borrower can also finance closing costs. You can apply for a VA loan through a VA-approved lender.

Fannie Mae HomeStyle® Renovation mortgage

Fannie Mae offers a HomeStyle Renovation mortgage that can help finance home repairs. Homeowners could, for example, refinance the costs into an existing mortgage. Borrowers can finance up to 75% of the appraised value of the property after the renovations are completed. Read more about the HomeStyle program here.

Nonprofit and charitable aid

You may be able to get assistance from national and local nonprofit organizations or charitable institutions. Such groups include the American Red Cross,Habitat for Humanity,Mennonite Disaster Service and the Saint Bernard Project.

Beyond meeting hurricane victims’ immediate needs, these organizations and others may help rebuild homes in your area, so it may be worth reaching out to a local charity regarding grants and other services.

Habitat for Humanity helps low-income survivors rebuild or repair their home if they meet Habitat’s requirements. Contact your local Habitat for Humanity office.

Other financing options

If you have a good credit score and the project’s costs are relatively low (between a few hundred and a few thousand dollars), you may want to consider taking out a personal loan or using a credit card to finance repairs. Bach told MagnifyMoney you might also elect to do this if you don’t have cash on hand to cover temporary living, cleanup and minor repairs that may be later reimbursed by insurance.

Personal loans

Personal loans typically have fixed rates and terms. You can usually borrow anywhere from $1,000 to $35,000 at rates between 6% and 36% APR. There are a few pros and cons with personal loans:

Pros

  • Unsecured: This means you won’t risk losing an asset if you are unable to repay a personal loan.
  • Fast turnaround: You can generally apply for a personal loan in minutes online and, if you qualify, you may receive the lump-sum amount in your bank account as soon as 24 hours.

Cons

  • Credit requirements: Borrowers generally must have a good credit score and a low debt-to-income ratio to qualify. Borrowers with the highest credit scores and lowest debt ratios generally receive the best terms.
  • Fees: You may be charged a loan origination fee or a prepayment penalty.

To get the best offer available to you, compare loan terms and rates at LendingTree.

Credit cards

If you plan to use a credit card for storm-related expenses, one idea is to apply for a new credit card with a 0% APR introductory offer on all purchases. Note that if you’re still carrying a balance once the promotion ends, the new interest rate on the card will apply to whatever balance is left. Some lenders may charge deferred interest, meaning they may charge interest on everything you’ve charged during the promotional period.

Credit cards charge an average APR around 15%, but there are cards with lower (and higher) rates. Generally, lenders offer the lowest interest rates to borrowers with the highest credit scores.

Credit cards typically charge a variable rate and it may change based on your daily balance, so the minimum amount you are required to pay back each month may fluctuate.

When to consider bankruptcy

A homeowner may consider bankruptcy if the cost of repairs exceeds the value of the property, said John C. Colwell, a bankruptcy attorney and president of the National Association of Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys. He compared it to a vehicle that’s been totaled in a car accident.

But first, Colwell said, homeowners should check for any state protection that may make bankruptcy unnecessary.

California law, for example, protects homeowners after a foreclosure. If a $600,0000 house with a $400,0000 mortgage burns down in a fire, the homeowner can walk away and let the bank foreclose on the home. If the bank forecloses for $300,000, the original homeowner does not owe $100,000 to the bank to satisfy the mortgage. While the homeowner must face the consequences of a foreclosure, they would not need to file for bankruptcy.

But in most other states, the mortgage company has the legal right to try and sue the homeowner to collect the remaining balance on the mortgage. In those cases, it may be appropriate for a homeowner to file for bankruptcy, Colwell said.

Final thoughts

If you were affected by a major hurricane or other natural disasters, help is available. Sources of financial assistance range from your own insurance policies to government assistance and loans, to charitable organizations, to simply borrowing from a private lender. Rebuilding may be costly and seem overwhelming, so look to resources like United Policyholders and the Insurance Information Institute, or your state’s emergency management office.

We also have a supplemental guide for homeowners affected by Hurricane Florence.

If you need advice when deciding between options, consult a fee-only financial professional who has experience working with homeowners following a disaster.

If you are considering bankruptcy, it’s recommended you speak with a bankruptcy lawyer about the options available to you and any protections provided by your state.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

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Brittney Laryea is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Brittney at brittney@magnifymoney.com

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A Guide to Avoiding Homebuyer’s Remorse

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John Watkins, 27, in Tampa Bay, Fla., set a personal goal in high school to own a home before he turned 30. He accomplished his goal three years ago when he decided on a new build in a quiet but rapidly growing suburb. The home checked all of the boxes on his wish list: It had an open layout, high ceilings and a large master suite.

But coming from living in an apartment, Watkins said he didn’t consider the enormous responsibility that came with homeownership.

“I can’t say that I completely regret the purchase, but I don’t think I would do it again if I had the chance,” Watkins told MagnifyMoney. “I vastly underestimated the time and expenses that go along with having a home, especially in an HOA.”

Watkins may be best described as a conflicted homeowner. While he’s proud to have achieved his goal of homeownership and is glad he bought the home as an investment, (he said similar homes in the area rent for $1,000 more than his monthly mortgage payment), the extra costs and work often outweigh the positives.

In addition to the mortgage payment, Watkins said he now has additional expenses he didn’t think of before, like water softener and salt, cleaning supplies, lawn treatment, pest control and holiday decorations. On top of that, he said, there’s an endless list of things that need to be done with the home.

“Days where I just want to go home and relax, I’m forced to work in the yard or face fines,” Watkins told MagnifyMoney. “Just yesterday I came home after work, opened the door and was smacked with a wave of heat as if I had just opened an oven door.” He spent the rest of his evening unclogging the AC condenser drain line with a shop vacuum.

3 key tips to avoid homebuyer’s remorse

A recent Bank of the West study found 68% of millennial homeowners experience buyer’s remorse for one reason or another. Of those homeowners, 44% reported having issues with space after closing. Most often, they discovered property damage, felt stuck after purchasing or realized the space didn’t quite work for their family. In addition, 41% of millennial homeowners with buyer’s remorse said they felt they had stretched themselves too thin financially with the home purchase.

To help prospective buyers avoid similar regrets, MagnifyMoney asked real estate and financial experts for their best advice for aspiring homeowners.

1. Rent before you buy

“Don’t be afraid of renting if you need a place to live but aren’t committed to the location or can’t find a house that meets your nonnegotiables,” said Arielle Minicozzi, CFP at Chandler, Ariz.-based Sphynx Financial Planning.

You can consider renting a home as a test run. With renting, you will have the opportunity to experience what it’s like to actually live in the home without the commitment to a mortgage. Renting gives you the chance to see if the space works for your family, get an accurate survey of the neighborhood, evaluate the HOA and see if you’re OK with the new commute to work.

“Even though you’re not building equity, renting is far more cost-effective than buying a home and selling it shortly thereafter, and less [of a] headache than finding a renter or making other arrangements if you need to move.”

2. Check out the neighborhood

“Your neighbors and the neighborhood make a world of difference when it comes to loving your home,” said Lorena Peña, chairperson of the San Antonio Board of REALTORS.

Peña suggested prospective buyers drive through the neighborhood at different times of the day to see what the area is like at different times. The drive also serves as a way to test the roads for your commute. Peña recommended going for a test drive in the morning and evening and around school drop-offs and pickups.

“When you visit the home you’re considering buying, take off your blinders. Be sure to notice the lawns of the neighbors, how well kept they are and, if you see any neighbors outside, stop to say hello. The current neighbors have firsthand knowledge about the neighborhood,” said Peña.

If the neighborhood has an HOA, Peña recommended looking at the rules before you buy, as you want to ensure your personal standards align with the association’s.

Jorge Guerra Jr., the residential president of Miami Association of REALTORS recommended you “identify your needs and what you are looking for, whether it pertains to safety, commute or the community,” prior to your test drive so when you go, you can accurately evaluate whether the neighborhood meets your needs.

3. Always get an inspection

“The inspection period is the best time to perform due diligence on ensuring that the property meets your needs or the needs of your family,” Guerra told MagnifyMoney.

Guerra recommended hiring a licensed professional and said that’s especially important for first-time homebuyers.

“Hiring a specialist in the four primary areas of electric, roofing, plumbing and mechanical (A/C) is your best bet — you definitely want to have the expert on your side,” said Guerra.

The inspection will cost a fee that most often won’t be included in closing costs. According to HomeAdvisor, the average home inspection costs around $326. Making sure you get the inspection done can help you avoid more costly or more severe repairs you’d be responsible for if you bought the home as is.

The inspection report should detail cosmetic and structural damage. Once you have the inspection report, you can decide whether to ask the seller to make the repairs prior to closing, or handle them on your own.

4 ways to avoid stretching yourself too thin financially

If it’s not a physical regret homebuyers had, it was a financial one. About 41% of the millennial homeowners with regrets in the Bank of the West study said they felt they had stretched themselves too thin with their home purchase.

Below are a few tips prospective homebuyers can use to keep their home purchase in line with their financial resources.

1. Start planning early

“The two best things a prospective homebuyer can do to avoid feeling stretched too thin are to set a budget well before looking at homes and to save more than he or she thinks is necessary,” Minicozzi told MagnifyMoney.

Saving enough begins with planning early. Like with most financial goals, the earlier you plan, the better. Minicozzi said starting earlier can give you more flexibility when prioritizing your goals and buy some time to weather any market fluctuations so “you can afford to invest your money more aggressively than someone whose time horizon is shorter.”

Minicozzi added taking your time finding a home that meets your budget may take some of the pressure off when you’re deciding on a home.

2. Consider the hidden expenses that come with homeownership

Remember, the down payment isn’t all you’ll be responsible for once you become a homeowner. In addition to the down payment, you may need to pay for closing costs like the application fee, appraisal fee, primary mortgage insurance and other fees. Closing costs generally amount to about 2% to 7% of the home’s purchase price.

Try not to use everything you’ve saved on the down payment and closing costs. If you have leftover funds, Minicozzi said, you can use them to make home repairs or updates, purchase furniture, start an emergency fund or invest.

3. Reduce your down payment

According to the Bank of the West survey, about 56% of millennial homeowners have dipped into retirement funds for down payments. While there are advantages to making a sizable down payment, like avoiding mortgage insurance or qualifying for a better mortgage rate, many options exist for buyers looking to make smaller down payments.

“If a buyer has good cash flow but little savings, using a lower down payment loan — like a conventional 3% down or a USDA loan with 0% down — is a good option, as long as he or she also has an emergency fund or builds one up,” said Minicozzi.

We’ve rounded up some of the best low down payment mortgages here.

4. Shop around with different lenders

Comparing your loan offers with multiple lenders is one of the best ways to save money on your mortgage.

For example, a recent study from MagnifyMoney’s parent company, LendingTree, found borrowers in the Tampa area (where Watkins’ home is) could save $73 in monthly payments or, up to $871 a year on a median home price of $225,000 by comparing rate offers. To get an idea of your potential savings, you can start your loan search here.

What to do if you feel stuck with a home you regret

“When someone purchases a home, the sale is final, even if they regret the purchase,” said Peña. “However, there are options for the new homeowner.” She suggested consulting your real estate agent to weigh your options if you find yourself feeling remorseful after closing on a home. Peña suggests considering the following choices.

Sell the home

You could try to sell the home right away and get out of the mortgage. However, Peña warned: “Purchasing a home is a sound investment and, depending on the market, immediately putting it up for sale does not guarantee you will get the same price from another buyer. “

Rent out the home

You keep the home and use it as an investment property. In this case, you could rent the home out while you build equity and sell it later on. If you don’t have experience or don’t feel comfortable managing the property, you may want to consider hiring a reputable property manager.

Renting is what Watkins is planning to do with his home. He said he and his partner will likely continue to live in their Tampa Bay home for another five years, refinance if possible and then rent it out.

“We should make enough profit from that to fund the majority of our next place (and possibly our forever home), which will be a similar home but with an acre or two of land,” Watkins told MagnifyMoney.

Vacation rentals: If the area is popular with tourists, you may have the option to use it as a vacation rental.

“Those that may regret purchasing a home can easily cover the mortgage with this side business while building equity,” said Peña.

Re-evaluate your budget

If you’re feeling cash-strapped now that you have a mortgage and other auxiliary expenses of homeownership, Minicozzi recommended reviewing your budget to see where you can cut back. If you’ve cut back all you can on discretionary expenses, the next step is increasing your income. Consider asking for a raise, picking up a side gig or possibly selling valuable items.

“If you have extra room in the home, you can even think about renting out some of your space. Just make sure to talk to a financial planner or tax expert to evaluate the tax implications,” said Minicozzi.

Bottom line

You’re pretty much stuck with a home once you buy it, so you should take care and try not to rush your decision-making process. If you are considering a purchase, try out the tips above to feel secure.

Watkins gave the following advice based on his personal experience: “I believe that no matter which path you go down, you’ll always find things that you like and things that drive you nuts. Do more research than you think you should, go visit the neighborhoods that catch your eye and talk to the current residents. Find a place that matches your lifestyle and not just your idea of a perfect home.”

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

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Brittney Laryea is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Brittney at brittney@magnifymoney.com

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Understanding Construction Loans

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Mortgages are typically easy to find. But most home loans are only available for houses that already exist. If you need financing to build a home, a construction loan can help you cover the costs of buying land and building the home of your dreams.

Construction loans bear some resemblance to traditional mortgages, but the process of applying is different in many ways. After all, the loan’s collateral doesn’t exist yet.

What is a construction loan?

A construction loan is usually a short-term loan used to pay for the cost of building or remodeling a home.

With a traditional mortgage, the lender pays out the full amount of the mortgage to the seller upon closing. But a construction loan is typically paid out to the homebuilder in a series of advances as the project progresses. For example, the lender may disburse a portion of the funding once the foundation is poured, another portion after framing is completed, etc.

During construction, you typically make interest-only payments based on the funds that have been disbursed, although some construction loans do not require payments until the project is complete. At that time, you will need to either pay off the balance of the loan in a lump sum, convert your construction loan into a traditional mortgage or apply for a new loan.

Types of construction loans

What happens to your construction loan once the project is complete depends on whether you have a one-time close loan or a two-time close loan.

One-time close

One-time close construction loans, also known as “all-in-one loans” or “construction-to-permanent loans,” wrap the loans for construction and the mortgage on the completed home into a single loan. Once your home is complete, the construction loan converts to a regular mortgage. There is no additional approval process or closing costs.

The downside of a one-time close construction loan is that construction projects tend to run over budget. If your project goes over budget, you’ll need to come up with the difference out of pocket or take out a second loan to cover the overages. For that reason, unless you have a solid grasp of the costs and schedule for the project, a one-time construction loan may not be right for your project.

Two-time close

A two-time close construction loan is two separate loans — a short-term loan for the construction phase and a long-term mortgage for the completed home. Essentially, you will refinance your construction loan once the project is complete.

A two-time close construction loan can be more costly because you need to go through the approval process and pay closing costs twice. But you’ll have more flexibility in the loan amount if your project goes over budget.

How construction loans work

Getting a construction loan requires a little more red tape than getting a traditional mortgage. Here’s a step-by-step walk through the process.

1. Get your finances in order

The qualifications for a construction loan will vary from lender to lender. As with any loan, the higher your credit score and the stronger your financial situation is, the more options you’ll have.

Fannie Mae, one of the leading sources of financing for mortgage lenders, requires a minimum credit score of 620 and a maximum debt-to-income ratio of 45%.

Adham Sbeih, CEO and founder of Socotra Capital, a real estate lending and investment firm based in Sacramento, Calif., said borrowers need to demonstrate an ability to handle the monthly payments and handle potential change orders and cost overruns. “Borrowers also need to show they have a viable exit strategy for completing construction,” he said. “After all, construction loans are temporary.”

2. Meet with a lender to get preapproved

Once you have your finances in order, it’s time to meet with a lender to find out how much you can borrow.

The lender will look at your debt, income and asset information. The amount the lender preapproves you for will be an essential part of your discussions with your builder in deciding what to include in your new home. The lender can also answer any questions you have about how construction loans are structured.

3. Create your wish list

Create a wish list and ideas of what you want your home to look like. Keep in mind that you may have to compromise on some of these items if your wish list is larger than your budget.

4. Find a builder

Look for a reputable, experienced builder. Before approving your loan, your lender will review your contractor’s experience, reputation, credit and licenses to ensure your contractor can get the job done on time and within budget.

The builder will put together detailed specifications, including floor plans, a materials list, a line-item budget and a draw schedule. This is sometimes called a “blue book.”

5. Apply for the loan

Once you have a signed construction or purchase contract with your builder, it’s time to complete the application process for your loan. The lender will perform a more thorough review of your finances, review your contractor and the building specifications in detail. They will likely also have an appraiser review the specs of the house and the value of the land to come up with an appraised value for the finished project.

6. Purchase the land

If you don’t already own the land on which you plan to build a home, you’ll need to purchase it. A construction loan can include financing for the purchase of a lot. Your lender will ask for a copy of the contract to purchase the land as part of the loan application.
If you already own the land and have an outstanding loan on the property, the first disbursement of your construction loan will pay off that loan before construction starts on the home.

7. Build the home

Once your loan closes and you’ve purchased your land, construction can begin. Your lender will continue to monitor the progress of the project, pay the builder according to the draw schedule and send an inspector to the property on a regular basis to ensure the project is proceeding as planned.

Sbeih said the two big potential pitfalls borrowers run into during this phase are time and budget. “If construction is delayed and takes longer, the borrower pays interest on the construction funds for a longer period of time, which costs more,” he said. “The more dangerous concerns are change orders and budgets that are not rock-solid. If you do not have a solid budget [that] includes padding for contingencies, you are flirting with disaster. This is how you end up with a project that is 80% complete and has no funding to make it to the finish line.”

8. Transition to a permanent loan

When the home is complete, you will transition to a permanent loan. If you have a one-time close loan, this process is automatic. If you have a two-time close loan, you will need to reapply and pay closing costs on a new loan.
Keep in mind that if you have a two-time close loan, you will need to go through the approval process again to transition to a permanent loan. If your income, credit or financial situation change for the worse during the construction phase, you may be unable to get a mortgage on the completed home and could end up losing the house to foreclosure before you even have a chance to move in.

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What it takes to get approved for a construction loan

The approval process and documentation required for a construction loan vary by lender, but the following list should give you a good idea of what you’ll need.

Documentation

  • If you own the land, you’ll need to show a copy of the deed to the land and the settlement statement for the purchase if you bought it within 12 months of applying for the loan
  • A copy of the contract to purchase the land if you don’t already own it
  • Your contract with the builder
  • Complete information on your builder, including name, address, phone number, etc.
  • Building plans and specifications
  • Proof of insurance from the builder
  • Proof of insurance covering the project
  • Documentation of your income, such as W-2s, tax returns and pay stubs
  • Authorization to perform a credit check
  • Information on your debts so the lender can calculate your debt-to-income ratio

Down payment

Lenders typically require a down payment of 20% to 25% of the appraised value of the home, at a minimum. This ensures you are invested in the project and are less likely to default on the loan or walk away if the project runs into issues.

If you already own the land on which you’ll build, the value of the land can be included in that equity contribution.

Cash reserves

Conventional loans require a borrower to have cash reserves of anywhere from two to 12 months’ worth of mortgage payments. You’ll likely need more for a construction loan because you’ll have to make payments on your construction loan during the building phase, as well as make rent or mortgage payments on your existing home.

Construction Loan vs. Traditional Home Loan

 

Construction loan

Traditional home loan

Down payment

A down payment of 20% to 25% is the norm

You may be able to get a loan with no down payment or only 3% down

Interest rates

Typically variable interest rates during the construction phase. Higher than traditional mortgage rates.

May be fixed or variable

How the loan is disbursed

Paid out in draws to the builder at predetermined project milestones

Paid in full to the seller at closing

Documents required

All the documentation necessary for a traditional home loan, plus information on the builder and detailed building specifications for the project

Requires documentation on borrowers’ finances and appraisal of the property

Term

Typically one year

15- or 30-year terms are most common

Credit required

Excellent credit

Borrowers with credit scores as low as 500 may be able to get approval

Closing

Takes 7-10 days longer than a traditional mortgage

1½ months, on average

Monthly payments

Usually interest-only during construction

May be interest-only or interest plus principal

Where to find a construction loan

Talk to your bank to begin the process of applying and qualifying for a construction loan. Most construction loans are issued by banks rather than mortgage companies, as the bank will hold on to the loan until the project is complete.

Not all banks offer construction loans. Among those that do, interest rates, terms and fees can vary widely. So it’s a good idea to talk to a few different banks to make sure you’re getting the best deal.

Is a construction loan right for you?

Few homebuyers would be able to build a home to their exact specifications if it weren’t for construction loans. But a desire to design your own dream home isn’t the sole factor to consider when deciding whether a construction loan is right for you. They have stricter underwriting requirements, require larger down payments and have higher fees because of the ongoing inspections required during the construction phase.

If you have excellent credit, can afford a substantial down payment and have an adequate financial cushion to see you through unexpected delays and cost overruns, a construction loan can finance building your dream home. But if your financial footing isn’t as solid, you’re probably better off buying a home that’s already been built — or waiting until you can afford to weather the risks and uncertainties inherent in building.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Janet Berry-Johnson
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Janet Berry-Johnson is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Janet here

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What Does a Mortgage Rate Spike Mean for Buyers and Sellers?

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Buying a home became more expensive this year but the good news is not by much. Mortgage rates are on the rise, with 30-year fixed mortgages consistently above 4% in 2018 but rates remain at record lows. A decade ago, rates were consistently above 6% and well into the double digits in the 80s and early 90s.

“While rates are certainly going up, the impact to the borrowers is not as drastic as some may think,” said David Gorman, a division executive with Bank of America. “It’s a pretty emotional topic. People hear rates are going up and they jump pretty quickly, but it’s not as aggressive as many would make it sound.”

Although higher rates signal a tighter market for both homebuyers and sellers, it’s important to understand the context in which they’re happening and how you can maximize your opportunities even if rates continue to rise.

Why mortgage rates are changing

It’s not the Fed’s fault. The Federal Reserve raised its benchmark interest rate earlier this year, a move that consumers sometimes associated with changes in mortgage rates. However, the Fed rate has less influence on fixed-year mortgages than you might think.

For one thing, the Federal Reserve doesn’t set mortgage rates so it doesn’t have a direct impact on the terms of your potential home loan. Jace Stirling, mortgage divisional manager at SunTrust, explained that the federal funds rate, which is the average rate at which financial institutions lend to one another, “is really, really short term” and isn’t necessarily an indicator of what’s going to happen with long-term mortgage rates.

The Federal Reserve benchmark rate primarily affects loans and lines of credit influenced by the prime rate. This means that adjustable-rate mortgages that are approaching reset and home equity loans and lines of credit are susceptible to fluctuations along with the Federal Reserve.

Keep your eye on the 10-year Treasury note. When it comes to long-term fixed mortgages, it’s the 10-year Treasury note you want to watch. This note represents the expected long-term Treasury yield, and it influences not only the Federal funds rate but interest rates on a number of financial products, mortgages included. The Federal funds rate can influence Treasury yields, but it does not directly impact it, according to Pete Boomer, head of mortgage protection for PNC Bank. There have been instances of “flatter or inverted yield curves,” he said. “So while it generally has an influence, they are not specifically tied together.”

Boomer added that similarly, the 10-year Treasury note and mortgage rates “are not tied together, but they do have a close correlation.”

So far in 2018, increases in the Treasury yield rate have influenced the mortgage market this year. “As the 10-year moves up, so will your long-term interest rates,” Stirling said.

Stirling added that the other factor that is currently influencing the cost of homebuying is low real estate inventory, which is driving up valuations for available properties.

How rising rates impact homebuyers

The prospect of higher interest rates motivates some buyers to become more aggressive in their home searches. Gorman said that people who have been considering purchasing a home but have been on the fence may take a more proactive approach in higher rate environments.

“When they hear that rates are going up, they’ll jump in feet first and they’ll start to look to move,” he said.

The impulse to act quickly makes sense, especially since higher monthly payments aren’t the only consequences of rising rates. Higher interest rates may also mean lower approval values on borrowers’ mortgage applications.

“If you’re a buyer, things are going to get more expensive, so you may be able to borrow less money,” said Tendayi Kapfidze, chief economist at LendingTree. “It’s less affordable to purchase a home or get a mortgage.”

But lower approval amounts may not be a bad thing. Buyers sometimes make purchase decisions based on the maximum amount for which they can qualify, rather than based on what makes sense for their budgets, which can lead to long-term financial strain.

“What a lot of people will do is start looking for homes without truly understanding their borrowing power, and then they try to stretch themselves to a point that might not be comfortable,” Gorman said. Instead, he recommended meeting with a loan officer and finding out your borrowing ability, then beginning the search from there.

Keep calm and carry on

It’s also important to keep perspective when you read that interest rates are increasing. Yes, they are higher than last year. But that doesn’t necessarily mean you won’t find an affordable property. Rates are still relatively low, as we noted before.

Stirling said that the lower rates are, the more compressed payments become. In other words, the increase in monthly payments may not be as substantial as borrowers fear. He offered the example of a traditional $300,000 mortgage in which payments on the principal and interest at 4% would be about $1,432. At 5%, he said, the payment would increase to about $1,610.

“The difference isn’t insubstantial but it’s not the end for many people,” Stirling noted. But with rates still closer to the zero end of the spectrum, even a modest increase “still allows [borrowers] to take advantage of the great opportunity of where rates sit today.”

Boomer said rising interest rates could encourage borrowers to look at products they might not otherwise have considered. Rather than choosing a 30-year fixed mortgage to lock in a low rate, they might explore hybrid adjustable-rate mortgages (also known as ARMs) or low down-payment options that have been introduced to the market in recent years.

Hybrid ARMs typically include low introductory rates before the variable rate period begins at three, five, seven or 10 years, depending on the loan structure, Stirling explained. “If the consumer has no intention of living in the property beyond this fixed period, an ARM can be a great option, as the payments on the home will be lower than that of a 30-year fixed rate,” he said.

Boomer noted that products from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, as well as those created by lending banks, may offer attractive alternatives to traditional fixed-rate mortgages for some borrowers.

Comparison shopping still key

Whatever type of mortgage you pursue, it’s worth meeting with several different lenders and comparing their products and rates. Even with interest rates increasing, you may be able to find a better-than-average offer, according to Kapfidze.

“Let’s say the average mortgage rate is 4.5%. That means people are getting rates ranging from 4% to 6%, so there’s a wide range of rates available in the marketplace,” Kapfidze said. “The more you shop around, the more likely you are to find a favorable rate.”

The key to making the right buying decision is education. Stirling recommended getting in touch with a loan officer early on to determine your options. Jorge Davila, a vice president in the direct lending department at Flagstar Bank, suggested that borrowers ask questions until they feel comfortable with their purchase decisions and fully understand how the rates they’re offered will impact their payments. “It’s all about understanding what you’re looking for as a buyer, what makes sense for you and your family price-wise,” he said.

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How rising interest rates impact sellers

Homebuyers aren’t the only ones who may be calibrating their plans in light of rising interest rates. Sellers, too, will need to decide how they respond to this shift in the market. If buyers move quickly to purchase homes before interest rates rise further, sellers may find themselves able to move their property quickly.

But once they’ve sold their homes, they’ll need a place to move — and that means they may end up having to take out a loan at a higher interest rate than what they pay on their current properties. Kapfidze describes this as a lock-in effect. When rates rise, some owners opt to stay in their homes rather than risk paying more for a new house.

If you choose to stay in your home, you don’t necessarily need to maintain the status quo, though. Kapfidze said that instead of selling, some homeowners will apply for home equity loans or lines of credit and improve their existing houses. Knowing this, lenders may offer competitive terms on home equity products, so sellers should consider a variety of offers before deciding which to accept.

Keeping perspective

Buyer or seller, the consensus among these experts was to maintain perspective and focus less on short-term increases and more on the long-term implications of your buying and selling decisions.

“People are going to consistently be moving for jobs, for schools, for families growing, downsizing, so the housing market will always be one that is necessary and relatively strong,” Gorman said. “So we tend to tell clients, worry less about the rate environment and worry more about what’s best for you.”

Disclaimer: This article may contain links to LendingTree, which is the parent company of MagnifyMoney.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

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Home Equity Loan vs. Home Equity Line of Credit

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Looking to borrow against the equity in your home? Maybe you have heard the terms home equity loan and home equity line of credit (HELOC) before and wondered what the difference really is. This article will compare the two types of borrowing and take you through the pros and cons of each one.

Home equity loan vs. HELOC: What’s the difference?

Home equity loan. With a home equity loan, you borrow a lump sum of cash using the value in your home as collateral. The loan will have a fixed schedule for repayment, usually lasting between 5 and 15 years. They often have a fixed interest rate as well, though adjustable rate versions are available.

HELOC. A home equity line of credit, or HELOC, is an ongoing line of credit that’s backed by your home’s equity — think of it a bit like a credit card. Your bank will authorize a certain dollar amount (similar to a credit card’s credit limit) and period of time during which you can access the line of credit, known as the draw period. Within this time, you borrow only what you need as you need it, though some banks do set a minimum withdrawal. You can make interest-only payments only on the amount you choose to borrow or pay more to start contributing towards the principle.

Next comes the repayment period, where you can’t take out any new funds and need to start repaying the amount you’ve borrowed, if you have not already. Interest rates on HELOCs are variable and often pegged to the prime interest rate.

Comparing home equity loans and lines of credit

 

HELOC

Home equity loan

Interest rate

Variable

Fixed, but sometimes variable

Funds access

Withdraw funds as needed

Lump-sum disbursement

Funds use

No restrictions

No restrictions

Monthly payments

Varies, based on how much you withdraw and interest rate at the time

Fixed for the life of the loan

Closing costs

Yes, but not always

Yes

Collateral

Home equity

Home equity

The two types of borrowing do have two major things in common: They are backed by the equity in your home, and there are no restrictions on what you can do with the cash.

With both home equity loans and HELOCs, the maximum amount you can borrow varies depending on your credit and the lender, but generally tops out at 80% to 95% of the your home equity. To calculate your home equity, start with the valueof your house (from an appraisal, if available) and subtract the amount remaining on your loan. You can also use LendingTree’s home equity calculator to estimate how much you can borrow. (Disclosure: LendingTree is the parent company of MagnifyMoney.)

Since the loans are backed by your home equity, the interest rates are usually lower than for unsecured forms of credit like credit cards or personal loans.

It’s up to you what you do with the money from either type of loan. You can make improvements to your home, pay for a vacation or put your kids through college.

However, Brett Anderson, a certified financial planner and president of St. Croix Advisors, said it’s important to think carefully about borrowing against your home equity, which is likely one of your largest assets.

“Remember these are loans that need to be paid back. A home equity loan isn’t free money, even with these low interest rates,” he said.

Tax changes’ impact home equity loans and HELOCs

New laws have changed tax deductions related to home equity loans and HELOCs. From the 2018 tax year until 2026, the IRS says borrowers cannot deduct interest payments on these types of loans, “unless they are used to buy, build or substantially improve the taxpayer’s home that secures the loan.”

In addition, starting in 2018, taxpayers may only deduct interest on $750,000 of qualified loans, or $375,000 for a married taxpayer filing separately. If you have a HELOC or a home equity loan and a regular mortgage, this limit applies to the combined amount of both loans. This limit is lower than it was previously.

So for example, if you take a $100,000 home equity loan and spend $75,000 on a kitchen renovation and $25,000 paying off credit card debt, only 75% of your interest payments is tax-deductible.

Randy Key, home loan specialist at Churchill Mortgage, told MagnifyMoney he’s seen interest in home equity loans and HELOCs drop after the tax changes.

Benefits and risks of a home equity loan

Given the current economic environment of rising interest rates, one of the main benefits of a home equity loan is having a fixed interest rate for the term of the loan — you get a lump sum upfront and have the same steady payment, even if the Federal Reserve continues to hike rates. That makes a home equity loan easier to budget for, said Anderson.

A home equity loan does have some drawbacks. If you already have a mortgage, you’ll have to keep track of two loans and make two seperate payments every month. A home equity loan also has the same sort of closing costs as a regular mortgage. Those costs can take their toll, especially if you aren’t looking to borrow that much money, Key said.

The rate the lender offers you for a home equity loan depends on your credit score. If your score is under 700, you’ll pay a higher rate to compensate for the risk the bank feels it’s taking on, Key said.

Benefits and risks of a HELOC

A big advantage of a HELOC is the flexibility. You get to withdraw the cash when you need it and only pay interest on the amount you use — however, be aware that most lenders require a minimum withdrawal at the closing.

HELOCs can have lower upfront costs than home equity loans, with some lenders offering to pay for closing costs. Key said if you are willing to base your line of credit off the tax appraisal value of your house, most lenders will do a HELOC without a new appraisal.

The major downside of HELOCs is that they use a variable interest rate pegged to the prime rate, which is set to go even higher this year. This means if you have a HELOC, your interest payments are going to get bigger. You’ll also need a strong credit score to qualify; according to Key, a score around 650 is often required, though it depends on the lender.

Equifax data shows that interest in HELOCs is going down, which Key attributed to both the tax changes and the rising interest rates. He said many of his customers are choosing to refinance to combine an existing first mortgage with a HELOC into one loan.

“With a rising rate market, people are seeing that HELOC rate could be 1% higher next year and thinking, ‘I have to do something about this,’” he said.

Which loan type is right for you?

When choosing between a HELOC or a home equity loan, experts say it is important to consider why you need the money: Is it a set project or a variable need?

Going with a home equity loan instead of a line of credit is usually the best choice to pay for a specific plan, like remodeling a kitchen or buying a vacation house.

“[If] you have a purpose for these dollars today, and you know the amount you’ll need, a home equity loan might be a better alternative,” Anderson said.

A HELOC is generally a better choice if you need some added cash but not a fixed amount or fixed timeline. Key recommends them for customers looking to cover “a tight month in the budget or maybe they are investors who want to be able to tap money quickly.”

The third option: a cash-out refinance

If you are considering a home equity loan or a HELOC, you might want to look at a third option: a cash-out refinance.

A cash-out refinance is designed to improve on the terms of an existing mortgage and provide additional cash at the same time. You’ll be refinancing and taking equity out your home at the same time, leading to one new loan with a larger balance than your previous one.

A cash-out refinance is a good option if you need money and at the same time want to improve the terms of your current mortgage by securing a better interest rate or converting an adjustable-rate mortgage to a fixed-rate one. But be mindful of the fees involved, which can be high depending on the circumstances.

Key has recommended these to a lot of borrowers at the moment who need big chunk of cash for a project like a renovation or putting a pool. With interest rates heading higher, he said, if a borrower needs $100,000 to $300,000, “a HELOC is not a good place to park that much in debt.”

Closing thoughts

Any decision to borrow against the equity in your home should not be taken lightly. The overall volume of both home equity loans and HELOCs has declined since the 2008 financial crisis, when falling property prices burned some borrowers who had borrowed too much against the equity of their homes.

If you need cash and choose to use your home as collateral, a home equity loan is generally the best choice for financing a project with a set cost. A HELOC provides more flexible access to money, but rising interest rates will make these a more expensive choice in the coming year. It’s also worth considering a cash-out refinance, which could potentially improve the terms of your current mortgage while also giving you extra cash to spend.

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Can You Get a Home Equity Line of Credit on an Investment Property?

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Many homeowners look to home equity lines of credit (HELOCs) to fund home improvements, pay off high-interest debts and cover emergency expenses. But this type of loan, which allows a property owner to borrow against the equity in the home, can be difficult to get – especially when the property in question is an investment property.

In this post, we’ll explain whether or not you can get a home equity line of credit on an investment property, and the pros and cons.

What are investment property loans?

Investment property loans are mortgages used to buy, build or improve second homes and investment properties – essentially any property other than the borrower’s primary residence. They may come in the form of a primary mortgage used to buy or refinance the property, a HELOC or a home equity loan.

Of those, the HELOC is unique in that it acts more like a credit card that is collateralized by your home. Like a credit card, the lender approves you to borrow up to a certain amount, then you borrow against the available credit when needed. As you repay the amount borrowed, your available credit is replenished. And you only pay interest on the money that you actually use.

Lenders are typically far more strict in their underwriting of investment property loans than they are for a borrower’s primary residence, and usually require more money down. Why?

Adam Smith, president and CEO of Colorado Real Estate Finance Group in Greenwood Village, Colo., said it’s because investment properties are already considered high risk. “You have to have somewhere to live, so the assumed risk factor is lower on a primary residence than it is on an investment property,” Smith said. In other words, you’re probably more likely to cover expenses for a primary home if you find yourself in a financial pickle, versus prioritizing a secondary property.

And with a HELOC, there’s an extra risk factor involved as well. Unless you own the property free and clear (meaning you paid cash or paid off the mortgage), a HELOC is a “junior-lien.” In other words, it’s secondary to your first mortgage.

If you stop making mortgage payments and the property goes into foreclosure, when the property is sold to pay off your debts, your primary mortgage will be paid off first. If there is not enough equity to pay off both the first mortgage and the HELOC, the HELOC lender may not get the full amount owed.

“So you’ve got a higher risk due to the occupancy and a higher risk due to the loan position,” Smith said. “It’s the perfect storm of high-risk lending.”

Getting a HELOC on an investment property

Despite these challenges, it is possible to get a HELOC on an investment property. Just keep in mind that the bar for approval may be set higher than it would be if you were applying for a mortgage to purchase an investment property or a HELOC on your primary residence. Let’s take a look at some of the potential hurdles you might be facing.

What is your credit score?

While there are many mortgage programs available to help borrowers with credit troubles, borrowers seeking a HELOC on an investment property will likely need good credit to get approved.

Minimum credit scores will vary by lender and are taken into account along with other factors, but a report from Equifax revealed that in 2017, more than 80% of HELOC borrowers had credit scores of 700 or above.

If you need to boost your credit score before applying for a HELOC, here are a few places to start:

  1. Get a copy of your credit report. You can get a free copy of your credit report every 12 months from each of the three credit reporting agencies. Order yours at AnnualCreditReport.com and check it for errors, such as incorrectly reported late payments or credit balances. If you find any errors on your report, follow the credit bureau’s instructions for disputing them.
  2. Check your credit score. A credit report won’t tell you your all-important credit score. To get a free one, check out our list here.
  3. Pay your bills on time. On-time payments are one of the most significant factors the credit bureaus consider when calculating your credit score. If you have trouble remembering to pay your bills on time, set up reminders or enroll in automatic payments. A late payment remains on your credit report for seven years, but the more time has passed since the late payment occurred, the less of an impact it has on your score.
  4. Reduce the amount you owe. Work on paying down your balances on credit cards, auto loans, student loans, etc. Paying off your outstanding debts, especially revolving credit card debt, can have a significant impact on your credit score.

What is your debt-to-income ratio?

Another factor lenders consider in approving a HELOC on an investment property is the owners debt-to-income (DTI) ratio. DTI measures your ability to manage your debt payments by comparing your monthly debt payments to your overall income. To calculate your DTI, divide your monthly recurring debt payments by your gross monthly income.

For example, if you have total monthly debt payments of $2,500 (including your current mortgage, auto loan, credit cards, student loans, etc.) and your income is $5,000 per month, then your DTI would be 50%.

When you apply for a HELOC, the lower your DTI, the better your chances of getting approved. As with credit score requirements, each lender has their own maximum DTI requirements, but if your DTI is higher than 43%, you may have a hard time finding a lender willing to approve your HELOC.

How much equity do you have in the property?

To qualify for a HELOC, you need to have available equity in the property, meaning the amount you owe on the first mortgage is less than the value of the property. Banks typically set a maximum loan-to-value (LTV) limit for how much you can borrow. That may be somewhere around 80% to 90% of the value of the property, minus the amount you owe.

For example, say your property is worth $400,000, and you currently have a mortgage balance of $300,000. Your current LTV would be 75% ($300,000 ÷ $400,000). If your lender has a maximum LTV of 80%, you may only be able to borrow $20,000 from a HELOC. That’s five percent of $400,000, which would bring your total LTV up to 80%.

Smith says a lender considering a HELOC would require more equity on an investment property than they would on a primary residence.

“Ideally, your HELOC would be in first position – you would own the property free and clear. But if you do have an existing mortgage, you would owe only about half of what the property is worth,” he said.

Borrowers who do not have enough equity in the property to qualify for a HELOC don’t have a lot of good options for building it quickly. Equity increases when a) you pay down the mortgage, or b) the value of the property increases. If you’re interested in a HELOC, you probably don’t have a lot of extra cash laying around that can be used to pay down your existing mortgage balance. You may be able to make some improvements to the home that will increase its value, but that also requires investing funds into the property. And finally, you don’t have any control over the real estate market and how your home’s value fluctuates based on supply and demand in your area. So without enough equity to qualify for a HELOC, you may have to consider other alternatives.

Alternatives to getting a HELOC on an investment property

Whether you are an ideal HELOC borrower or not, it’s a good idea to look into alternatives to a HELOC on your investment property. Here are a few you might consider:

Cash-out refi

A cash-out refinance is the refinancing of your existing mortgage loan. Your new mortgage will be for a larger amount than your current mortgage, and you receive the difference between the two loans in cash.

Getting approved for a cash-out refi also requires having adequate equity in the property. However, the advantage of a cash-out refi, as opposed to a HELOC, is that cash-out refis are generally fixed-rate loans. HELOCs are typically adjustable-rate loans, so if interest rates go up, your monthly payments could go up as well.

Personal loans

Personal loans and lines of credit are similar to a HELOC, but they are unsecured loans, meaning you don’t have to pledge the property as collateral. So if you run into financial trouble and can’t afford to make loan payments, you aren’t at risk of losing the property.

There are two potential downsides of choosing a personal loan over a HELOC. First, since personal loans aren’t collateralized, they typically come with higher interest rates. Second, personal loans usually have shorter loan terms. A personal loan is usually repaid over two to seven years, whereas a HELOC will generally allow you to withdraw funds for up to 10 years and give you up to 20 years to repay.

Credit cards

If your cash needs are modest and you don’t qualify for a HELOC on your investment property, you might consider using a credit card. However, the interest rate on a credit card will likely be much higher than you’d receive with a HELOC, unless you can find card with a decent intro APR.

Bottom line

If you believe a HELOC is the right choice for you, Smith recommended starting your search with a retail bank. “The wholesale mortgage world is still a little skittish,” he said. “Your best bet is banks that primarily do depository business. They’ll offer HELOCs to keep their checking account holders happy.”

There are a lot of potential barriers to taking out a home equity line of credit on an investment property, but a HELOC can be a smart financing tool for a property owner in need of funds to fix up the property or invest in another one.

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How to Qualify for a Home Equity Loan

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Buying a house is an investment, one that can open opportunities in numerous areas of your life. Not only does it become a home for you and your family, you can also borrow money against the property, creating financial flexibility for a wide range of goals.You can access that flexibility is through a home equity loan (HEL) or home equity line of credit (HELOC).

When you take out a home equity loan, you receive a lump sum that you repay at a fixed interest rate.

With a home equity line of credit, you’re approved to borrow a certain amount, but you don’t need to use it all right away.

If you’re approved for $100,000, you might borrow in increments of $15,000 or $20,000, depending on your needs. Unlike HELs, HELOCs typically come with adjustable interest rates, though there are variations in the product terms you’ll want to compare to ensure you’re getting the best deal for your circumstances.

What it takes to qualify for a home equity loan

There are three key factors that impact your chances of being approved for a HEL or HELOC.

Decent credit. The first is your credit score. Because some lenders are more conservative than others, each will have different credit thresholds for approval.

“Getting a home equity is very similar to getting a mortgage,” Kelly Kockos, senior vice president in home equity product management at Wells Fargo, told MagnifyMoney. Borrowers will likely need at least fair to good credit to qualify for a home equity product, she says.

Substantial equity. The second element that needs to be in place is your available equity, which is determined by your existing mortgage balance and the total value of your home. If you’re approved for a loan or line of credit, the lender will decide how much of your equity you can borrow against. Depending how their products are structured, they may allow you to borrow up to 85% of your available equity. Most lenders won’t go above 85%, according to the Federal Trade Commission.

Tendayi Kapfidze, chief economist at LendingTree, says a good rule of thumb is to have a loan-to-value ratio that’s well below 80% before applying for a home equity product (Disclosure: LendingTree is the parent company of MagnifyMoney). He suggests that if a home is worth $100,000, a mortgage balance of $50,000 would be a healthy ratio for taking out a home equity loan or line of credit. Assuming a lender allows you to borrow up to 80% of your home value and that you meet all other criteria, you might be approved for up to $30,000 to use as you see fit.

Kapfidze says the percentage for which you’ll be approved depends on the lender’s criteria and the relationship you have with them. If you hold other assets with them, they may feel comfortable offering a higher loan or line of credit, he says. But regardless of where you apply, equity below 80% will provide enough of a gap between your remaining mortgage and your home’s value to borrow the money you need.

Low debt. Finally, lenders will take your debt-to-income ratio into account. As with other credit decisions, they’ll look at how much you pay each month on your mortgage, student loans, car payments and credit cards, Kockos says. Keeping these as low as possible will boost your chances of approval because a high debt-to-income ratio may raise red flags about your ability to manage another significant payment.

“If your debt is over 43% of your income, then it’s probably not a good thing for you to take on more debt,” Kockos said.

The benefits of home equity loans and lines of credit

Both HELs and HELOCs provide access to funds and offer a means to cover important expenses.

Kapfidze says that because home equity products are backed by your house as collateral, you’ll often secure better interest rates than you would through a personal loan or credit card. That’s why some consumers will use home equity to purchase cars or pay off student loans, because they’re able to secure better interest rates that way.

Whether you choose a home equity loan or line of credit depends on your particular circumstances.

Depending on how you use your loan, you may qualify for a tax deduction. You may choose to limit your home equity spending based on new tax limitations as well. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act stipulates that you can only deduct interest paid on a home equity loan or line of credit if you use the funds to renovate, build or purchase the house that secures the loan, according to the IRS.

Who home equity loans are best for: Kockos says that home equity loans make sense for consumers who know they need a set amount of cash right away. If you’re facing a major expense with a set dollar amount — a medical procedure or a roof replacement, for instance — you may want to take out a loan for the exact amount you want to borrow. You can then lock it in at a fixed interest rate and you’ll know what your monthly payments will be for the duration of the loan.

Who HELOCs are best for: A home equity line of credit may make more sense if you want access to a certain amount of money but don’t necessarily want to use it all immediately. Unlike with an HEL, you’ll only pay on what you’ve already drawn from a HELOC. Kockos offers the example of using a HELOC to cover home remodeling expenses. You might be approved for $100,000 but you may not pay all of your contractors at once. Instead, you might pay $25,000 to one vendor this month and $10,000 to another next month. If that’s the case, you’d use your credit line as each expense comes up, and you only pay interest on the funds you’ve already drawn.

David Gorman, a division executive at Bank of America, says a home equity line of credit has become increasingly popular among both lenders and borrowers. “You very rarely see home equity loans anymore,” he said.

He attributes this shift to the flexibility of HELOCs. Even consumers who want to lock in a fixed rate can do so on their lines of credit, he explains. If you spend $30,000 of an $80,000 line of credit on roof repairs, you can lock in that $30,000 at a fixed rate to avoid significant interest increases during repayment. This provides some of the security of a home equity loan without sacrificing the benefits of the HELOC.

“It acts almost the same, and they don’t have to take it all out upfront,” Gorman said. “It provides you significant flexibility.”

The risks of home equity loans

The number one risk you must be aware of when you apply for a home equity product is that you’re borrowing against your home, and your lender can foreclose on it if you don’t make your payments.

“You’re risking your house, whereas with other types of loans, you may pay a higher interest rate but you’re not putting your house ‘on the line,’” Kapfidze said. Consumers should be well aware of that risk when applying for a home equity product, he added, but if they go into it with a full understanding of the terms, they’ll find that they are likely to get the best rates through these options.

Knowing that your house is at stake makes it vitally important to think carefully about how you spend your home equity funds. You can use the money however you choose, whether that’s to repair your basement after a flood or take a second honeymoon. However, paying for nonessential renovations or family vacations leaves you with less money to cover emergencies, not to mention with potentially significant debt that could become difficult to repay. Gorman says that Bank of America doesn’t advise borrowers on how to spend their money, but he says that misuse of funds is one of the biggest pitfalls that ensnare consumers.

“Should they actually need the equity in their house for other things down the road, they may no longer have it,” he said.

Shopping for a home equity loan

Look beyond the interest rate. The obvious comparison point when comparing HEL and HELOC offers is the interest rate. However, there are several other factors to consider as well. One is the fee — how much is the lender charging on top of your monthly interest payment? Another is whether there are rate caps in place to protect you against future interest rate spikes. Kockos recommends looking at annual and lifetime rate caps to determine which offers provide the best protection features throughout the life of the loan.

Compare flexibility. Kockos also suggests comparing product flexibility among HELOCs. Some lenders will offer lock and unlock features for their home equity lines of credit. This allows you to secure a portion of your spending at current interest rates but unlock it later if rates drop and you want to secure those instead. If your lender offers a lock and unlock option, be sure to ask how many times a year you’re allowed to use that feature so you’ll know how agile you can be based on rate volatility. Kockos notes that some lenders will offer promotions or discounts on fixed-rate home equity loans, so it’s worth inquiring about those as well.

Consider closing costs. Jorge Davila, vice president of sales, consumer direct and digital mortgage lending at Flagstar Bank, says it’s important to compare post-closing services as well. He recommends comparing when and how you’ll be able to access funds, whether there are mobile management options and whether there are prepayment penalties for your loan or line of credit. Factoring in servicing features along with rates and protections will give you a full picture of what you can expect from working with a lender.

What to do if you don’t qualify for home equity products

From a lender’s perspective, issuing a home equity loan or line of credit is riskier than giving someone a mortgage. Kapfidze explains that the mortgage lender has the first lien, meaning that they’ll be repaid first if you default on your loans. Because the home equity lender has the second lien and therefore carries more risk, their approval thresholds are likely higher. This means that your chances of qualifying for a home equity product may be lower.

However, if you still need access to a large sum of money, you may qualify for a cash-out refinance. In this case, you would refinance your current mortgage for a higher dollar amount that includes the remaining balance on the loan plus additional funds you can use for renovations and other needs. The difference between the two is what’s available for spending. Kapfidze notes that consumers can see higher interest rates on their refinanced mortgages than on their existing mortgages, so it’s important to be aware of the additional costs you’ll incur before pursuing this option.

Making the right home equity decision

The first step in applying for a home equity loan or line of credit is meeting with lenders. They can explain the qualification process so you’ll know exactly what to expect. But you’ll also want to dig into the specifics of their offers and get a sense of what it will be like to work with them. As with a mortgage, you may be repaying this loan over decades, so you want to make sure their terms and support options work for your needs. The right lender can help you determine how much to borrow and how to maximize the opportunities associated with home equity borrowing.

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The Importance of Getting Preapproved for a Mortgage

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

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It’s a challenging time for homebuyers. Demand for housing is on the rise as the economy continues to soar and job opportunities increase. At the same time, housing supply is down in many parts of the country and mortgage rates are at a seven-year-high, averaging at 4.62% for a 30-year fixed loan as of June 18, 2018.

If you can get preapproved for a mortgage before you put in an offer on a home, it will give you an edge, especially if you are in a highly competitive market.

“A preapproval makes your offer stronger and more attractive to the person selling the house,” said Tendayi Kapfidze, chief economist at LendingTree, the parent company of MagnifyMoney.

In this post, we’ll explain what it means to get preapproved for a mortgage, and how you can do it the right way.

What is a mortgage preapproval?

A mortgage preapproval is essentially when a lender looks at some of your financial information, credit history and employment record, and determines you are eligible for a loan of a certain amount.

They will tell you how much you have been preapproved for and also what your mortgage rate will be. At this point, you can choose to lock in your mortgage rate, or wait to compare their offer with preapprovals from other lenders.

When you have a preapproval, a lender is telling you they are almost certainly going to qualify you for a loan. And when you are competing against other buyers for the same home, that document tells the home seller that you are a reliable candidate. It gives them an incentive to go with your offer, because you’ve been preapproved and it’s likely you’re going to be able to get a mortgage without any issues.

A preapproval can also be helpful to you and your real estate agent. The lender will preapprove you for a certain loan amount, so you will know exactly what you can afford. Your real estate agent then has a good idea of what properties to show you based on your affordability and preferences. In fact, some real estate agents will ask if you’ve been preapproved for a mortgage loan before they even agree to take you house hunting.

There is no guarantee that the borrower will get a final approval. There are plenty of things later in the mortgage process that could derail your application, such as a poor home inspection or a home price that is higher than the home’s appraised value.

How to get a preapproved for a home loan

Identify at least three potential lenders.You should plan on getting preapprovals from at least three different lenders to be sure you’re getting the best rate possible. Even a small difference in mortgage rate can add tens of thousands of dollars to your total loan costs, so that’s why we recommend comparing offers to secure the lowest rate possible. Start with your current bank and check offers from a credit union and online lenders as well.

Of course, if you are merely looking to obtain preapproval to bolster your initial offer on a home, it’s fine to get just one lender preapproval. That will be enough to satisfy any home seller or their agent. But once you are really ready to lock in a lender, that’s when it’s crucial to get offers from other lenders as well. Before there is a property attached to your preapproval, Kapfidze said, you can always switch to another lender.

Get your documents ready to go. Many lenders today will ask for documents electronically and you may even be able to upload documents directly through their website. If you get all your documents organized on your computer, you’ll be sure to have them all ready to go. Different lenders ask for different sets of paperwork, but most lenders require the following documents:

  • Your ID
  • Two months of bank statements
  • Verification of employment, usually in the form of your pay stubs from the last 30 days or W-2s from the past two years (1099s for those who are self-employed)
  • Documentation for other sources of income, if applicable
  • Social Security number and address

Expect an answer within 24 hours. Most lenders can process a preapproval within 24 hours if the borrower submits all the paperwork on time, said Doug Crouse, a mortgage loan originator with UMB Bank in Kansas City, Mo. However, that also depends on how quickly lenders move and how timely borrowers provide the needed information. In some cases, the preapproval process could take up to 10 days.

If you are preapproved for a mortgage, a lender will issue a letter stating the estimated loan amount and mortgage rate you qualify for based on your financial conditions. Once you have a preapproval letter in hand, you can start searching for homes within your price range.

How preapprovals impact your credit

Getting preapproved will result in a hard pull on your credit, which could make a minor dent in your score. This shouldn’t deter you from shopping around and comparing multiple offers, however. If you get multiple mortgage applications in a short period of time — 14 to 45 days usually — it will only count as one hard inquiry on your credit file and should not damage your score significantly at at all.

If you’re denied for preapproval, it could be for a number of reasons, such as a low credit score, high debt-to-income ratio or a small down payment, Kapfidze said. According to a recent study by LendingTree, the most common cause of mortgage denials was a tie between the borrower’s credit history and their debt-to-income ratio. Your debt-to-income ratio (DTI) is how lenders determine what percentage of your monthly income is going to be needed to cover your monthly debt obligations, including your potential mortgage payment.

You don’t need perfect credit to get a mortgage. To get the best possible rate, you’ll need a credit score of at least 760, but a credit score of 620 can generally qualify you for a conventional home loan. It will just come with a higher mortgage rate and cost you more money over the lifetime of the loan in interest charges. Do all that you can to improve your credit score before applying for a mortgage.

There are other mortgage options that accept a lower credit score. For instance, someone with a score of 500 may qualify for an FHA loan. We have a list of loan options for borrowers with poor credit here.

Really, the preapproval process is more straightforward than it sounds, and it’s a lot more simple than the actual loan application process — lenders are simply looking for signs indicating that you will be able to repay the loan at this stage.

Preapproval vs. pre-qualification

These terms are often used interchangeably in the mortgage business but they can mean very different things.

Pre-qualification is typically a prerequisite of a preapproval. Lenders may ask prospective borrowers to fill out a pre-qualification form, where a loan officer will gather a few details from you face to face or online, including your income, assets, debts and credit. Based on the preliminary information, they estimate the size of a loan they may qualify you for.

Because at this stage lenders will not verify any information about you, there is typically no hard credit pull required. It’s a good first step in that it helps you gauge how big a home you can afford.

Lenders may issue a pre-qualification letter indicating what your home purchase limit is. If you’re casually shopping for a mortgage or you’re just curious how much you might qualify for, a pre-qualification quote is a good first step for that reason. There’s no risk that you’ll ding your credit score for nothing.

However, pre-qualification is not as serious as a preapproval, and many home sellers will want to see a preapproval when they review your offer. If you’re truly serious about putting a bid on a home, get a mortgage preapproval first.

In a tight housing market, a buyer with proof of preapproval can get a competitive advantage than those who don’t have it — sellers are more likely to take the offer from a buyer who’s preapproved for a loan. This is why preapproval should be done before house hunting.

Benefits of shopping around for mortgage offers

Just like buying anything else, you would want to shop around for a mortgage, because the first offer may not be the best offer.

According to LendingTree’s recent Mortgage Rate Competition Index, borrowers could save 0.62% in interest rate by shopping around. On a 30-year mortgage, a borrower could potentially save $28,890 on a $300,000 loan. That’s almost 10% of the entire loan amount. (Note: MagnifyMoney is owned by LendingTree)

Crouse recommended borrowers check with two or three lenders to make sure they are getting the best deal in rate and costs. Once you’ve shopped around and received quotes from different lenders, then you can go forward with the one that you feel most comfortable with.

Alternatively, you can use this online tool, which will match you with multiple mortgage lenders, to compare quotes before applying for a preapproval.

Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Shen Lu
Shen Lu |

Shen Lu is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Shen Lu at shenlu@magnifymoney.com

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How Long Does It Take to Refinance a House?

Editorial Note: The editorial content on this page is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities prior to publication.

Refinancing a home is very similar to getting a mortgage, but you might be wondering how long the process might take. If you have time-sensitive goals, knowing average refinance timeline for each stage could help you with planning.

How long does it take to refinance a house?

According to a recent report by Ellie Mae, the time to close on a home refinance has decreased significantly over the last few months.

As of February 2018, the average time to close on a home refinance loan was 37 days, down from 50 days in October 2016. Granted, closing times vary by loan type (i.e. FHA, conventional VA, etc.) but the average is coming down across all home refinance loans, Ellie Mae found.

Jason Lerner, area development manager and mortgage broker at George Mason Mortgage, LLC, said that refinancing could be even faster if there are no delays or complications.

There are many variables that come into play that could affect the timeline for your home refinance.

One variable in the timeline will be how responsive you, as the loan applicant, are with providing and verifying information as requested by the lender. The other variable is how responsive your lender is and whether or not there are issues or complications with your application.

The good news is that you can control your level of responsiveness and communication to help the process go as smoothly as possible while minimizing delays. However, you cannot control how the bank handles their internal processes.

That’s why it’s a good idea to review lenders who have a good track record of proving the best home refinance rates and customer service. Often, the best place to start is with your current lender, especially if you are a fan of their customer service, but always compare their offer with other lenders as well to be sure you’re getting the best deal.

The mortgage refinance process — from start to finish

It’s good to know about all the steps of the refinance process. This way, you can anticipate what’s needed and be prepared for the closing table that much quicker.

Here are the steps involved in most home refinance loans, along with how long you can expect them to take (barring delays, problems or issues). Some of these stages can overlap or occur simultaneously.

Figure out why you want to refinance

Preparing to refinance your home loan comes down to knowing your objective so you can narrow down a loan type, amount and potential repayment schedule. This is an important step.

Without being clear on exactly why you are refinancing your home, you could end up choosing a loan that doesn’t suit your needs, or even end up overextending yourself financially, which could put your home in jeopardy.

Refinancing your home just because you can is not a good idea. Create a list of financial goals, amount of money it will take to reach them along with a budget that includes your refinance scenario.

Common goals for refinancing a home could include:

  • Having a lower monthly payment
  • Consolidation of other debt
  • Get a lower interest rate
  • Pay off the loan quicker (with a shorter term, lower rate or both)

Home refinance costs (more below) should also be considered in this equation. Though the equity in your home is yours, accessing it still costs money. If possible, fare on the conservative side when it comes to determining the loan amount and type for your home refinance.

Choose the right refi loan

Now that you have an idea of what you’ll use your loan for and what you can afford, it’s time to determine the best type of home refinance loan.

There are many options when it comes to refinancing your home. You should become familiar with each so you can choose the best one for your needs.

Here are some loan types you could research:

  • 30-year fixed: A fixed interest rate loan amortized over 360 months
  • 15-year fixed: A fixed interest rate loan amortized over 180 months
  • Adjustable rate mortgage (varying types and terms): Interest rate resets periodically
  • Interest only: Borrowers pay interest on the loan, then principal
  • Payment option: Adjustable rate mortgage with multiple payment options
  • Balloon: Lower payments during loan term with a large payment at the end of the term

Next, you’ll want to explore different options offered under FHA, VA, USDA or conventional home refinance loans. There are ups and downs for each kind of mortgage, but ultimately, you need to choose the product that will help you meet your financial goals.

Compare offers from lenders

Now that you have a sense of the best type of home refinance loan, it’s time to research lenders who can offer you the best home refinance deal possible. Shopping for the best refinance rates can save you thousands of dollars, so don’t skip this step!

The terms offered will be based on a few things like how much your home is appraised for, the maximum loan-to-value a lender will offer, current market interest rates and your personal credit profile.

If you are especially concerned with how long it will take to refinance your home, you can make this a part of your research. Dan Green, former mortgage loan officer and owner of mortgage-literacy website Growella said, “Homeowners — especially homeowners working on a deadline — should ask about time-to-close as part of the lender comparison process.”

Understand the fees and additional costs

As mentioned before, financing your home is no small feat and it does come with a price tag. You should know upfront about the fees and costs related to a home refinance, as it should help you determine whether or not this is a move you actually want to make.

Think about how much you paid to close on your original mortgage loan to anticipate your closing costs this time around.

You can use a home refinance calculator so you can see the impact of refinancing your home when it comes to interest, monthly payments, tax deductions, total mortgage cost, etc.

Here are some home refinance costs you should know about:

  • Mortgage application fee
  • Home appraisal
  • Loan origination fee
  • Document preparation fee
  • Title search fee
  • Recording fee
  • Flood certification fee
  • Inspection fee
  • Attorney fee
  • Survey fee

Costs could vary by state and lender, so compare these fees on your Loan Estimate (see below) as you look at multiples lenders.

Submit your refi application to various lenders

Most lenders will allow you to apply for your home refinance online. To streamline your application process and get the best rates, you can apply to several lenders at once. This way, you can explore the best rates available while having lenders compete for your business.

If all of your refinance applications are made within a 30-day time period, the inquiries will not affect your score while you are shopping for rates.

Be prepared to provide demographic information about yourself and co-borrower, along with information about your property, original loan and more. Your lender will also eventually ask for additional proof to support the information you provide in the application. This would be a good time to start gathering this documentation up.

Get a loan estimate

Once the lender has processed your application and verified your information, they will provide what is called a Loan Estimate (LE.) By law, they must submit this loan estimate to you within three business days of receiving your completed loan application.

The Loan Estimate form is a standardized template that clearly outlines the home refinance terms the bank expects to offer you, should you decide to go forward. The bank has not yet approved (or denied) your refinance loan at this point, and they may ask you to sign the LE as a record of receipt on your end.

Again, you’ll want to use this Loan Estimate to compare multiple offers from various lenders.

Lock in your rate

Prevailing rates for mortgages can change from day to day and even from hour to hour, so it’s a good safety measure to lock in your rate. A rate lock means your lender will “lock” in your interest rate until closing.

Some lenders may lock your rate as part of issuing the Loan Estimate, but this is not always the case. You can check the top of your Loan Estimate document on the first page to find out if your interest rate is locked, along with when this rate will expire.

Submit required documents for loan processing

Among the supporting documentation you’ll be asked to provide may include:

  • Pay stubs
  • Tax returns, W-2s and/or 1099s
  • Credit report
  • Bank statements
  • Proof of any supplemental income

Note: It’s a good idea to check your credit report regularly in case there’s inaccurate information that needs to be addressed. You don’t want anything to prevent (or delay) the bank from processing your application or extending a refinance loan to you.

Once this information is provided, the processor will go on to order your credit report, home appraisal and payoff amount from current lender.

Appraisal

This is where an appraiser will come to your home and determine its value. They will be dispatched by the bank and come view the property, look up comparable properties nearby and furnish a report with their findings. The amount you’ll be able to refinance will be based on this appraisal report.

Underwriting

At this stage, the lender is putting all the pieces together — the appraised value of your home, your personal financial situation along with your predicted ability to repay the loan on time and as agreed. This risk analysis can take time and may require additional information.

You should be ready to provide additional information to your loan processor, if needed. Also, your employer could be contacted to verify your salary and employment status during the underwriting phase.

Commitment letter

This letter states that the bank agrees to lend you money, but there could be additional requirements, such as providing more information or clarifying information you’ve already provided. The bank can rescind this offer if there is an significant change in your personal financial situation as well.
However, once you meet the conditions set forth in the commitment letter, the underwriting department will issue a “clear to close.” Your loan officer will let you know via email or phone call that the bank will soon communicate the next steps for your closing date.

Closing disclosures

At least three days prior to closing, you’ll be issued a Closing Disclosure. It will outline the final terms of your refinance loan.

This three-day timeline is designed to give you enough time to compare rates and ask your lender questions about your loan. For example, if your closing disclosure varies greatly from your Loan Estimate, this is time to get clarification as to why.

You can also ask to review your closing documents before you get to the closing table. Your lender should be able to provide an electronic version so you are aware of what you would be signing at closing. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) offers examples of closing forms along with instructions on how to interpret the information.

If you need help staying organized throughout this process, you can use a closing checklist to help you keep track of each stage of the closing process.

Closing

At this stage, you will sign all the required documentation to complete your home refinance. You should bring your Closing Disclosure with you to make sure your the terms you were quoted are on par with this document.

Sometimes your loan closing will be at an office with a closing agent (from a title company) that facilitates the entire process. According to Rafael Reyes, producing branch manager at loanDepot, “Most often, the lender will send either a representative from the title company or a lawyer to your home for the closing.”

He added, “The borrower doesn’t need a lawyer on their side for the closing, but they could hire legal representation at their discretion.”

At closing, you’ll sign your promissory note, mortgage, initial escrow disclosure and “right to cancel” form. You should bring proper identification because there may be a notary present who requires a valid ID to notarize your signature.

How you can speed things up

If you’re refinancing your home with the idea of saving money, you probably want to start saving sooner than later. You can start capturing those savings as soon as your refinance is complete and funds are disbursed.

To speed up the refinance process, you’ll want to stay on top of all the documentation requested by your lender. Even better — collect everything before you begin the loan application process so everything is ready, even at a moment’s notice.

You will also need to be responsive when it comes to requests for information. Though there are a number of variables that can influence the refinance timeline, your responsiveness and preparedness will help move things along much faster.

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Advertiser Disclosure: The products that appear on this site may be from companies from which MagnifyMoney receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). MagnifyMoney does not include all financial institutions or all products offered available in the marketplace.

Aja McClanahan
Aja McClanahan |

Aja McClanahan is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Aja here

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